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to go and set up business for himself in New Cumberland. After a visit to a hardware store to procure a tailor's iron, an extra pair of shears, and other necessary implements, he at once accompanied Mr. B. to the village, and began a new and active career of life in America. At this place he remained until the spring of 1840, a period of seven years, during which time he made many warm friends, and accumulated some property. Here he obtained his naturalization papers, identified himself with the interests and policies of our institutions, and entered into the progressive spirit of our country; and, perhaps, few men have become so thoroughly Americanized in so short a time as he was, and no man could possibly have manifested more gratitude than he did for the blessings he enjoyed in a land of liberty. Always of temperate, studious, and industrious habits, he had no idle hours, for those fragments of time not necessarily devoted to business, were employed in the cultivation of his mind; and as aids to this end, he commenced to accumulate English and German books, gave some attention to the natural sciences, and kept up a regular correspondence with a few intellectual friends in his native land. Perhaps the greatest turning point in his life took place during the latter years of his residence in New Cumberland. His religious sentiments had, however, undergone a change, and he became deeply imbued with the doctrines of Restoration-ism. His ultimate aim, also, was a settlement somewhere in the great West, and from causes, real or imaginary, he had made a semi-resolve never to enter into marriage.
During the winter of 1835 or 1836 an exciting religious revival took place at New Cumberland, and many of his, friends and neighbors became seriously but too temporarily affected. One evening, after the dismissal of the congregation, perhaps half a dozen of the better class of young men of the town assembled at his shop, and the conversation was on the subject of. religion. One said, for his part, he was a Presbyterian, another was a Lutheran, another a Baptist, a German Reformed, and so on until all had expressed their, religious preferences, except Mr. Kramph. "Well, Frederic," said one, " What is your faith ?" Being religiously unsettled
OF LANCASTER COUNTY - 351
in mind, he casually replied, " I am a Swedenborgian." Sow, he had never read a line of Swedenborg in his life, and never had heard his name until he had heard it mentioned by a passenger on board the ship during his voyage from Europe, and then only as a great seer in connection with the “Seeress of Prevorst" and others. " Ohl" said one of the young men, " We have a book at our house written by Swedenborg, which we found on taking possession of the premises sticking under one of the rafters on the garret." according to promise, the book was brought the next day to Mr. Kramph. It was " Heaven and Hell," translated from the Latin by Rev. Thomas Hartly, of England, with a long preface. Busy as he was, he immediately read the preface and fell to deeply thinking ; then laid it aside for a few weeks, and read it again and again. He then read the book itself and reflected, and then read it again. At this second reading, he drank it in as the ultimatum of theological truth as fast as he was capable of receiving it. He soon thereafter made the acquaintance of the venerable Joseph Ehrenfried, then State printer at Harrisburg, and through him, of Henry Keifer, and Louis C. Iungerich, of Lancaster city, and he borrowed or purchased the works of Swedenborg, and the collateral literature of the church as rapidly as time, means, and opportunity afforded; and so far as he understood them, he received their doctrines as the truth, without a doubt, and also tried to the best of his ability to live them.
In 1836 a small society of Swedenborgians was formed, and met for worship in Lancaster city, and Mr. Kramph became a member of it, and this induced him to visit that place more frequently and to form a more intimate acquaintance with its members arid the church in general, than would otherwise have existed, which lead to the turning point before alluded to, and which took place about three years afterwards, for he had sold his property and had even made a purchase of some western town lots with a view of settling there. Whilst on a visit to .Lancaster in 1839, his friends there suggested he accordingly changed his mind and removed thither in month a settlement in that city instead of the west, month of March, 1840, and commenced the business of a
352 - BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY
merchant tailor and clothier. He was the first man that gave impulse to merchant tailoring in Lancaster city. Previous to his location there, but one small establishment of the kind, with a very limited stock, existed there, and there was much prejudice against it by those whose interests it seemed to conflict with. At this time there are at least a dozen such establishments in the place, and the stock in them from a few hundreds of dollars has increased to many thousands. His active, energetic mind, found a wider field here for the display of its powers, and he soon commanded a large and a reasonably lucrative business. His affability, his social qualities, and his general integrity was such, that he made many friends, even among those who might otherwise have been his enemies. To him also, perhaps, belongs the credit of stimulating those building improvements which so conspicuously distinguishes the last twenty years of the material history of Lancaster. If the men of ample means in that city had done as much for it in proportion to their abilities, as Mr. Kramph did in proportion to his, perhaps at this day it would not have been so far outstripped in business and population as it has been by its sister city of Reading.
It is true, that other men may have since erected more splendid private residences, made more showy and convenient store improvements, and built a greater number of houses, but they have been but following his excellent and enterprising example, and have been identifying themselves with that spirit of improvement which was developed so largely through his innovations upon the old fossilized order of things, which existed prior to 1840. Nothing gave him more pleasure than to see men engaged in building up and beautifying his adopted city, except perhaps when he himself could be of any assistance to them in doing so ; and hence he aided many an honest, industrious poor man, in providing himself a home, which, without his aid, he might never have accomplished. Mr. Kramph was liberal in his donations and support of all worthy enterprises ; liberal in the support of religious institutions, and especially those of his own faith; liberal in his sentiments towards those who differed from him in politics and religion; liberal in his con-
OF LANCASTER COUNTY - 353
tributions to all public and private charities ; and liberal in his remembrances of his family and his friends and yet he was singularly free from ostentation, and never seemed to claim any special merit for any good he may have done. In his estimate of men, he was influenced more by their actions than by their professions; and if they were honest and pure, they were infinitely more in fraternal harmony with him than if they were intellectual and corrupt, no matter what their social and pecuniary condition may have been. He could not have been called a wit, and never indulged in ambiguities and double meanings, and yet he always appreciated pure witticisms in others, and was quick in perceiving their point. He was exceedingly kind, affectionate and forbearing in all his social and domestic relations, and seemed to enjoy no place on earth more than the precincts of his family circle. Although he was interested and actively engaged in the progress of the world, yet he could not, in any sense, have been called a man of the world."
