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When about eighteen years of age Judge Clark, one of the associate judges of the county, who made his acquaintance at a public sale where he was clerking, wished to engage him as a teacher in his neighborhood, but his parents dissuaded him from accepting the offer. The following year he accepted a proposition from Christian Barr, of Bart, (now Eden township), to teach school for three months near Quarryville. He found the business irksome, and at the expiration of his term returned to his father to work on the farm. Here he remained for near three years, when he again accepted a situation as a teacher in West Lampeter township, upon the invitation of Christian Herr, of Pequea, who engaged to raise a school for him, offered him boarding at his own house, and remained his fast and ardent friend as long as he lived. In this neighborhood he remained as a teacher for five years, giving general satisfaction to his employers, and by a strict attention to business and uniform good conduct gained the confidence and esteem of all his acquaintances.
In 1817 he married the eldest daughter of John Herr, (limeburner), and commenced housekeeping in the neighborhood of his school. In 1821 he quit teaching school and commenced farming, as he always had a strong predilection for the occupation of a farmer. In 1830 his name was first brought before the public as a candidate for the Legislature, but his friends did not succeed in getting him settled on the ticket. The support he received encouraged his friends to bring his name forward the ensuing year, (1831), when he was settled and elected. The anti-Masonic excitement was then in full vigor, and Strohm was elected as an anti-Mason ; but by prudent conduct and courteous demeanor he maintained his principles and those of his party, without unnecessarily giving offence to any, and enjoyed the good-will and esteem of many of the fraternity. He was reelected to the Legislature in the years 1832 and 1833, and in 1834 was elected to the Senate for a term of four years, that being the extent of the Senatorial term under the old constitution.
In 1838 he was reelected to the Senate for a second term of four years, making in all eleven consecutive years in which he was a member of the State Legislature, three years
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in the House of Representatives and eight years in the Senate. In 1842 he was elected Speaker of the Senate, the duties of which he executed with so much good judgment and impartiality, that there never was an appeal taken from his decision. In 1844 he was elected a member of Congress from his native county, and in 1845 took his seat in that body. In 1846 he was reelected, his term expiring on the 4th of March, 1849, when General Taylor was inaugurated president. In 1851 he was the candidate of the Whig party for canal commissioner, then one of the most important offices in the State. The Democratic party proved too strong on that occasion, and his opponent, Seth Clover, was elected. In 1848 Mr. Strohm was one of the senatorial delegates to the national convention at Baltimore, when General Zachary Taylor was nominated as the Whig candidate for President ; in 1852 he was a member of the national convention at Baltimore, which nominated Gen. Scott as a candidate for the Presidency, and in 1869 he was a member of the State convention at Philadelphia, which re-nominated Governor Geary for the office of Governor.
In his legislative capacity the subject of this imperfect sketch was more noted for assiduous attention to business and a watchful care of the interests of his constituents and the community at large, than for brilliancy of talent or oratorical display. He seldom addressed the legislative bodies of which he was a faithful member in a protracted argument, but gave his views in plain but forcible language; and if he did not succeed in convincing his audience of the correctness of his views, he left no room to doubt the sincerity of his convictions. During the eight years in which he was a member of the Senate, he was chairman of the committee on roads and bridges and of the committee on claims, and for several years stood at the head of both those committees ; and such was the confidence placed in him by his compeers, that his reports and recommendations were generally accepted and his suggestions adopted. Plain and simple in his habits, he was at all times easy of access and disposed to accommodate, and to the extent of his ability serve any person that required his aid. His first
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wife died in 1832, and he remained a widower until 1857, when he married a widow Witmer, with whom he is spending the evening of his days in the quiet contentment of private life.
STROHM, JOHN, JR., was elected County Commissioner in the year 1867.
STUBBS, JEREMIAH BROWN, M. D., was born in Little Britain, (now Fulton) township, Lancaster county, Pennsylvania, on the 13th of April, 1804. He was the second son of Isaac and Hannah Stubbs, both descendants of early settlers in that neighborhood. Isaac Stubbs, his father, was a stone mason, and worked at the trade occasionally. He took more delight in perusing the contents of books, and in imparting to his children the rudiments of an English education, (at least as far as he was capable), than to accumulate wealth by a close adherence to his occupation or by any other manual labor.
When Jeremiah was three years old his parents removed to Harford county, Maryland, having purchased a small farm near the "Rocks of Deer creek." Here the family resided until the year 1821, when they returned to Lancaster county to reside upon a farm near Peach Bottom. This was jointly inherited by the father and mother. In all these paternal migrations the older children accompanied their parents, and rendered all the assistance of which they were able.
After the return of the family to Lancaster county, Jeremiah determined to commence business for himself, and with this object in view entered a mercantile establishment in the city of Baltimore. Disliking the business, in the course of a few months he returned home. Receiving the encouragement of his maternal grandfather, Jeremiah Brown, (of whom he always retained a grateful remembrance), he was induced to study and enter one of the learned professions. With no advantages of a preparatory education, other than instructions received from a kind parent, and the limited attainments obtained by a few years attendance at the public schools of an early period, he entered upon the study of medicine in the year 1821. He read under direction of Dr.
OF LANCASTER COUNTY - 603
Vincent King, a well-known practitioner of southern Lancaster county ; attended two full courses of lectures at the Jefferson Medical College, of Philadelphia, and graduated in the class of March 8th, 1827. Soon after graduating he located in the village of Rising Sun, Cecil county, Maryland, where he practiced his profession for nine years. During his residence in Cecil county, he was elected a member of the Medico-Chirurgical Society of Maryland. His membership of this body commenced September 9th, 1827. At that time a physician practicing in the State of Maryland, could not collect a fee unless he was a member of this medical organization, and no one became a member thereof unless he submitted to a rigid examination, and was recommended as worthy by a committee appointed for that purpose.
On the 25th of February, 1836, Dr. Stubbs was married to Rachel H., eldest daughter of Timothy Kirk, esq., of Oxford, Chester county, formerly a member of the Legislature of Pennsylvania, and then an active business citizen of that vicinity. Previous to his marriage he purchased the farm and good-will of Dr. John K. Sappington, of Little Britain, Lancaster county. Removing to this place he resumed the practice of medicine, which he continued with success to the time of his deceaseТa period of twenty-six years. For a long time after he located in Lancaster county, there was, with one exception, no physician in active practice within ten miles. In these early days of his medical career, his labors were unceasing and at times exceedingly arduous. Possessing a comparatively strong constitution and determined will, he was enabled to do herculean duty, practicing his profession throughout a section of country many miles in extent.
On the 14th of February, 1844, he was elected a member of the Lancaster city and county medical society, and at one time was president of that body. He was elected to represent it as a delegate in the American Medical Association, and attended in this capacity its meetings at Boston, in 1849 ; Richmond, 1852; New York, 1853, and Philadelphia, 1855. In the fall of 1847 he was elected a member of the House of Representatives of Pennsylvania, by the Whigs of
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Lancaster county, and was reelected in 1848. During his first term he served on the committee of education, and in the second was placed on the committee of ways and means, and upon banks, besides several special committees. The House was strongly Democratic during the session of 1848; nevertheless Dr. Stubbs, by his plain and unassuming manners, made many friends and received numerous favors from his political opponents. During his service at Harrisburg, various expedients were devised by different members of the ways and means committee, to raise revenue to replenish the State treasury, and at the same time not increase the taxes of the working classes of the commonwealth. Being a member of the committee to devise means of revenue, he suggested the propriety of taxing the sales and manufacture of quack nostrums, which were then meeting with an immense sale throughout all parts of the State. For many years he was well acquainted with the fact, that thousands of dollars were made by charlatans, by imposing on the ignorant in medical knowledge. All honest trades and professions were taxed, but the manufacturer and vender of patent medicines went free. Receiving the assurance of a majority of the Legislature and the Governor, that to tax this class was just, he consulted with some of the learned of the profession and drew up a bill, which became a law. Its passage created a unanimous protest on behalf of all the semi-medical men, quacks and medicine venders in the State, and the vengeance of the whole fraternity was threatened against the author of the bill. In Lancaster county their influence was brought to bear against him, but availed nothing.
While a member of the Legislature, he took great interest in all subjects pertaining to the education of the children of the State, as well as to keeping up the standard of the profession of which he became in early life a member. For professional services rendered to half of the legislative body, he was presented with a handsome testimonial on behalf of the members of both political parties. Having served the customary two terms in the State Legislature, he returned to his farm and continued the practice and instruction of students of medicine. During his professional career, seven
OF LANCASTER COUNTY - 605
young men read under his direction and graduated. Of these only three survive. For several years previous to his death, Dr. Stubbs had frequent paroxysms of disease, that he was well aware would finally prove fatal. Nevertheless, he continued to work and study to the last. On the 4th and 5th of July, 1862, he was attacked with angina pectoris, but recovered and seemed to improve until the night of the 9th, when he had a relapse and died on the morning of the 10th,
aged 58 years.