Mr. Kramph was married three times. His first marriage was in 1841, with Miss Ann, a daughter of Rev. James Robinson, a Swedenborgian minister, formerly of Derbyshire, England. The issue of this marriage was two sons and two daughters, a son and daughter of whom still survive, the other two having died in infancy. His first wife died in July, 1847, much lamented by her family and friends. He entered into marriage a second time with Miss Mary, a sister of his first wife, in October, 1848. The issue of this marriage was one daughter, which died in infancy. His second wife died in November, 1849. After these sad ruptures in his domestic relations, he broke up housekeeping, and placed his two surviving children at a boarding school, in the State of Rhode Island, and spent some months in traveling through the eastern, western and northern States, leaving his business, under his direction, in the hands of his foreman. In the autumn of 1853 he entered a third time into marriage with Miss Sarah M., a daughter of the late David Pancoast, formerly of Cincinnati, Ohio. By this marriage he had no issue. Nothing could possibly have been a truer reflex of the elevated character of the man,
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than his union with the pure, high-toned and intellectual women he had chosen as his married partners. Perhaps few men have been more happy and better contented, during the continuance of their marriage relations, than our subject, and more sincerely regretted their abrupt termination than he did whilst at the same time he endeavored to yield a willing resignation to the things "which seemed ordained."
Mr. Kramph was of a bilious, sanguine temperament, and perhaps inherited from his mother, a rather delicate physical constitution ; and had it not been for the predominating energies of his will, his body might have succumbed long before it did. After an active and useful life in America, of twenty-six years, eighteen of which were passed in Lancaster city, he was "gathered to his fathers " on the 18th of April, 1858, aged 47 years, 1 month and 7 days.
Although Mr. Kramph never sought political, civil, social or literary distinction, yet he was identified with many of the progressive movements of his day. He was an active member of the select council of Lancaster city, and for many years a member of the board of school directors, and was serving in that capacity when he died. He was also one of the members of the " Old Lyceum," and nearly eighteen years a member of the " Mechanics' Library Association," and one of the few who assisted in reviving and sustaining that time-honored institution. He was one of the originators and most active sustainers of the "Lancaster New Jerusalem Society," and a life member of the " Swedenborg Printing and Publishing Society," of New York. His sustaining influence was not only exercised towards the persons and institutions of his adopted country, but he also sent liberal annuities to some needy aged friends in his native land, one of whom was his foster-mother, and for whom he always entertained a filial affection. In politics he was rather a conservative, and for twenty years had been a member of the Whig party, but was not a distinctive party man, " right or wrong," but was willing to make some concessions —other things being equal—to friendship and to local pride. Perhaps few men, in his sphere of life, have left such a favorable and lasting impression upon the minds of those
OF LANCASTER COUNTY - 355
who knew them, than he has ; and many remember with gratitude the countenance, the encouragement, and the material support he afforded them in the beginning of a subsequent successful career in life. Few men in his circumstances have shared more largely the confidence of the community in which he lived, or have had more deference paid to their judgments on matters in general than he. He died as he had lived, with a full faith in the verities of his church, believing that in the " other life " he would be judged out of the book which he had written by his acts, intents and purposes in "this life," and that as death left him, so would judgment find him.
KREADY, J. C., was elected County Commissioner in the year 1868.
KREIDER, JACOB, the first settler of the numerous family of this name, took up eight hundred acres of land on the north side of the Conestoga, about two. miles south of the city of Lancaster. He settled in Lancaster county in 1716 or 1717. His descendants are very numerous.
KREITER, BENJAMIN, was appointed Clerk of the. Orphans' Court in 1829.
KRUG, JACOB, was a member of the Legislature in the year 1781.
KUCHER, CHRISTOPHER, a member of the Legislature in the years 1779, 1780, 1781 and 1782.
KUHN, ADAM SIMON, DR., son of John Christopher. Kuhn, was a native of a small town of Swabia, near Heilbron, on the Neckar. He came with his father to Philadelphia in. 1733. He was a man of bright natural parts, improved by the benefits of a liberal education, and he was considered as a very skillful, attentive and successful practitioner of medicine. He was a magistrate of the borough of Lancaster for many years, and an elder of Trinity Lutheran church. He was exceedingly zealous and enthusiastic in his efforts to promote classical education among the youth of the borough. For this purpose he procured the erection of a school house, in which the Greek and Latin languages were taught by skilled preceptors. There was no one amongst his cotempo-
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raries who had at heart more the spreading of religion, and there was no place of worship throughout the whole county to which he did not liberally subscribe. The utmost pains were bestowed by him on the education of his numerous offspring, in order to enable them to become useful members of society. There is a tablet in the Lutheran church, perpetuating his memory. Dr. John Kuhn, Dr. Frederick Kuhn, and Dr. Adam Kuhn were sons of the above. Dr. John Kuhn graduated at the Academy of Pennsylvania, and afterwards at the University of Edinburg. He was a surgeon in the Revolutionary army. He first located at Reading, and married a Miss Jones of that place, and afterwards returned to Lancaster, where he practiced till his death. He was one of
the leading physicians of Lancaster. Dr. Frederick Kuhn was also one of the leading physicians of Lancaster. He served for some time as associate judge of the courts. He died April 1st, 1816, in the 68th year of his age. Dr. Adam Kuhn was professor of botany and materia medica in the University of Pennsylvania.