Dr. Stubbs was a memberТby birthrightТof the society of Friends ; but a few years after attaining manhood, by his own request, ceased to be connected with that society. No man was more familiar with the various tenets and doctrines advanced and believed in by different religious bodies. He appreciated works of a theological and scientific nature, was conversant with the scripture, especially those books attributed to Job and Paul, which he considered to far exceed the others in sublimity and literary excellence. In his opinion, the " Sermon on the Mount" with its golden rule, was sufficient in itself unto salvation; and to believe in and practice the truths there inculcated, was paramount to a blind adherence to the creeds of Calvin or Luther.
With him the moral law was the basis of true religion, and upon this he was willing to rest all hope of a peaceful hereafter. To the theory and science of medicine he was strongly devoted. A constant reader, he always kept pace with the progress of the age, and was ready to avail himself of all the recent discoveries in medicine and surgery, never permitting a remedy of value in alleviating human suffering to escape his notice. His varied and extensive reading on subjects appertaining to his profession, was attested by a valuable library of medical works.
Chirurgery, or that part of the science belonging properly to the surgeon, he did not fancy. His sympathetic temperament forbade it. His province or forte was the duties pertaining to the physician. Few men were better versed in etiology, or the causes of disease ; and in diagnosis he had few equals. To be familiar with disease sufficient to enable one to recognize it at all times, in its different phases, is one
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of the most difficult parts of the science. In this Dr. Stubbs was an adept, and hence his skill and success in treatment. To him the oath of Hippocrates, and the code of ethics of the medical profession, were laws to be adhered to with a strictness bordering on Persian and Median tenacity. To violate them, was a breach of professional honor not to be tolerated.
Quacks and medical pretenders of all descriptions met with no encouragement at his hands. To younger members of the profession, he was ever willing to render assistance and counsel. In his business transactions he was exact. Starting in life poor, with few friends, and an abundance of envious relations, he made all he possessed. An honest, poor man, never appealed to him in vain. To him he would render needed assistance at all times. He knew what it was to be poor and depend on others for aid. In his latter years he often remarked, that it was a great source of consolation to him to know that he had repaid all favors ever extended to him, and to feel that he never knowingly took a cent of any one; and pecuniarily, he owed no man, living or dead.
STYER, DAVID, was elected County Commissioner in the year 1849.
SUMMY, AARON H., was elected a member of the Legislature in the year 1868.
SWARR, HIRAM B., was born March 9th, 1821, in Londonderry township, Lebanon county, and is a descendant of one of those early settlers of Lancaster county whom religious persecution drove from their native homes. He was educated in the common schools of his district, afterwards went to Mr. Beck's academy at Litiz, and also to the academy at Germantown. He was a student of the Abbeville Institute, near Lancaster, for some time. Having finished his education before his arrival at the age of sixteen, he entered as accountant in a large commercial house in Philadelphia, of which sometime afterwards he became a partner, but with a growing dislike for the mercantile business. Cherishing rather a fondness for the excitements of political life, in 1844 he abandoned commercial pursuits, and entered as a student of law, the office of Geo. W. and Levi Kline, of Lebanon, Pa., January 1st, 1845. He was admitted to the
OF LANCASTER COUNTY - 607
bar April 1st, 1847. His strong attachment for his ancestral home, led him to select Lancaster as the place where he should pursue his profession, and on the 1st of May, 1847, he opened an office in Lancaster. Soon after coming to the bar he became active in politics, and in 1853 was chosen chairman of the Democratic county committee, a position he held upwards of ten years. He was a member of the Lancaster school board for a period of eight or ten years. Upon the death of Henry M. Reigart, postmaster of Lancaster, in the autumn of 1856 he was appointed postmaster in his stead, and in 1857 reappointed by Mr. Buchanan to the same position, which he held during the four years of his administration. Mr. Swarr has frequently been a delegate of his party to State conventions, and was a delegate to the national convention in 1856, when James Buchanan was nominated, and in this convention be acted a somewhat conspicuous part, this being required of him as the representative of the district in which the candidate for the Presidency had his home. He was afterwards a delegate to the national convention at Charleston, in 1860, and also, afterwards, at the adjourned convention at Baltimore, in the same year. He was in 1868 the candidate of the Democratic party for Congress in Lancaster county. During all the time he has been steadily engaged in the business of his profession, and has always secured the confidence of a very considerable and influential class of clients. He enjoyed the life-long confidence of James Buchanan, and stood so high in his estimation as a legal practitioner as to be appointed by him one of his executors, and also trustee for the execution of several important trusts created by the will of the late ex-President.
SWIFT, JOSEPH, was born January 14th, 1760, and was the progenitor of the Swift family of Lancaster county. His father, Joseph Swift, was a merchant of Philadelphia, of English descent, who was born June 24th, 1731, and died December 26th, 1806. Joseph Swift, sr. and William West purchased at sheriff's sale in 1772, the large farm of 374 acres, for £805, Pennsylvania currency, as the property of Robert Fulton, father of the distinguished Robert Fulton,
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and the same upon which the latter was born. Joseph Swift, jr., settled upon the property so purchased, and was a leading farmer in his day. His son, John W. Swift, yet owns part of the old Fulton farm, and occupies the house in which Robert Fulton was born.
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TAYLOR FAMILY.* Isaac Taylor, sr., was among the early settlers of Lancaster county, and according to his family tradition, was the son of Christopher Taylor, who emigrated from England in 1682, and purchased 5000 acres of land from William Penn before his arrival in the province of Pennsylvania. Penn'a Archives, vol. I., p. 41. He was a member of William Penn's first council in 1682. Isaac Taylor was born soon after the arrival of his parents. He was a surveyor, a magistrate, and a member of the assembly for the county of Chester, prior to the year 1722. He was arrested and imprisoned by the authorities of Maryland while surveying lands near the Maryland line. Colonial Records, vol. iii., p. 212. He was again appointed by the Executive Council, in the year 1726, to be a justice of Chester county. He was also appointed by the council, in the year 1718, one of the commissioners to lay out the old Philadelphia road from Conestoga to the Brandywine. He made the original surveys of a large portion of the land in the eastern and southern sections of Lancaster county. He surveyed the Christiana tract of 800 acres, in Sadsbury township, on the 27th of August, 1709, as appears by the records of the Surveyor General's office. He was the original patentee of a tract of land directly in the Gap, partly in Salisbury and part in Sadsbury. He erected the first stone house at the Gap, about the year 1747, which was built three stories high, and is standing to the present day. It is now owned by George H. Rutter, and kept as a hotel. He was a worthy and serviceable member of the society of Friends, and departed this life at an advanced age, in the year 1756..
*Contributed by Isaac Walker, of Sadsbury.
OF LANCASTER COUNTY - 609
ISAAC TAYLOR, JR., son of Isaac Taylor, sr., was united in marriage in the year 1761 with Mary, the daughter of Thomas Bulla, sr., of Chester county. He resided many years at the residence of his father at the Gap, and was an esteemed minister of the gospel in the society of Friends, and served also as the clerk of the monthly meeting at old Sadsbury.
JACOB TAYLOR, grandson of Isaac Taylor, sr., was appointed by the yearly meeting of Friends in Philadelphia, about the year 1800, to superintend the civilization and education of the Cattaraugus Indians, in western New York, which office he filled with credit to himself and to the society for about forty years.
A daughter of Isaac Taylor, sr., was married about the year 1745 to Nathaniel Newlin, of Chester county, some of whose descendants in the fifth generation are: Isaac Walker, esq. ; and Mary, the wife of Samuel Slokom, of Sadsbury; Deborah, the wife of Henry Pownall, of Bart; and Asahel Walker, of Lamborntown, Chester county, and their descendants.
THOMPSON, ANDREW, was elected a member of the Legislature in 1842.
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URBAN, LEWIS, was elected a member of the Legislature in the year 1843.
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VARMANN, HATTIL V.,* was born in Ireland, and was there united in marriage with Abigail, the daughter of William and Joan Sandwith, of Bellinauch, in the county of Wexford, where he was held in good esteem as a serviceable member of the church, from which place he emigrated (with his wife) to this country, and settled in the township of Lea-
*Contributed by Isaac Walker, of Sadsbury.
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cock, in this county, in the year 1728, where he purchased 600 acres of land, and a meeting of worship was authorized by the society of Friends to be held at his house in the year 1732. He was on the first grand jury that was drawn for Lancaster county, and held various other public and private trusts, being a man of good education and possessed of rare abilities. He was the first clerk of the monthly meeting held at Sadsbury. He left no sons, but a number of daughters, who were intermarried into the most respectable families of Lancaster county, and their descendants are both numerous and highly respectable. He was the great grandfather of Judge Brinton, of Paradise. The old homestead, near Soudersburg, is still owned by another of his great grandsons, William Brinton, sr., of Sadsbury, in which township a large number of his descendants of the fifth generation now reside, including all that highly respectable family of the Brintons, and a number of the Pownalls, the Moores, and some of the Coopers, of Sadsbury.
VARNES, JOHN, was elected County Commissioner in the year 1844.
VONDERSMITH, DANIEL, appointed Clerk of the Orphans' Court in 1835.
VONDERSMITH, D. B., elected Associate Judge of the several courts of Lancaster in 1851.
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WADE, ANDREW, a citizen of Elizabethtown, was elected a member of the Legislature in the year 1849.
WALKER, ASAHEL, of Sadsbury township, was born at the Valley Forge, in the year 1746. He was the son of Isaac, and the grandson of Lewis Walker, who emigrated from the principality of W ales, about the year 1700, and purchased a large tract of land from William Penn at the Valley Forge, where, it was said, William Penn visited him the following year. He erected a commodious stone edifice thereon, at which a meeting of the society
OF LANCASTER COUNTY - 611
Friends was established in the year 1713. The same house was occupied by General Washington as his headquarters during the Revolutionary war, and although it has undergone repairs, it is standing as a part of the family mansion at the present time, 1872. The land is now divided into about ten farms, and is still held by his descendants. His grandson, Asahel Walker, was united in marriage with Ann, the daughter of the well-known James Moore, of Sadsbury, in the year 1769, and afterwards purchased a tract of land in Sadsbury which had belonged to his father-in-law, and which had been taken up by William Penn in the year 1700, while on his visit at the Gap, and which he had surveyed off for his own use. At the age of 66 years, he divided his land between his sons Isaac and Asahel, which is now owned and occupied by his grandsons, Isaac and Asahel C. Walker.
After thus adjusting his temporal matters, he retired from the cares of the world and spent the remainder of his life (over a quarter of a century), in promoting the cause of his Divine Master, and became a worthy minister of the gospel truths in the society of Friends. During no period of his life did be seek public distinction ; yet he had charge of various important public and private trusts for members of different religious persuasions, so that during his whole life he was truly a worthy and faithful member of the society, so that he may be classed with the good, and remembered with the just. He departed his well spent life in the year 1838, in the 93d year of his age.
His descendants are still numerous and respectable. Besides the Walkers are included some of the Moores, Pownells, Coopers, Linvilles, Ellmakers, Dillers, Worsts, Hersheys, Mrs. Pusey Barnard, Mrs. Mary L. Roberts, of Texas, the Sprouls, Houstons, and some of that ancient and highly respectable family of the Trouts, of the township of Bart. His youngest living grandson is the well-known Joseph C. Walker, esq., of the Gap, who was married in the year 1856 to Lucy H., daughter of Esaias and Sarah Ellmaker, of Earl township.
WALKER, CAPTAIN JOSEPH, of Sadsbury, was the son of John Walker who emigrated from Wales, and who was the
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original purchaser of a tract of land called the Avondale farm, in the year 1743. Captain Joseph Walker was a serviceable man in the Revolutionary war. He was first engaged in transporting arms and ammunition for the Continental army. He afterwards raised a company of militia in Sadsbury and Bart, of which company he was chosen captain, and was engaged in the service. Colonial Records, vol. xiv., p. 631. Dr. Michener's History, p. 397. After the war he was appointed one of the justices of the peace for Lancaster county, which office he filled with credit for the space of about twenty years. He also purchased and had patented the farm called McKeansville, now owned by Adam Rutter. The Avondale farm is now owned by Joseph D. Pownall, and by a recent survey and alteration of the line, this property is now in Bart. The descendants of Joseph Walker mostly reside in the southern parts of Lancaster county.
ю WALKER, ISAAC, was born in the year 1808, in Sadsbury township, Lancaster county. He was for some years engaged in the mercantile business, but latterly has followed agricultural pursuits. He is noted for his rare knowledge of matters pertaining to the early settlement of Lancaster and Chester counties, and has written considerably of the early local history of the southeastern section of the county. He erected, in 1872, a monument over the Penn Spring, at the Gap, in memory of the beneficent founder of the State of Pennsylvania.
WALLACE, JOHN, was a member of the Legislature in the year 1822.
ю Isaac Walker is a son of Isaac and Deborah Walker, a grandson of Asahel Walker, the first, of Sadsbury, and the great great-grandson of Lewis Walker, at Valley Forge ; and also the great great-grandson of Andrew Moore the first settler at Christiana and Penningtonville, and who established the first meeting of the Friends at old Sadsbury in the year 1724, and also of Jeremiah Starr, one of the first settlers of New Garden, who was a prominent member of the Provincial Assembly in 1740, and of the well-known Guyon Miller, the first settler at Kennet Square. He is also the great great-grandson of Isaac Taylor, the first, who was a surveyor in the service of William Penn, and of his sons, proprietaries and governors of Pennsylvania ; who made original surveys of a large portion of the land in the eastern section of Lancaster county and the western parts of Chester ; who was also the original
OF LANCASTER COUNTY - 613
WALTON, JOHN C., was elected a member of the Legislature in the years 1851 and 1852.
WARFEL, JACOB E., eldest son of John and Maria Warfel, was born July 21st, 1826. He early in life displayed considerable talent for drawing and painting, so much so that some of his work attracted the favorable attention of that eminent artist, Thomas Sully, of Philadelphia, who honored him with his friendship and gave him much valuable instruction. Mr. Warfel's prospects for honor and fame were very flattering, when his health failed, and after a protracted illness he died June 2d, 1855. He, however, had executed a number of valuable portraits, which now adorn the parlors of the fortunate possessors.
WARFEL, JOHN, was elected a member of the Legislature in the year 1842.
WARFEL, JOHN B., second son of John and Maria W Warfel, was born in Paradise township, Lancaster county, September 19th, 1830. In early life he worked at the blacksmith trade. When twenty years of age he entered the Lewisburg University, and remained there two years. After this he taught public school, until the spring of 1854, when he commenced farming, and in connection therewith the practice of surveying and conveyancing. In 1855 he was elected a justice of the peace for Paradise township, and was reelected in 1860. Be also served for several years as district superintendent of public schools. In 1863 he gave up farming and resigned his several positions, to take an appointment in the pension office, at Washington, D. C. In 1865 he entered Columbia college, as a law student, and graduated
purchaser of all the land in the Gap, and erected the first stone house at that place, which is three stories high, and is standing and occupied at the present time, (1872) ; and who was also a magistrate and a member of the Provincial Assembly at different times, for the county of Chester from 1705 up to 1723. Isaac Walker is also the great-grandson of Nathaniel Newlin, who was a member of the convention which framed the old Constitution of Pennsylvania, and of Joseph Dickinson, one of the early settlers of Pequea Valley, who was joined in marriage with Elizabeth, the daughter of Guyon Miller ; also the great-grandson of the well-known James Moore, of Sadsbury, who emigrated from Ireland in the year 1723, and erected a large mill on the Octoraro, below Christiana, which is still standing and in use at the present time.
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in the class of 1867. The same year he was admitted to practice in the supreme court of that city, and in the several courts of Lancaster county. In April, 1867, Mr. Warfel received the appointment of Assessor of Internal Revenue for the 9th Pennsylvania district, (Lancaster county), which position he continued to fill until removed, May 1st, 1869. The same year he was elected State Senator, receiving the largest popular vote of any candidate voted for at that election.
WARFEL, JOHN, son of Jacob and Mary Warfel, grandson of Henry and Margaret Warfel, and great-grandson of George Warfel, one of the earliest settlers in Martic township, and from whom, it is believed, all of the name in Lancaster county have descended, was born in Strasburg (now Paradise) township, March 22d, 1788. His father died in 1810, and his mother afterwards married Henry Gara, from which connection H. S. Gara, esq., of Lancaster city, and the Hon. Isaac B. Gara, of Erie, Pennsylvania, were offspring. John Warfel married Maria Eshleman, daughter of Jacob Eshleman, of Paradise township. He was appointed recorder of deeds for Lancaster county in 1836, by Governor Joseph Ritner, and held that position for three years. He died May 25th, 1846.