*KURTZ, JACOB, was elected County Commissioner in the year 1829, on the first Anti-Masonic ticket which was successful. He was the only son of John and Magdalena Kurtz, of Chester county. He was a member of the Omish church. Inheriting a lame foot, his father gave him a fair English education, in order to enable him to make his way the better in life. He followed school teaching till his marriage, and then his father gave him a farm. He carried on farming, and at the same time he engaged himself considerably in conveyancing. Writing a beautiful hand, he soon gained the reputation of being a first-class scrivener, as also a farmer. He was a great friend of the free school system and of temperance. He felt disinclined to sell his corn to distillers, and he advised his neighbors to feed their corn to their stock. When he took his seat as a member of the board of commissioners, he found many things that he condemned. He was in for economy in everything where money could be saved with prudence. He was greatly denounced by those who had been in the habit of getting
*Contributed by Levi S. Reist.
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bargains in contracts from the old board. His efforts did much to inaugurate a new and better system. He secured the confidence of his fellow-citizens for his vigorous and successful efforts in establishing economy in the board of commissioners. Industry and economy was his life's motto.
KURTZ, JACOB H., was elected Prothonotary in the year 1845.
*KYLE, JOHN, was among the earliest settlers of the western part of old Sadsbury (now Eden) township and before Lancaster county was organized he had purchased nearly all the land in the western part of the township, extending from the Strasburg township line to Quarryville. He is said to have emigrated from Ireland, and to have belonged to the original Scotch-Irish, and was a man of considerable influence among the early pioneers. He was a member of the second grand jury for Lancaster county, in November, 1730. He was elected to the Legislature from Lancaster county for the year 1731, and reelected for the, year 1733. He was commissioned a justice of the peace at Chestnut Level, by Governor Thomas, in the year 1738. He was re-appointed to the same office a number of times, which office he held with credit to himself and general satisfaction to the public, for the space of about twenty years.
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LANDIS, DAVID, a soldier of the Revolution, who enlisted when but 17y ears of age, and served faithfully till the termination of the struggle, a period of five years and seven months. He was engaged in agricultural pursuits, and in 1824 was elected from Ephrata township a member of the Pennsylvania Legislature. He died April 7th, 1852, aged ninety years.
LANDIS FAMILY. All the citizens of a community naturally feel, to a greater or less extent, an interest in the people generally who, generation after generation were in-
* Contributed by Isaac Walker.
Contributed by Andrew M. Frantz, esq.
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strumental in developing their religious, moral and material condition. And in proportion that this instrumentality exerted itself and manifests itself in great and good results, this feeling of interest grows strong and anxious. A large body of people can, however, not be contemplated with the same satisfaction as one may contemptate an individual or a particular family of individuals. Entirely free from any just imputation for invidious distinction between families or individuals, the selection of a particular family under the circumstances of this occasion and for the purposes of this publication, will not be regarded as any breach of propriety. That Lancaster county is foremost in the march of modern improvement and achievement in field culture, in farm buildings, and fences, and in the use of the improved machinery for agricultural purposes and the general comfort, prosperity and happiness of the rural population, is neither doubted nor disputed by any body. The past and present generations have made this county what it is, by their wisdom and virtue, their industry and economy. The present generation owe a debt of gratitude to generations now passing away, and those who have passed away before them. More is owing to certain individuals than others, and more to certain families than to others. It is not necessary to inquire into the causes for this difference, the fact that it exists is sufficient.
There are many families who have, through many generations, been noted for their religious and moral excellence, their sterling character for industry, and economy. There is, however, one family in this county, that is after all, perhaps, entitled to some sort of superiority or preference, not because of anything particularly prominent in individual character of one or more of its members, but rather on account of its numerical strength and steady devotion to the interests of Lancaster county—plain farming. There is no family so closely and so essentially connected with the growth and development of Lancaster county, as the Landis family. It is more numerous, and continued to be through all generations, time and changes devoted to farming, which department of industry made this county what it is, as is
OF LANCASTER COUNTY - 359
well known. The pedigree, or genealogy of this numerous and powerful family, will be herein accurately given to the fifth generation or degree, from the first emigrant, the root of the stock. The biography of the family will be given in a general way, rather than individual. The family are not so much distinguished for producing great public men as for the uniform private worth of all its members:; not intending to convey the idea that they would have been less able or competent to fill public positions than others, but that a certain feature of character impelled them always to attend to their own business first. They are not and never have been ambitious for public honors or preferment, except such as naturally spring from good private citizenship. As a family they have maintained, in a very great degree, the genuine Lancaster county character, having been industrious and economical without almost an exception. Modesty, coolness and deliberation are some of the leading characteristics of the stock, and these proved a shield of defence against the allurements and enticements of excitements and speculations, which obtained here and there, and which tempted some others more unstable to follow the delusive phantoms, leading them away from the land of their fathers to seek fortunes elsewhere. The Landis family are nearly all here at this time, and most of them own one or more farms. The propositus or common progenitor of the Landis family, whose descendants are here traced and arranged in order, by branches of families, emigrated to this country in 1718, a native of Switzerland. No one knows, and none can tell anything beyond this. Like most of the early settlers in the wilds of America, this pioneer was of the common class of people, comparatively poor in worldly possessions, and upon arriving here had quite enough to do to provide for himself and his family the necessaries for subsistence; in other words, to keep the wolf from the door. The new and unknown home, with its many privations and wants at first, after awhile the gradual development of goodly prospects in the land of adoption, all combined to Preclude all thought, as it seems, of making any note or record of things left behind or transpiring in the present.
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These pioneer settlers, in the wilds of America, instinctively became the champions of the great and peculiarly American principle of progress. Onward upward 1 has been the motto all along the line of generations that have lived, flourished and passed away. The present generations have literally been helped out of the woods , by the past. We have been put in a position that enable us from its eminence to look back, still nothing is to be seen or known beyond the period of ancestral emigration. The dark curtain which time draws over all earthly things, is let down so low and has become so thick that, in the absence of recorded history, we cannot penetrate it the beginning of our forefathers in this country, is our absolute beginning.