WATSON, NATHANIEL, was elected a member of the State Senate in the year 1810.
WEAVER, PROF. ELIAS B., was born in East Earl township, Lancaster county, February 1st, 1831. He is of German Mennonite ancestry, his father being Jonathan Weaver, a plain and unassuming farmer of his district. The subject of our sketch attended school taught by his cousin, John B. Good,ю to whose suggestions it was chiefly owing that he early became animated with a thirst for learning. His father, having no idea of the advantages of education, did not favor anything in this direction, and he was instructed by his cousin in some of the advanced branches after the dismissal of the rest of the school, as a public prejudice existed
ю John B. Good, esq., is now a member of the Lancaster bar, whose high sense of honor and scrupulous observance of his word are marked characteristics.
OF LANCASTER COUNTY - 615
against the study of such. This even was shared by his father. But the industrious boy had the capacity, and with application (which he possessed in a remarkable degree) he made rapid progress and soon laid the foundation of a good English education. By the time he attained the age of eighteen or nineteen he made application to become the teacher of the same school in which he had obtained his instruction, and was successful. He continued teaching for several years, and expended considerable of his money so earned in the purchase of books, and thus laid the foundation of a library. Having made the acquaintance of J. P. Wickersham, at the first "Teachers' Institute," held in Fulton Hall, in January, 1853, he attended during the following summer as a student at the Marietta academy, then taught by the last named gentleman. After attending at this institution for some sessions, Mr. Weaver was chosen principal of the high school of New Holland, where he taught for some time. In 1855 he attended the first session at the Normal Institute, at Millersville, and in the spring of 1856 was elected assistant professor of mathematics in the Normal School at Millersville, then permanently established. This position he filled up till 1859, when he was elected professor of natural sciences in the same institution. This office he held up to the period of his death, which event occurred August 6th, 1863.
As a general scholar, Prof. Weaver had few superiors among the men of his years. He was able to read Latin, French and German, and had also acquired some knowledge of Greek. He was particularly at home in the German, and had read considerably of its classic literature; he had even essayed some translations of portions of celebrated German authors. But it was in mathematics that he especially excelled. Few men in our country understood mathematics better than he, or could solve more abstruse problems. As a teacher before his classes, he ranked amongst the most solid. Having clear ideas himself, he insisted upon his pupils acquiring a similar knowledge, and few teachers have been able to send forth students better versed in the brandies of his department. He did not confine himself in his illus-
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trations to the simple text-books, but was fertile in the presentation of anything that would in any wise make the subject of the lesson clearer to the apprehension of his pupils. He was ever himself a diligent student, and when he discovered anything new to his own mind, he was anxious to impart the same to his pupils. With his scholars he was ever a great favorite. His early demise was greatly lamented by the students and teachers of the institution in which he had so faithfully served as an instructor.
WEBB, JAMES, was a member of the Legislature ю in the years 1747, 1748, 1750, 1755, 1756, 1757, 1758, 1759, 1760, 1761, 1762, 1764, 1765, 1766, 1767, 1768, 1769, 1772, 1773, 1774, 1775 and 1777.
WEBB, WILLIAM, was a member of the Legislature in the years 1790,Д 1805 and 1806.
WELSH, GENERAL THOMAS, was for years a resident of Columbia, Lancaster county, Pa. He enlisted for and served with distinction in the war with Mexico. Upon the breaking out of the rebellion, he was among the very first who responded to the call of the President. He raised a company in the neighborhood of Columbia and was chosen captain of the same, and upon the organization of the regiment (the 2d Pennsylvania volunteers of the three months service) was elected lieutenant colonel. At the close of this service he again entered the field and was appointed colonel of the 45th regiment. This regiment was assigned to General Burnside's department, and took part in all the brilliant engagements of the campaign. In the engagements of South Mountain and Antietam, he commanded a brigade and displayed remarkable abilities for command on both these fiercely contested battle fields. To him has been accredited the honor of having turned the fortunes of the day at South Mountain. His soldierly qualities commended him to the attention of
ю From the settlement of Pennsylvania up to the adoption of the constitution of 1789, the Legislature of the State was entitled the General Assembly.
Д It is to be borne in mind that in enumerating offices held by individuals sketched in this work, the year of their election is generally given instead of that of their service.
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General Burnside, and at his eager suggestion, as well as that of General Wilcox, he was appointed a brigadier general by President Lincoln. He was transferred to the west, his brigade accompanying him. He died at Cincinnati, August 14th, 1863. He proved himself a thorough soldier in every military position he occupied, and his promotion was one richly merited.
WHITE, HENRY M., was elected a member of the Legislature in the year 1860.
WHITE, WILLIAM, was elected sheriff of Lancaster county in the year 1824.
WHITEHILL, JAMES, son of John Whitehill, was a member of the Legislature in the year 1793. He served as a member of Congress from 1813 till 1814, when he resigned. He ;was a merchant of Strasburg, and a man of much influence in the community. He also presided for a time as associate judge of the courts of Lancaster county. He was reelected to the Legislature in 1831.
WHITEHILL, JOHN, a citizen of Salisbury township, and a leading and influential man in his day. He was descended from Scotch-Irish ancestry. He was a member of the Legislature in the years 1780, 1781 and 1782. He also presided as associate judge of the courts of the county. He served two terms in Congress, from 1803 until 1807; he was again reelected to the Legislature in the 1809.
WHITEHILL, JOHN, jr., was elected county commissioner in the year 1801.
WHITELOCK, ISAAC, was a member of the Legislature in the year 1772.
WHITESIDE, JOHN, a leading citizen of Lancaster county for many years. He was an influential Democrat, and was elected a member of the Legislature in the years 1810 and 1811. He served in the national Congress from 1815 till 1819. In 1821 he was appointed register of wills, which position he held for some time. In 1825 he was again reelected to a seat in the Legislature. He owned and kept the Fountain Inn, in South Queen street, which for many years was the Democratic headquarters.
618 - BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY
WHITESIDE, WILLIAM, son of John Whiteside, a member of the Lancaster bar, was appointed Register of Wills in 1830, an office he held for six years.
WHITSON, GEORGE, was elected Recorder of Lancaster county in 1860. In 1870 he was elected to the House of Representatives of Pennsylvania.
WICKERSHAM, PROFESSOR JAMES P., State Superintendent of public schools of Pennsylvania, was born in Chester county, where his ancestry have resided since the first settlement of that section of the State. Our subject was placed at school at an early age, and from a boy was noted for the rapid progress he made in his studies. After attaining a somewhat thorough knowledge of the rudimentary branches of study, he entered the Unionville Academy of Chester county, where he remained during six sessions. In this time he studied mathematics, natural science and history, as likewise the French and Latin languages. He now inclined in his mind to study a profession, but this not meeting the approbation of his father, the latter gave him the choice either to assist him upon his farm, or for the future to carve his course by the dint of his own exertions. The latter alternative was accepted, and shortly afterwards he engaged himself as an assistant teacher in the same institution in which he had pursued his studies, and for no other salary than the instruction he should receive. The following winter of 1841-42, he taught a country school at twenty dollars per month, and then returned to school himself, and thus he continued alternately teaching and studying until the year 1845, when he became principal of the Marietta Academy, Lancaster county, Pa. This position he obtained when but twenty years of age, and continued to perform the duties thereof for the period of nine years. In the year 1848 he married a daughter of Dr. Isaac Taylor, of Chester county. In 1854 he was elected the first County Superintendent of common schools of Lancaster county, and because he declined serving for less, received five hundred dollars more than any other superintendent in Pennsylvania. He immediately entered with great zeal into the work of elevating the schools of the county up to a higher standard of perfection.
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Coming to perceive the advantages resulting from the association of teachers together in county institutes then budding into notice, he conceived the idea of enlarging this plan of teaching, and proposed to give instruction of this character for a period of some months at the Millersville Academy, then taught by M. L. Hobbes. This may somewhat be regarded as one of the inceptive steps which led to the establishment of the Normal school at this place. The movement thus inaugurated was steadily onward, and was gathering strength in its course, and in 1856 Professor Stoddard, the first President of the institution, was released from his charge, and J. P. Wickersham, our subject, chosen to succeed him as head of the first Normal school of Pennsylvania. He thereupon resigned his position as Superintendent of the schools of Lancaster county, and vigorously entered upon the discharge of his duties as President of the new Normal Pennsylvania college. This post he filled with efficiency up to the year 1866, when he resigned with the view of making a trip to Europe. Circumstances interposing, and his visit to the old world being delayed, he was in the meantime tendered by Governor Curtin, the position of State Superintendent of common schools, a position he accepted. He was again reappointed by Governor Geary, and his second confirmation by the Senate was unanimous, every one of the thirty-three Senators voting in his favor. This position he has continued to hold up to the present time.