REV. BENJAMIN LANDIS, a Mennonite preacher, accompanied by his only son and child, whose name was also Benjamin, aged eighteen years, came to America from Switzerland in the year 1718, and bought from the Conestogo Indians a tract of about two hundred and forty acres of land, situated in what is now East Lampeter township, about four miles from Lancaster city, at the intersection of the Horseshoe and old Philadelphia roads. The most part of the original tract is now owned and occupied by Henry N. Landis, in the fifth degree from the propositus.
BENJAMIN LANDIS, the younger emigrant, had four sons, whose names were in the order of their births and respective ages, as follows : Benjamin Landis, Abraham Landis, Jacob Landis, and Henry Landis. The plan adopted to illustrate the pedigree of the family, is to take these four sons, being the. first born upon the soil, in the order of their respective ages, and enumerate the descendants of each one of them in regular order to the fifth degree. Counting the senior or older emigrant, the first degree or beginning, will place the four first born upon the soil in the third degree. This plan will bring us to, and stop with, the generation now represented by men all over sixty years of age, but about one-half of them still living, and all of them second cousins in relationship. They being in cousinship one degree nearer than they would be if the progenitor would have had two or more sons with descendants in the male line. With a
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view to a better understanding of the matter, one of each branch of the family in the degree, marking the stopping place, is here given, beginning with the oldest branch, as follows : John Landis, of Manor township, called Manor John ; Benjamin Landis, of East Lampeter township, called big Benjamin ; Benjamin Landis, of Manheim township, called rich Benjamin ; David Landis, of East Lampeter township, called miller David; Abraham Landis, of Lancaster township, occupying and owning the city mill farm ; Abraham Landis, of East Lampeter township, called old road Abraham ; Jacob Landis, of the same township, called gentleman Jacob ; Henry Landis, residing near New Holland ; Benjamin Landis, of East Lampeter township, called little Benjamin ; Daniel Landis, now living in Manheim township, near the village of Eden ; David Landis, called fuller David ; and Henry N. Landis, residing upon the original Landis homestead in East Lampeter township.
Benjamin Landis, the first born upon the soil, and oldest son of the younger emigrant, moved to and settled in Manheim township, in the year 1753, on a. farm about three miles from Lancaster city, near the Reading road, and near where the Landis valley Mennonite meeting-house now stands. He had three sons—Benjamin, Henry, and John. Benjamin, the oldest of these three sons, had also three sons —John, Benjamin, and Jacob ; and these are the fifth generation. This John Landis resided in Manor township, and was called Manor John, and was elected commissioner for Lancaster county in 1838. Benjamin, the second of these, lived on the old Manheim homestead, and died in 1822. Jacob, the youngest, moved to the State of Ohio a few years ago, where he is still supposed to live.
Henry, the second of the three, had five sons, viz : Benjamin, Henry, John, Isaac and Jacob. Benjamin, the oldest, called rich Benjamin, lived in Manheim township, near Oregon, and died there some years ago, leaving a numerous and prosperous family. Henry, the second son, called drover Henry, now resides in the same township. John, the third son, called miller John, resided in Hempfield township, Where he died. Isaac, the fourth son, resided in Manheim
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township, and was noted for feeding fine cattle. Jacob, the youngest, now resides in the same township, near the Landis valley meeting-house. John, the third son of the three, had also three sons, viz : John, Benjamin and Henry. John, the oldest of these three, resided in the vicinity of Landisville, and was known as swamp John. Benjamin, called biz Benjamin, resided in East Lampeter township, on the horseshoe road. Henry, the third and youngest, resided in the same township, on the long lane, and was known as swamp Henry. These are the descendants of Benjamin, the oldest son of the junior emigrant to the fifth generation.
Next in order come the descendants of Abraham Landis, the second son of Benjamin, the younger emigrant. This Abraham had two sons, viz : Benjamin and John. Benjamin, the older of these two, lived in East -Lampeter township, and had four sons, viz : John, Abraham, Benjamin and. David. John, the oldest of these four, called farmer John, lived in the same township, and was elected commissioner for Lancaster county, in the year 1846 ; he was the first president of the Lancaster County Bank, after it was chartered as a regular banking institution—elected to that position in the year 1841, and continued to fill the same with honor to himself and advantage to the institution, until February, 1867, a period of twenty-six years. He was buried on the 7th day of February, 1867, in the graveyard belonging to Mellinger's , meetinghouse, about four miles east of Lancaster city, on the old Philadelphia turnpike road. Abraham, the second of these four, lived and died in East Lampeter township. Benjamin, the third of these four, lived and died in the same township. David, the youngest of the four, now resides in the same township, and is known as miller David, and is at present a member of the board of directors for the poor of Lancaster county.
John Landis, (called Musser John), the second son of Abraham, had three sons, viz : John, Abraham and Emanuel, all of whom resided in East Lampeter township, except Abraham.
John, the oldest of these, died about fifteen years ago. Abraham owns and occupies the farm near the city water works, known as the city mill farm in Lancaster township.
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And Emanuel resides near the Pennsylvania railroad bridge on the Lampeter side of the Conestoga.