During Prof. Wickersham's presidency of the Millersville Normal School he issued two volumes: one on "School Economy," and the other on "Methods of Instruction." The former of these was, in the year 1870, translated by the government of the Argentine Republic into the Spanish language, and established as a text-book in the schools of that Spanish republic. He was from the earliest inauguration of teachers' institutes one of the warm friends of this system of imparting instruction, and but few educators in the country have attended more of these and other meetings of like character. He has for years been recognized as standing amongst the prominent American educators, and at their county, State and national assemblages he has been repeat-
620 - BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY
edly honored by them with positions of rank and distinction. In 1868 he received the distinguished consideration of being invited by Sarmiento, president of the Argentine Republic, to a position in his cabinet, to have charge of the educational interests of that country. This, however, he declined accepting.
Prof. Wickersham has ever been an industrious and indefatigable laborer in the cause of general education, and has been in the habit of writing considerably for magazines and newspapers, articles chiefly of an educational character. He has fine command of the English language, and pens an article in beautiful and rounded sentences, difficult to be excelled. He is, in short, a fine writer. As soon as he (as a partner,) came into possession of the Pennsylvania School Journal, in 1870, the improvement was immediately visible It rose to a scholarly rank at once, and has maintained this grade up to the present. At the last commencement of Lafayette college, Pennsylvania, the title of L.L.D. was conferred upon him.
WILEY, JOHN E., elected a member of the Legislature in the years 1869 and 1870.
WILEY, WILLIAM B., is one of the leading aldermen of Lancaster city, having filled this position from February, 1858. When young he learned the printing business with Thomas Feran, and in 1815 became publisher of the Lancaster Democrat, till he sold out to J. Forsyth Carter. From 1851 till October, 1855, he published the Lancasterian, which he sold to George Sanderson. He was the printer of the Pennsylvania School Journal from 1852 up to 1869, and in June of this latter year he began the publication of the Lancaster Bar. Mr. Wiley is endowed with considerable native capacity, entertains very liberal and enlarged sentiments of men and things, and possesses rare shrewdness and business sagacity.
WILSON, JOHN, was born in Amity township, Berks county, on 21st August, A. D. 1792. He died at Reams-town, Lancaster county, on the 28th day of October, A. D. 1854. On his mother's side, whose maiden name was Dehart, he was a descendant of the " Boone" family, to which,
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" Daniel," the pioneer of Kentucky, gave celebrity. The subject of this sketch emigrated to Reamstown in the year 1814 or 1815, where he resided until his death. With no advantages of an early education, by industry he mastered most of the branches of a polite education. He was one of the first, if not the first, who opened an exclusively English school, and taught with great success for many years, not only school children, but young men and women, residing in that then almost entirely German region. In the year 1825 he was commissioned a justice of the peace by Governor Shulze, and at the same time commenced surveying and scrivening in all its branches, which he followed with success till his death. He, in addition, held many commissions of honor and trust from the Governors of Pennsylvania. He left a large family. He lies buried in the graveyard connected with the Reamstown Reformed and Lutheran church. William R. Wilson, son of the above, is a well-read and able attorney of the Lancaster bar.
WILLIAMS FAMILY. Robert, John and Thomas Williams, three brothers, were among the early and respectable settlers of Sadsbury township. They emigrated to this country when quite young, (whether with their mother is not fully known.) They were enterprising, industrious, and honorable young men. Robert and John Williams purchased about 500 acres of land in the year 1740, about one mile south of the Gap, from William Fishbourne, who bad been appointed a member of Governor Gordon's Council in 1726. They were members of the old Presbyterian church at Octoraro. They divided the tract of land between them (Robert and John.) Robert afterwards purchased part of the Christiana tract, (known afterwards as the Murray property), and now owned by Lindley Brown, esq., for his brother Thomas, who was killed by a wild bear.
JOHN WILLIAMS built the old stone residence which is standing to the present day on the land of A. C. Walker, and which was afterwards the rendevous of the Doans and other notorious characters during the last years of the Revolution. He also built the old house, near the present residence of Isaac Walker, of Sadsbury township, which was afterwards the
622 - BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY
residence of James Knox said to be the grandfather of James K. Polk, President of the United States. John Williams died in the year 1747, and his tombstone bears the oldest date in the Presbyterian burying-ground at Octoraro. He left a widow and an only daughter, who was married to James Duff, and in the year 1759 they sold their property to James Moore and removed to Virginia.
ROBERT WILLIAMS retained his part of the land, in addition to which his son Robert purchased near 200 acres, that on which stood the ancient village of the Shawana Indians, the remains of which can be seen to the present day. His son, Robert Williams, jr., was married about the year 1765 to Grace, daughter of John Bell, of Colerain, and sister of Col. Patterson Bell and Montgomery Bell, of Tennessee. She was also the sister of John Bell, jr., said to be the father of John Bell, Senator of the United States, who removed to Davidson county, Tennessee. After the decease of Robert Williams, jr., and about the year 1792, was sold on his premises, the last African slave that was ever sold at public outcry in Sadsbury township, being a young female slave. She was exposed for sale in the barn-yard along with the stock cattle, and was purchased by Thomas Henderson, esq., for the sum of £50, and remained a faithful servant for Mrs. Henderson during the remainder of her life. The Williams family were among the first considerable money lenders of Sadsbury. Robert Williams, sr., held an obligation against Isaac Taylor, sr., about the middle of the last century for £200, and various other obligations on different persons. His grandson, the late John Williams, sr., secured a large distributive share out of the estate of his uncle Montgomery Bell, of the State of Tennessee, shortly before the late civil war, through the perseverance and assiduity of his friend and relative (grand nephew), John B. Livingston, esq., a member of the Lancaster bar. The Williams family have been noted for their honesty and consistent integrity in the community for one hundred and thirty years. James and Zachariah B. Williams, the great great-grandsons of Robert Williams, sr., are the present holders of the land, and reside on the property.
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WITMER, ABRAHAM, was a member of the Legislature in the year 1791.
WITMER, DANIEL W., was elected a member of the Legislature in the years 1848 and 1854.
WITMER, JOHN, was elected commissioner of Lancaster county in the year 1847.
WITHERS, GEORGE, brother of Michael Withers, was a lieutenant in the Revolutionary army. He was born September 14th, 1747, and died May 23d, 1811. He was a farmer of Strasburg township. He left two sons and two daughters. Michael and George Withers, of Lancaster, are his sons.
WITHERS, GEORGE, a member of the Legislature in the year 1820, was born in West Earl township, in 1769, and died in 1829. His father was named George. He moved to near Reamstown when a young man, where he accumulated considerable property, yet in possession of his son, Curtis Withers. He was a man of considerable knowledge, and remarkable for his business talent. He had three sons, Curtis, John and George.
WITHERS, GEORGE B., a grandson of John Withers, read law and was admitted to the bar in 1822. He was a man of ability, and once held the office of prothonotary of Lancaster county. He was the Democratic candidate for the same office in 1839, in opposition to Zephaniah McLenegan.
WITHERS, JOHN, was a captain in Col. John Ferree's battalion, during the Revolution, and also a farmer of Strasburg township. He was born December 24th, 1729, and died December 24th, 1813.
WITHERS, MICHAEL,ю was born March 4th, 1733. He was a gunsmith, and was employed by the government to manufacture rifles for the American army in the Revolution.
He lived in Strasburg township. He was a man of influence and standing. He died August 18th, 1821.
WOOD, DAY, elected a member of the Legislature in the years 1864 and 1865. He died whilst serving as a legislator.
ю It was chiefly through the instrumentality of Michael and George Withers that St. Michael's Lutheran church, in the borough of Strasburg, was built. They also furnished the said church with an organ, it being among the first procured for churches in Lancaster county.
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WORK, JOSEPH, a member of the Legislature in the years 1783, 1785, 1786, 1787, 1790, 1791 and 1792.
WORLEY, NATHAN, was born in Ohio, March 1st, 1819. He was early thrown with but a limited education entirely upon his own resources. In November, 1846, he removed from Ohio to Manheim, in Lancaster county, where he engaged in the mercantile business, an occupation he had followed for ten years previous. He has not grown rich, but has succeeded well as a merchant. About the year 1859 the question of building a railroad from Reading to Columbia was first proposed. Mr. Worley at once conceived the idea that Manheim should have the benefit of said road, although it was at least three miles north of the natural route. He took hold with a determination, and his conception was made a success. The people of the borough and neighborhood are now enjoying the benefits of his ideas put in practice. He was elected a member of the Legislature in the fall of 1861, and served one session. He is engaged in the mercantile business in Manheim.
WORRALL, PETER, was a member of the Legislature in the years 1747, 1748, 1749, 1751, 1752, 1753 and 1754.
WORTH, WILLIAM C., was elected County Commissioner in the year 1854.
WRIGHT, JAMES, was a member of the Legislature in the years 1745, 1746, 1749, 1750, 1751, 1752, 1753, 1754, 1755, 1756, 1757, 1758, 1759, 1760, 1761, 1762, 1763, 1764, 1765, 1766, 1767, 1768 and 1770.
WRIGHT, JAMES, jr., a member of the Legislature in the years 1821 and 1822.
WRIGHT, JOHN, was one of the three first settlers who took up and settled the district where Columbia, in Lancaster county, now stands. He was born in England, and emigrated to Pennsylvania, settling first in Chester county, and afterwards made his way to Lancaster county. He was a Quaker by persuasion, and one of the active and enterprising men of his day. His name is intimately associated with all the earlier transactions of the county's history. He was a justice of the peace, and was the chief presiding magistrate
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of the justices' courts of the county for many years. He was one of the leading citizens who participated actively in securing the erection of Lancaster into a separate county, and to himself was the honor accorded of giving the name to the new county. It was named by him from his native county in England. He was one of the first members elected from the new county to the general assembly in 1729. He was afterwards elected in the years 1730, 1733, 1734, 1737, 1738, 1739, 1740, 1741, 1742, 1743, 1744, 1745, 1746, 1747 and 1748. His descendants are yet numerous in the county.
WYLIE, STUART A., was born in Lancaster city, January 25th, 1840. His father, David Wylie, was an humble cooper, who traced his descent from Scotch-Irish ancestry. Stuart A. was sent by his parents to the free schools of Lancaster, and being a boy of remarkable brightness, he far outstripped all his classmates in his studies, and graduated at the Lancaster high school at the early age of sixteen. Having taught school for a short time with great success, he next entered as an apprentice the Inland Daily Times office, and worked at case for a few months. In the meantime attention was attracted towards some articles written by him for the paper, and he was soon thereafter assigned the position of local reporter, which he filled for about two years. In this position he showed remarkable capacity, and was frequently complimented for his reports, and was on several occasions the recipient of handsome testimonials in appreciation of articles penned by him for the paper. On January 1st, 1859, S. A. Wylie & Co. began the publication of the Inquirer as a weekly paper, and afterwards consolidated therewith the American Press and Republican, purchased of Jacob Myers. In 1860 Mr. Wylie became sole proprietor of the enterprise, and from July 7th, 1862, until February 13th, 1864, issued likewise a Daily Inquirer. In 1861 he married Mary Amanda, a daughter of George Brubaker, esq. In 1868 he associated with him Ellwood Griest, and the firm continued the publication of the Inquirer up to the period of his death, June 12th, 1872.
In 1868 Mr. Wylie erected the largest printing establish-
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626 - BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY
ment ¹ ever built in Lancaster, began business therein in February, 1869, and continued increasing and enlarging the same up till the day of his death.
Mr. Wylie was a remarkable man. As a business organizer and conductor, he ranked amongst those who are able to eclipse all their comrades and place themselves in the front column of the men of their epoch. In no sense did his capacities belong to an ordinary grade. He was extraordinary in every particular. He had a wonderful intuitive knowledge of men of all grades, and could measure almost at a glance any one with whom he came in contact, and assign their respective adapt abilities. As a writer, he wielded a ready pen; and as a speaker, he was able, upon any occasion, to acquit himself handsomely before an assemblage in a neat, appropriate speech that might seem to a stranger a studied production. In every particular, indeed he exhibited rare ability. He could run the complicated financial machine of his vast business better than any subordinate, could attend to all the outside details, could canvass for business, as were this his allotted sphere, could make
O ю The Inquirer printing and binding establishment, erected in 1868, inaugurated in Lancaster, in the department of printing, a movement of activity not before witnessed in the State outside of Philadelphia, and equaled in but few places in that city. The idea of this mammoth enterprise was a conception of S. A. Wylie alone, and had time been spared him he would, in all probability, have rivaled almost the printing and publishing depots of Leipsic. Such was his ambition. His establishment employs in its different departments about, on an average, one hundred and sixty hands, and turns out an immense amount of work obtained from New York, Philadelphia, Boston, Baltimore, Chicago, New Orleans, and numerous other places. About nine weekly newspapers and twenty monthly periodicals issue from the establishment, besides millions of pamphlet publications, that are printed and put up for gratuitous or advertising circulation. The printing of books for Philadelphia and New York houses has already become an important feature of the concern. Twelve steam presses are kept nearly all the time in active operation, frequently running day and night. Often double sets of hands are employed. The system of stereotyping was introduced but a short time before the death of Mr. Wylie, and is now regularly prosecuted, the first of this branch of business ever established in Lancaster. The different departments of business are all regularly systematized, a foreman being placed over each, and those selected for the various positions were chosen with reference to their respective proficiencies in their several specialties.
OF LANCASTER. COUNTY - 627
estimates for contracts from $5.00 to $10,000 with amazing dexterity, and could, if need required, throw off his coat and equal if not surpass in the amount of work dispatched any employee in his service. He had a complete and accurate knowledge of the most minute details relating to the management, and execution of his vast and complicated printing and binding establishment, an enterprise of which, whilst living, he was the entire soul and manager. He was, in short, all combined, the most enterprising, successful, and intellectual business man of his years that the old inland city has ever yet produced.
Mr. Wylie as a citizen, was worthy of imitation. He was genial and bland, always in a good humor, and wore a smiling face for all. He was very affable and talkative, and no man ever saw him moody or morose. To all his employees he was ever courteous and kind, yet the proprietor's attitude was uniformly observed, forbidding undue familiarity. If occasion required, a sternness peremptorily demanded observance of duty, and quelled all indications of disobedience, or dismissal immediately followed. As a man, he was charitable and humane, and ready to extend a favor to any worthy object.
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YEATES, JASPER,ю was the most eminent lawyer in Lancaster before the period of the American Revolution. He was admitted to the bar in the year 1765. He took a very active part in all matters relating to the difficulties between the mother country and her American colonies, and was an ardent advocate of the Whig cause. He was one of the delegates from Lancaster county to the convention of 1787 which ratified, on the part of Pennsylvania, the Federal Con-
ю Jasper Yeates, with Edward Shippen, and Smith, the three judges of the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania, were, in 1805, impeached before the Senate of Pennsylvania, but acquitted.
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stitution. The other delegates from the county, were : Stephen Chambers, Robert Coleman, Sebastian Graff, John Hubley and John Whitehill. He was one of the committee of three with Thomas McKean and Judge Wilson who reported the form of the ratification, which is in these words : "In the name of the people of Pennsylvania, be it known unto all men, that we, the delegates of the people of the commonwealth of Pennsylvania in general convention assembled, have assented to and ratified, and by these presents, do, in the name and by the authority of the said people, and for ourselves, assent to and ratify the (foregoing) Constitution for the United States of America." In 1791 he was appointed a judge of the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania, a position he held with great credit during the remainder of his life. One of the series of State Reports was prepared by Judge Yeates, which confers great honor upon him as an author and a lawyer. He died March 13th, 1817, in the 73d year of his age. He was possessed of a clear and vigorous mind, and his opinions were bold. As a judge, he commanded the highest respect and deference. His decisions from the bench were clear, decisive and strongly indicative of a profound knowledge of the constitution and laws of his country. As a man of business, he was one of the most methodical. With him everything had its time and place. This trait was observable in all his transactions, whether of a domestic or public nature. He was kind and affectionate, of a cheerful and contented disposition, and correct and engaging in his deportment. In all the social relations he wag truly amiable.
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ZAHM, GODFRIED, was born November 10th, 1787, in Lancaster borough. When a young man he learned cigar making, and afterwards brush making, which latter business he carried on for upwards of fifty years. Mr. Zahm began life in humble circumstances, and by economy, industry and uprightness he accumulated a handsome indepen-
OF LANCASTER COUNTY - 629
dence and rose to the rank of the influential men of the say. Just prior to the breaking out of the war of 1812, by the advice of some friends, he invested largely in imported bristles. The subsequent embargo greatly enhanced their value, and this laid the foundation of his fortune. His strict integrity was early recognized, and before the incorporation of Lancaster as a city, having served as a collector, no bond was required of him. He was a member of the city councils for many years. He served in common councils for a time, and was a member of select council for twenty-three years, and during all this time was chairman of the finance committee, a position for which, by the common consent of all citizens of Lancaster, he was best qualified to fill. His sagacious shrewdness in financial matters earned for him the sobriquet of "Old Talleyrand." He was for twenty years a leading member of the school board. He was an early and ardent friend of the free school system, and was one of the first to advocate making the system compulsory upon non-accepting districts. He died universally esteemed and respected, March 9th, 1871.