Next in order come the descendants of Jacob Landis, the third son of the younger emigrant. This Jacob had two sons—John and Abraham. John, the older of these two, called brick John, had eight sons—Jacob, John, Abraham, Benjamin, Christian, Martin, David, and Daniel. Jacob, the oldest, died in East Lampeter township near where Landis's warehouse on the Pennsylvania railroad stands, probably thirty years ago ; John lived and died in West Lampeter township, on the Millport and Strasburg turnpike road ; Abraham, called old road Abraham, resides on the old road in East Lampeter, about four miles from Lancaster ; Benjamin resides in Upper Leacock township, near Bareville ; Christian lived in East Lampeter, and died there in 1871; Martin resides in Upper Leacock, near Bareville ; David also resides in the same township, a little south of Bareville ; and Daniel resides in Hempfield township, near the village of Petersburg. Abraham, the younger of the two sons of Jacob, had five sons—Jacob, Abraham, Benjamin, John, and Adam. Jacob, the oldest of these five, called gentleman Jacob, resides in East Lampeter township, near the old road, about four miles from Lancaster, and was at one time director of the poor for the county. Abraham, the second of these, resides on the old yard occupied by the original emigrant, on the farm adjoining Jacob's, and Benjamin also on the farm adjoining; John, the fourth of these, resides in East Hempfield township, near the village of Petersburg, and is a Mennonite minister of the Gospel; Adam, the youngest, is unmarried, and lives with his brothers in East Lampeter.
We now come next to the descendants of Henry, the fourth and youngest son of the younger emigrant; he had five sons, viz : Benjamin, John, Henry, Peter, and Abraham. Benjamin, the oldest of these five, had four sons, viz : Daniel, Henry, Benjamin, and John; all of these were born and resided part of their time about New Holland; the two older ones died there some years ago; the third, one, Benjamin, moved to Adams county, Pennsylvania, many years ago where he is still living; the youngest one, John, also moved
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to Adams county, where he now resides, about five miles east of Gettysburg. John, the second one of these five, had two sons, viz : Benjamin and John. Benjamin, the older, called little Benjamin, resided in East Lampeter, near Miller's store, where he died a few years ago ; John, the second and younger of the two, died at the age of eighteen, at least fifty years ago. Henry, the third one of the five, had four sons, viz : Daniel, Jacob, Henry,. and Isaac. Daniel, the eldest of these four, resides in Manheim township, on the New Holland turnpike road, about three miles from-Lancaster city ; Henry, the second one, died some years age unmarried, in East Lampeter township, where he lived; Isaac now lives in the same township, near Landis's store; and Jacob died unmarried in the same neighborhood a few years ago. Peter, the fourth one of these, had only one son, whose name was David, and was known as fuller David, residing in Upper Leacock township, near the village of Monterey. Abraham, the last of the five and youngest son of Henry, the youngest son of the junior emigrant, lived and died upon what is part of the original Landis homestead, in East Lampeter township. He died in 1861, at the age of eighty-one years, and was the last connecting link between the two generations. He was a Mennonite minister of the Gospel, and a man much esteemed for his goodness as a citizen, a neighbor and a Christian. He had five sons, viz : Henry N., Abraham,, Jacob, John, and Benjamin. Henry N. Landis, the oldest of these, now occupies and owns the old homestead in East Lampeter township ; Abraham, the second one, emigrated to the State of Illinois in 1849, settled and now resides in Whiteside county, near Sterling; Jacob also moved to the same State, and died there about twelve years ago ; John, the fourth of these five sons, also moved to Illinois, and died there about fifteen years ago ; Benjamin, the youngest of the five, moved to Franklin county, Pennsylvania, and died there also about fifteen years ago. These are the generations of this family of Landis's, to the fifth degree from the senior propositus. In tracing the pedigree, it appears that this family embraces all the Landis's who are now living within eight or ten miles of
OF LANCASTER COUNTY - 365
Lancaster city, except a very few. There are Landis's living in this county, north of Ephrata, but they arc not related to these whose genealogy is herein given. In the third degree, according to the manner of computation, there were four Landis's; in the fourth, twelfth, and in the fifth, forty-seven ; in the sixth degree, taking the same ratio of increase, one hundred and eighty; and in the seventh degree, many of whom belonging to the older branches of the family, are now over twenty-one years old, there are certainly not less than five hundred all in the male line. It is perfectly safe to assume, that there are at this time one thousand living descendants, male and female, in Lancaster county, all sprung from Benjamin Landis, junior, who started out a boy eighteen years of age, just one hundred and fifty-three years ago. The writer regrets very much that the name of the woman to whom this young man was married, cannot be ascertained.
The first emigrant, Benjamin Landis, was, as has been stated, a Mennonite minister of the Gospel, and all his descendants to the fifth generation adhered to the Mennonite faith without an exception.
LANDS, JOHN, a native of Switzerland, emigrated to America in the beginning of the eighteenth century, and located in Bucks county, Pennsylvania. He had five sons, viz : Jacob, John, Martin, George and Samuel ; and two daughters, Veronica and Barbara. John, one of the five sons, was born in Bucks county, Pennsylvania, November 11th, 1720, and removed to Montgomery county, in the same State. His son John, and grandson of the first emigrant, was born August 16th, 1776, and emigrated to Lancaster county in 1797. He married a daughter of Michael Kline, the grandfather of George M. Kline, esq., of this city. He was for many years engaged in the mercantile profession.
LANDIS, JESSE, son of the last named John Landis, was born October 15th, 1821. He read law with Emanuel C. Reigart, and was admitted to the bar in September, 1843. Being a very sedulous and attentive student, he has steadily won his way in the profession; until he ranks at present amongst the well-read attorneys of the Lancaster bar. In 1861 he was elected by the county commissioners solicitor
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of the county, and held the same by annual reelection until the year 1869. He has written, and is now preparing for publication, a supplement to Linn's Analytical Index.
LANDIS, SAMUEL, a member of the Legislature in 1829 and 1830.
LANE, JOHN N., was a successful merchant of Lancaster city, and the wealthiest of our deceased citizens:
LATTA, REV. JAMES, was pastor of the church at Chestnut Level, Lancaster county, and principal of an academy for many years at the same place. He was called to this charge in 1770, with a salary of £100 Pennsylvania currency, which was never increased nor all paid. Rev. Latta manifested a deep interest in the cause of American independence, and on one occasion actually took his blanket and knapsack and accompanied the soldiers on their campaign. At another time he served for a short time in the army as chaplain. In 1785 a movement was set on foot amongst many congregations, upon the subject of procuring acts of incorporation, and Rev. Latta 'favoring the proposal, had the misfortune to alienate many of his flock from him. Another subject of alienation between himself and- Ms congregation, was his effort to introduce Watts' Psalmody in his churches. In this, however, he failed; and the new hymns were not accepted until after the death of all the old members who had originally formed the opposition. Rev. Latta published a pamphlet of one hundred and eight pages octavo, in defence of the new hymns, which passed through four editions. The degree of D.D. was conferred upon him by the University of Pennsylvania, about the close of the last century. Dr. Latta died January 29th, 1801. his widow, a lady of great piety and amiability, continued to reside on the family farm, at Chestnut Level, until her death, February 22d, 1810.
LAUM AN, LUDWIG, was born May 5th, 1725. He was a merchant of Lancaster, and a man of influence about the period of the American revolution. He was a very zealous and active Whig, and ranked with Edward Shippen, George Ross, Jasper Yeates, Mathias Slough, and William
OF LANCASTER COUNTY - 367
his ardor for the promotion of the American- cause. He was elected a member of the Legislature of Pennsylvania in 1776. Be was an active and influential member of ' Trinity Lutheran church of this city, and died March 22d, 1797.
LEBKICHER, DAVID, elected Register in 1842.
*LEECH, FRANCIS, emigrated to this county from Ireland, about the year 1750. He was soon afterwards married to Isabella, the young widow of Christopher Griffith, of Salisbury, and by his marriage acquired a large property. He purchased all the real estate about Ate Gap, and erected that large hotel (known afterwards as the Henderson property,) about the year 1760, in which a public house was kept" for nearly one hundred years. When the road was laid out 40 from the Schuylkill to Strasburg, under the administration of Richard Penn, in 1772., its course was defined to the public 1 house of Francis Leech, and thence to Strasburg.—Col. Rec., Vol. x., p. 218. His son, George Leech, also made many improvements about the Gap. The venerable Thomas Leech, also the very aged .Anna and Elizabeth Leech, are the living grandchildren of Francis Leech.
LEFEVRE, JOSEPH, a leading Democratic politician, and member of Congress from 1811 till 1813. He was a citizen of Strasburg township.
LEHMAN, HENRY C., was elected a member of the Legis-1Aure in the years 1861 and 1862.
LEHMAN, JOHN was elected to the Legislature in the year 1836.
LEHMAN, SAMUEL L., was elected Recorder in the year 1863.
LIBHART, JOHN J., was born in York county, August 6th, 1806: He removed with his father to the borough of Marietta when about six years of age, and was educated in the local schools of Marietta and the borough of York. When he was about fourteen years of age, Arthur Armstrong came to Marietta and engaged in portrait painting. An enthusiasm for the new avocation immediately seized
*Contributed by Isaac Walker, of Sadsbury.
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young Libhart, and he took up the business and pursued it with success for several years, executing a number of piece with great credit. After the death of Dr. Glatz, postmaster of Marietta, he was appointed by James K. Polk to fill the vacancy, a position which he held for two years. While he was pursuing the occupation of artist, he took up the study of natural science, such. as mineralogy, ornithology and zoology, and made considerable advancement in their study, He made quite a collection of specimens in natural history, especially in ornithology, which he donated some years since to the Linniean ,,society of Lancaster. Besides his great taste for natural history, he has always possessed a remarkable fondness .for history. His predecessor in the post-office, Dr. Glatz, having been engaged in the drug business, upon his death his store was purchased by the subject of our notice, and this business he has carried on up to this time.
He was born and raised a Democrat, his ancestors having been strong advocates of the principles of Thomas Jefferson. Upon the breaking out of the late rebellion, favoring a vigorous prosecution of the war, he became identified in sentiment with the Republican party, and has acted with it from that time. In 1867 he was appointed an associate judge of the courts of Lancaster county, and in the succeeding election was chosen to fill the same office for a period of five years. He has filled all the borough offices of Marietta, having been burgess, councilman and school director. In the latter capacity he served for the period of sixteen years. He was one of the earliest and staunchest advocates of the free school system in Lancaster county. Judge Libhart is an intelligent, liberal-minded, high-toned gentleman, and as an officer of the, court he is perfectly pure, honest and upright.
LIGHT, MAJOR JOHN,¹ was a native of the State of New York, but the greater portion of his life was spent in Lan-
¹ On August 17th, 1798, the clerkship of the Sun engine and hose company was made a permanent office, and John Light was elected to this position, who served the same till Apri117th, 1824. His grandson, Dr. John L. Atlee, sr., was elected to the same position, and held it till October 21st, 1854, when he resigned, and his son, John L. Atlec, was elected to the post filled by his great grandfather.