ZAHM, MATHIAS, brother of Godfried Zahm, an aged and respected citizen, has been court-crier for nearly forty years. He was born August 17th, 1789.
ZECHER, CHRISTIAN, SR., emigrated from Germany and settled in Lancaster shortly after the close of the American Revolution. He was a tailor by trade, but did not follow it much after coming to Lancaster. He kept carts and horses, and by his industry secured a fair competence. He died aged sixty-two years. Be raised eight children, all yet living : Christian, Frederick, Jacob, David, Lewis, Christiana, married to Brooks Campbell ; Mary, married to James Campbell, and after his death to James Noble ; and Catharine, married to Charles McLaughlin. Christian Zecher has for several years been the most industrious and efficient member of the Lancaster school board. He has also been one of the principal movers in the erection of the new market house,ю at the corner of North Queen and Walnut streets.
ю The new market house is now being completed, and its cost, it is believed, will reach $60,000.
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ZELLER, JOHN H., was elected Clerk of Quarter Sessions and Oyer and Terminer in 1863. In 1866 Jacob M. Greider succeeded him in this office, and filled the same during his term of three years.
ZIMMERMAN, HENRY, (Carpenter), the progenitor of the numerous Carpenter family of Lancaster county, was a native of the canton of Berne, in Switzerland, and emigrated to this country about 1710. According to an old order of William Penn, the names of all persons to whom grants of land were made were Anglicised, and hence the name was changed to that of Carpenter. Henry Zimmerman was allowed to take possession of several hundred acres of land, provided he went sixty miles west of Philadelphia. The cause of his emigration was repugnance to persecution, and being a member of the German Reformed church his friends desired to force him to unite with those of their opinions in persecuting others. This did not seem to him as accordant with the spirit of Christianity, and to escape this he resolved upon coming to America. To detain him his friends meditated seizing his wife, and thus they thought to prevent his going. She, however, resolved to follow her husband. He accordingly, in secret, obtained a small boat and fixed it upon the shore of the lake of the four cantons. They awaited a favorable opportunity, and finally left their home to escape, by means of the boat, forever from the land of their birth. Henry armed himself, and not in vain, with a sabre, for they were attacked on the road by four hussars, who wished to prevent their departure. Tradition says, with Salome clinging to her husband for protection, he successfully combated his four assailants, and succeeded in escaping, both himself and wife, in their little boat, to a more hospitable shore. Henry Zimmerman was a carpenter by trade, and going from Switzerland to England on his way to America, he was presented with a large auger and other tools by Queen Anne, to enable him to carry on his trade in America.
ZIMMERMAN, JOHN, ex-Mayor of the city of Lancaster, was born March 22d, 1798, two miles northwest of the city of Lancaster. When he was about eight years of age his
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father moved to Columbia, and thence to Soudersburg, where he died in 1813. In 1815 the subject of this notice came to Lancaster and entered the store of John Landis, as clerk. In 1822 he married Anna M. Schaeffer, a sister of Judge Schaeffer, deceased. In 1828 he was elected a member of city councils, and whilst a member moved the resolution to introduce water from the Conestoga into the city of Lancaster, pumped into a reservoir by machinery. He was afterwards, for a time, chairman of the water committee. He attended the first meeting held for the purpose of introducing the common school system into the schools of Lancaster. He was a great friend of the measure. He was for about 18 years a member of the School Board, 8 years of which he acted as secretary. He was city treasurer for 8 or 9 years, and in 1856 was elected Mayor of the city of Lancaster, and reelected in 1857.
*HERR, REV. CHRISTIAN, an eminent and successful pastor and teacher in the Mennonite denomination of Christians, was born on the 31st day of October, 1780, on the farm on which his son, Rev. Amos Herr, at present resides, situated in what is now West Lampeter township, bordering on Pequea creek. From this circumstance, and for the purpose of distinguishing him from others of the same name, (as the Herr family had then become numerous in that vicinity), his father, whose name was also Christian, either assumed, or had conferred on him by the neighbors the appellation of Pequea Christian Herr; the son assumed the distinctive appendage, and almost uniformly, except in private correspondence, signed his name "Christian Herr, jr., Pequea," until after the death of his father, when the junior was discarded, to be afterwards resumed by his son.
Tradition, which is fast becoming, if it has not already become history, informs us that about the year 1710 or 1711, a colony of emigrants, from Switzerland, effected a settlement on the north side of Pequea creek, which settlement was subsequently included in the limits of Lampeter township. These emigrants were mostly, if not all, members of the Mennonite church. Amongst them was John Herr, or as familiarly expressed in their native language, Hans Herr, as their pastor and leader, who brought with him five sons, who are the progenitors of the numerous and respectable family of that name in the county of Lancaster, many of whom still own and reside on the lands originally purchased from the proprietary government, by their ancestors, more than one hundred and fifty years ago. Christian Herr, the subject of this memoir, was one of the fourth generation from the above named Hans Herr. He had no brother, but six sisters, five of whom were married and one died single. He was brought up as a farmer, and received no education but what was obtained at our common country schools, which at best, in those days, was an imperfect knowledge of reading, writing and common arithmetic. But being of a sprightly disposition, and possessing an inquiring, contemplative turn of mind, and a retentive memory, by reading
*Contributed by Hon. John Strohm
634 - BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY
and study he improved his intellectual powers, and acquired a general knowledge of men and things superior to most young men of his class and age, which enabled him to aid
and advise his neighbors and friends, who frequently consulted him in regard to matters of business. He was often employed in drawing instruments of writing in reference to the disposition of property, by agreement and by devise, and in the settlement of estates, and disputes and controversies amongst neighbors. These acquirements, connected with his kindness of heart and amiable disposition, made him very and deservedly popular amongst his associates and acquaintances. As an evidence of his good standing in the community in which he lived, it may be mentioned that, when yet a young man he was elected, in 1812, one of the commissioners for his native county, the duties of which he discharged with fidelity and ability. Had his ambition prompted him to aspire to worldly distinction he might have attained to higher positions. He was urgently solicited to accept a nomination for the Legislature, but refused. Politics and statesmanship seemed uncongenial to his tastes, and he withdrew from secular employments to exercise his talents and his energies in a higher and nobler field of action.
About the year 1817 he became seriously impressed with the sinfulness of man's natural condition, and the necessity of a Redeemer's grace. On a careful and prayerful perusal and study of the holy scriptures, and the elucidations thereof by learned and enlightened divines, he came to the conclusion that duty required him to connect himself with some religious denomination; and by withdrawing from and declining worldly honors, to enlist himself as an humble follower of his Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ. After a deliberate examination of the various creeds and professions that came within his knowledge and presented themselves to his mind at the time, none seemed to him more fully in accordance with the teachings of the holy scriptures, which he conceived to be the guide to all truth, than that in which he had been instructed from his childhood, and in which his parents and ancestors had been worthy members and communicants. In accordance with these views and impressions, he and his amiable and excellent wife became members of the Orthodoxю (or old) Mennonite church. In this situation his meek and exemplary deportment did not escape the notice of his associates, and as an evidence of their confidence in his sincerity, uprightness of conduct and unaffected piety, he was appointed an elder in the congregation with which he worshiped. Pur-
ю This word is used here to distinguish this denomination from those who call themselves the Reformed (or new) Mennonite society.
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suing the even tenor of his way in a quiet and unobtrusive manner, attending sedulously to the various duties required of him, frequently visiting the sick and distressed, not only amongst those who belonged to the same congregation, but any who seemed to require his aid and advice, he performed many good offices and received the sincere thanks of many who profited by his disinterested exertions. In adjusting difficulties and reconciling controversies between those who ought to be friends, he was actively engaged, in which his good sense and earnest and impressive manner rendered him very useful; and many hard feelings and vexatious misunderstandings were allayed and assuaged through his intervention, and peace and harmony restored where distrust and suspicion, and in some instances falsehood and malice, had engendered discord and strife.
In the year 1835, as a further appreciation of his merits, he was, according to the rules and ordinances of the church of which he was a member, ordained a minister of the gospel. This opened to- him a wider field of action and usefulness, and a corresponding increase of labor and fatigue. He soon obtained the reputation of being a fluent speaker, a sound, logical reasoner, and a fervent, earnest proclaimer of the truths of the gospel. Many who for years had been apathetic or lukewarm on the subject of religion, were awakened to a just sense of their condition, and, as a consequence; a considerable accession was made to the church under his ministration. He could not be called eloquent, attempted no flourishes of rhetoric, indulged in no flights of imagination, but his power lay in the simple, unassuming, but fervent and earnest manner in which he addressed his audience. This, together with the knowledge of his blameless life and unimpeachable character, carried conviction to the hearts of his hearers, when high sounding words, polished, elaborate sentences, delivered in a pompous and ostentatious style of action, would have passed them by as "sounding brass or tinkling cymbals." It now became his duty to preach at least one sermon on every Sabbath day, and not unfrequently he was called on two or three times a week to preach funeral sermons. In addition to those duties he had to give a portion of his time to visit the sick, so that his time was almost constantly occupied in attending to those duties, leaving him very little time in which to attend to private business. In. 1831 he had the misfortune to lose his wife, who had for many years been the partner of his joys, and in sickness and sorrow his comforter and supporter. The writer of this article here claims the privilege of a slight digression, to pay a tribute of respect to the memory of one for whom he.
636 - BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY
entertained the highest regard. He remembers with gratitude the many kindnesses he received at her hands. He knew her well, saw her in many difficult and trying situations, and never knew a lady of more equable temperament and kind and obliging disposition. A loving 'and confiding wife, she was a constant, unwavering friend, just and generous to her domestics and neighbors, and above all, a sincere and devout Christian. She was a daughter of Christian and Barbara Forrer, of Conestoga township.
Some years subsequent to the decease of his wife, his children being nearly all grown up and married, he gave up the management of his fine estate to his sons and took up his residence with his eldest son, Benjamin; and having divested himself as much as possible from all earthly cares, devoted his time entirely to the duties of his calling. In the year 1840 he was elevated to the highest position recognized by the church to which he belonged, that of bishop, successor to Rev. Peter Eby, whose friendship and confidence he shared, and with whom he had traveled many miles in the discharge of the duties incident to their positions. Here again the area and extent of his labors were augmented. It became his duty to frequently visit other and sometimes distant congregations, even beyond the limits of his native county, and occasionally to other States. These labors, with thy pressure of advancing age, began to take effect on his, not very robust constitution, and it was noticed by his friends, and must have been felt and observed by himself, that he was beginning to sink under the accumulated pressure of age, infirmity, care and labor; but he conceived it to be his duty to continue in the service of his Lord and Master, and impelled by love to his fellow-men, for whose benefit those labors and inconveniences were exerted and endured, he traveled and preached, exhorted, counseled and advised, as long as he was able to move from place to place. Finally his nervous system became relaxed, and he was scarce able to walk; even his speech was affected by nervous debility, and it was sometimes difficult for him to give utterance to words intended to convey his ideas. Under these circumstances he was compelled to refrain from public speaking, and for several years previous to his decease was unable to leave home; yet he retained the faculties of his mind and conversed, though not without difficulty, with such of his friends as visited him. He endured his affliction with constancy and resignation, his only lament being that he could no longer attend to his duties in the church. His dissolution took place on the 23d day of June, 1853. His funeral was attended by a large number of friends and relatives, as also of
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neighbors and acquaintances, who deplored the loss of one so highly gifted, and who had been so eminently useful in his sphere of life. He was emphatically a man of peace. The tenets of his religion were non-resistant, and condemned war as sinful and not to be countenanced, aided or participated in by any of its professors. These likewise prohibited any of its members from engaging in any law-suit before the legal tribunals of the country, but directed all difficulties and controversies that might occur amongst the members of the society, to be referred to and adjusted by the brethren. To the spirit of those principles he gave his full assent, and so deeply was he imbued with the spirit of peace and concord that he deprecated even colloquial controversey, especially on the subject of religion, and avoided it as much as possible. But when duty seemed to require an effort in that direction, he was prompt and decided in maintaining his own views, yet always liberal and courteous to an opponent. Claiming the privilege of acting in accordance with the convictions of his own mind, he willing allowed to others the same liberty; and, whilst he sustained his own opinions with energy and perspicuity, he never rashly condemned others for entertaining a different opinion.
As a speaker he had a clear, agreeable voice, a good enunciation, and spoke deliberately, so as to be easily understood. His language was suited to the capacity of his audience, being the common idiom of the German population of Lancaster county, sometimes by way of elucidation interspersed with a word or words derived from the English. He was a sententious, forcible and logical speaker, which, with the earnest and feeling manner in which his sermons were delivered, rendered his preaching very effective. His style and manner were persuasive rather than denunciatory; he amplified on the unbounded goodness of God to his finite creatures, endeavored to awaken in their hearts a high sense of gratitude and love to that beneficent being, but failed not to warn them of the danger of persisting in disobedience to His commands.
Having experienced the inconvenience of a defective education, he felt anxious to give his children a better opportunity to improve their minds than had fallen to his lot in his youth. In the year 1815, not being able to get a competent teacher in the neighboring school, he employed a private teacher at his dwelling house for the benefit of his own children and those of some of his nearest neighbors. Subsequently, he succeeded in getting a better teacher in the neighboring school, and for many years took an active part in promoting the cause of education. In the
638 - BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY
management of his farm he was industrious, judicious and enterprising. By good judgment, industry, prudence and care, he augmented his paternal inheritance so as to leave a fine estate to his children. He raised a family of six sons, Benjamin, Elias, Christian, Joseph, Amos and Daniel, all of whom are married; and two daughters, Maria, who was intermarried with John Brackbill, and who was intermarried with John Herr, miller ; all of whom reside in the vicinity of where they were born, with the exception of one daughter, Mrs. Brackbill, who is now dead. The sons are all respectable and thrifty farmers, who venerate the memory of their father, and evince a disposition to emulate the virtuous example which he left them; and what was probably most gratifying to him in his old age, his children all became members of the church in which he was so long a pastor and leader. Two of them, Benjamin and Amos, are preachers of the gospel ; the former now occupying the position that his father did during the last years of his life, that of bishop in the Mennonite church.
Such was the life and character of a man who in every situation discharged his duty with fidelity. An affectionate husband, a kind and indulgent father, an obliging and agreeable neighbor, a zealous and effective preacher, and a sincere and devout Christian.
HUBER, JACOB, elected Sheriff in 1848.
HUMES, JAMES, elected Sheriff in 1809.
KLINE, GEORGE M., is one of the well-read and able attorneys of the Lancaster bar. His mind is of an analytical order, and he possesses the faculty of grasping legal questions and presenting them with clearness before the court and jury. He has ever been a close student, and without turning aside into political currents, has steadily devoted himself to the pursuit of his profession.
MILLER, DAVID, elected Sheriff in the year 1833.
MILLER, HENRY, elected Register of Wills in the year 1842.
POWNALL, JOSEPH D., elected a member of the Legislature in the years 1856 and 1857.
RHINE, MICHAEL, elected Sheriff in 1800.
SHUMAN, JACOB B., elected Commissioner in 1864.
STUART, GEORGE, elected a member of the Legislature in the years 1730 and 1732.
WEIDMAN, GEORGE, elected Commissioner in 1807.
On page 7, line 13, the word Dr. to be omitted.
On page 25, lines first and second, instead of Quarter Sessions and Oyer and Terminer, it should read Orphans' Court.
On page 39, line 9, instead of 1779 read 1799.
On page 115, John Buchanan was Commissioner in 1821, instead of 1824.
On page 117, in note, in line 22, instead of James read Wm. Hopkins.
On page 147, James B. Cowden was elected to the Legislature in 1850, and not 1853.
On page 182, in line 2 from bottom, instead of Martha read Martin E.
On page 237, Daniel Good was elected Commissioner in 1857, instead of 1854.
On page 285, line 9, instead of mother read grandmother.
On page 320, line 13, instead of three years read four years.
On page 333, instead of C. L. Kauffman read C. S. Kauffman.
On page 384, in line 3 from bottom, read motives instead of notions.
On page 395, line 10, instead of David Miller read John Miller.
On page 399, in foot note to James Moore, line 10, instead of 1708 read 1808.
On page 430, in sketch of William Noble, read 1833 instead of 1835.
On page 449, in line 11, instead of 1858 read 1868.
On page 450, in line 5, instead of Salisbury read Sadsbury.
On page 501, instead of John read Jonathan H. Roland, and instead of 1856 read 1857.
On page 561, in lines 12 and 13, instead of 1867 and 1868 read 1866 and 1867.