OF LANCASTER COUNTY - 369
caster. He early entered the American service as a minute man for the Jerseys, in 1775, and participated in the expedition that was made against .the Tories on Long Island. He was in the division that invaded Canada, and participated in the battle of Three Rivers. He was a sharer in the privations at the river Sorel, and on the retreat from Canada to Ticonderoga. In the battle of Lake Champlain he was present, and was among those who defended Ticonderoga and other places, until the retirement of the British army to winter quarters. Upon his return home he immediately reenlisted, and was with Washington in his retreat through New Jersey,. and fought in the battle of Princeton. He acted as guide to Gen. Washington, and to several of-the officers who commanded scouting parties detached from Gen. Putnam's command, when the British possessed Brunswick; and he was among the first of those who entered that place after its evacuation by the enemy. He was a participant in the battle of Somerset Court House, and several other skirmishes about this time. He was in the battle of Monmouth Court House, and also at Germantown. He was one of the light dragoons who guarded Burgoyne's prisoners from New Jersey to the Potomac. In one service and another he acted with the American army, and was present when Lord Cornwallis surrendered his forces at Yorktown. After the revolution he kept tavern in East King street for some years, ceasing this business in 1803. He was inspector of the 1st brigade of Lancaster county militia in 1800. In 1806 he was appointed a justice of the peace. He was a leading Democratic politician of his day, and a man of great influence. In 1818 he was appointed clerk of the orphans' court, of the quarter sessions, and of the oyer and terminer. He was appointed in the room of John Hoff, deceased. He returned again to New York State, where he died about the year 1834.
LIGHTNER, JOEL, a member of the Legislature in the years 1812, 1813, 1815, 1816, and 1817.
LIGHTNER, JOHN, elected a member of the Legislature in 1819, 1821. He was appointed Clerk of the Quarter Sessions in 1836.
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LIGHTNER, NATHANIEL F., elected a member of the Legislature in 1824 and 1828. He was afterwards Mayor of Lancaster.
LINDLEY, THOMAS, a member of the Legislature 1739, 1740, 1741, 1742, and 1743.
LINVILLE, BENJAMIN, elected a member of the Legislature in 1829 and 1830.
*LIVINGSTON, JOHN B., was born in the year 1821, in Salisbury township, Lancaster county, Pennsylvania. His father, John Livingston, was a farmer of considerable intelligence, who held the office of justice of the peace. His son, the subject of this sketch, was sent to school at the age of five years, and soon learned to read well for his age. He became so fond of books that they became his constant companions. At the age of seven he was remarkable for his accuracy in spelling. He remained for weeks together at the head of a large class, principally composed of much older pupils. His father being physically disabled by lameness for severe manual labor, and he being the oldest son, his services on the farm were so valuable that his time for attending school was limited to those months in the winter when the duties on the farm were not so exacting. He, however, acquired the habit of improving every leisure moment during the more busy season of the year ; and though the work on the farm kept him from school, it did not keep him from his books. His proficiency became so conspicuous, that in 1842 the directors of the common schools, in the district in which he resided, solicited him to engage in teaching school during the winter months. He, however, considered it his duty to consult the wishes of his father, before he consented to accept their proposition. As the younger brothers had now grown up and become capable of working the farm, the father consented, and young Livingston was duly installed into the office of school teacher, which employment he 'continued to follow during the winter months, for four or five sessions. His time during the vacations being spent in working on his father's farm and teaching private school.
*Contributed by John B. Good, esq.
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About the year 1845 he began to think of studying a profession ; and it is said for a time his inclination tended too wards medicine, and that considerations of the great responsibilities devolving on the physician, when the fate of precious lives depend on his skill, deterred him from, choosing that department as his place of activity. He concluded that a slip in the practice of the law is a less serious calamity than a blunder in medicine or surgery, in proportion as a man's pocket is more easily repaired than his life or limbs. He therefore resolved to study law. In pursuance of this resolution, he wrote to Hon. Thaddeus Stevens, inquiring whether he had room for a student, and if so, what his terms were. In due time the answer came in the Old Commoner's laconic style : " Have room. Terms, $200. Some pay, some don't." On the 26th of January, 1846, the young teacher left his parental roof, and the scenes of his boyhood and youth, for the city oi Lancaster, to enter upon the stormy mazes of the law. With Blackstone he may have said :
Lost to the fields, and torn from you,
Farewell, a long, a last adieu !
Me, wrangling courts and stubborn law,
To smoke, and crowds, and city draw.
He applied himself earnestly to his studies, and on the day on which the two years appointed by the rules of Court for initiatory studies expired, he was admitted to the bar of Lancaster county, of which he was destined to become an ornament. He soon gave evidence of a useful career. His industry and wonderful capacity for labor did not permit him to be idle a minute. No one ever saw him idling away his time either on the street or in the office. He believed that no one willing to work need fail, and he acted in accordance with this principle. It is probable that these traits of character, and the facility and taste displayed in his penmanship, attracted tho attention of N. Ellmaker, esq., into whose office he moved in 1851, and where he remained actively assisting in the extensive practice in the orphans' Court and general law practice in that office up to the time of his election to the office of District Attorney in the fall of 1862.
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His election to this public position, and -the satisfactory manner in which he performed its duties, caused him to be more extensively and favorably known throughout the community, and from this time his practice commenced to rapidly increase. His mind being familiar with the general practice in the several Courts, and his pen unusually ready, he was able to perform an incredible amount of labor. His charges always moderate, his manners affable and pleasant, his honesty above suspicion, his office was constantly crowded with clients. Under these circumstances, it is not strange that he did not consider the promotion from the bar to the bench a desirable change. When, however, in the fall of 1871, a vacancy was about to take place in the office of President Judge of the second judicial district of Pennsylvania, composed of Lancaster county, the people with unusual unanimity elected him to that office. On December 4th, 1871, he assumed its duties, and has since continued in that position.
LONG, HENRY G., was born in Lancaster, August 23d, 1804. His paternal grandfather, Nicholas Long, a native of Zweibrucken, in Bavaria, emigrated to America, and settled in Lancaster in 1754. Here he married, and reared in comfort a large family. He rose to be a man of standing and influence in the community, and often was a juror in the trial of causes. Jacob Long, the father of the subject of our notice, became a successful merchant and accumulated an independent fortune. He was a sergeant in the American revolution, and saw service therein during a long period of the struggle. He came near being in the battle of Brandywine, arriving on the spot with his company just as the battle was over. He died in December, 1842, in the 82d year of his age. The subject of our notice received big education in the schools of Lancaster. When but seventeen years of age he was appointed clerk in the prothonotary's office, under Dr. F. A. Muhlenberg, and owing to the professional engagements of the latter he was obliged to perform most of the duties of the office. This position he retained for three years. He then, in 1824, began the study of law, in the office of George B. Porter, esq., then the leading
OF LANCASTER COUNTY - 373
lawyer at the bar, and was admitted to the full practice of the profession in 1827. He immediately opened an office and begun the practice of law, and was not long in establishing himself fairly in the profession.
When he left the Prothonotary's office, it was the design of his father that he should succeed him in the mercantile business, and it was only at the suggestion of Mr. Porter that he began the reading of law. When he commenced its study it was rather that he might be profitably employed than with the design of entering the profession. After reading a short time, however, he acquired a fondness for it, and so continued until he was prepared for admission to the bar. Shortly after coming to the bar, he was chosen by the commissioners county solicitor, a position to which he was successively re-chosen and held the same for twenty years. Soon after his admission to the bar, he became active in politics, and being very decided in his political views, he was elected in 1836 a member of the Reform Convention, being one of the youngest men of that body. He was elected in the fall of 1838 to the Legislature of Pennsylvania, and was a member of that body during the buckshot war, a period of great excitement in Pennsylvania. After serving this session, he again resumed the duties of the profession, to which he now steadily gave his attention until 1851, when he was nominated and elected President Judge of the court of common pleas of Lancaster county. His nomination was at this time entirely unsolicited. Learning that his name would be used, he prepared a letter of declination and handed the same to Abraham Cassel, a member of the convention, and authorized him to have his name withdrawn. So fully satisfied, however, was Mr. Cassel, and with him the convention of his eminent fitness for this position, that the letter of declination was not presented, and he was unanimously nominated. Finding himself thus the unanimous choice of his party for this high office, he did not feel at liberty to decline an election, and he therefore deferred to the wishes of his friends, and as a consequence was triumphantly elected. The manner in which he discharged the duties of this office gave entire satisfaction.
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Upon the expiration of his ten years term of service as Judge, making no effort to secure a re-nomination for the same, he was defeated by a majority of five in the convention of his party, held in 1861, and Alex. Hood was the successful nominee. This, however, was a period when party lines greatly changed, consequent upon the rebellion then raging, and the result was the holding of a new convention by those of the Republican party dissatisfied with the regular nominations, and the Democrats united with them. This alliance, calling itself the Peoples' party, placed Henry G. Long in nomination for the same position he then held, and for which he had been defeated in the regular Republican convention. His great popularity secured his election, and he has again completed his second term.
Henry G. Long was always a conservative in his opinions, and this trait of his character was exemplified during the period of the buckshot war. In conversation with some of his party friends, he intimated his misgivings as to the propriety of the conduct of certain extreme leaders of his party ; and his remarks having been carried to the ears of Governor Ritner, gave the latter much offence. A party friend afterwards remarked to Mr. Long, that the Governor was astonished that a man of his party, and especially one from Lancaster county, should have given utterance to expressions as he had done. Mr. Long, far from being daunted, and true to his convictions, boldly remarked, that what he "had expressed, he believed, and he should not hesitate to give expression to the same sentiments upon any and every occasion."
As a Judge, Henry G. Long was fair and impartial, and his honesty has never been questioned. He sought to decide causes purely upon their merits ; and he bore with his retirement the universal esteem of the bar and community. As a citizen, he is kind, courteous and obliging, and he will long be remembered for his bland and amiable manners. In him it may truly be said, that he will, during the remainder of his days, enjoy otium cum dignitate.
LONG, JOHN, elected a member of the Legislature in 1829 and 1830. In 1835 he was elected one of the board of county commissioners.
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LOVETT, JOHN, elected a member of the Legislature in 1831.
*LOWERY, COL. ALEXANDER, was born in the north of Ireland, in December, 1723, and came to America with his father, Lazarus Lowery, in 1729, who settled in Donegal: township, Lancaster county, and was licensed by the Court. in 1730 to sell liquor by the small; and by the Governor, as an Indian trader, which latter occupation he pursued for a number of years thereafter. His sons, John and Daniel Lowery, were also Indian traders. Having made frequent trips to the far west to trade with the Indians, Alexander probably accompanied them. He became a great favorite with the Indians, and exercised an influence over them which he retained during his life.
About the year 1748 he formed a partnership with. Joseph Simons, of Lancaster, in the fur trading business, which lasted forty years. The fur traders usually made. annual trips to the Allegheny and Mississippi rivers, in convoys, for their mutual protection. The Indians knew about the time they were expected, and brought their peltries from their hunting grounds farther West, to certain points, where they exchanged them for blankets, &c. Col. Lowery was a powerful man, and capable of enduring any amount of fatigue. He was considered one of the fleetest " Indian runners," and was frequently selected by the Government to collect the chiefs of the various Indian tribes at Detroit and other places, to make treaties. The only subsistence he was able to obtain for weeks at a time, was that procured by his trusty rifle. He was taken with inflammatory rheumatism while amongst the Indians along the banks of the Allegheny river, and was carried to a log cabin, situate in a lonely dell, where he was nursed by an aged squaw for several days, when an Indian doctor came along and carried him to the river, where a hole was made in the ice—for it was mid-winter—and ducked him in the river. The shock was so great to his system, that he was cured instantly, and never afterwards had a return of it. Col. Lowery accumulated money rapidly, and about the year 1755 commenced purchas-
*Contributed by Samuel Evans, esg., Columbia.
376 - BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY
ing large tracts of land. In 1757 he purchased of Joseph Pugh, sheriff, four hundred acres, sold as the property of his a father, Lazarus Lowery, (deceased). In this purchase was included the farm lately sold by James B. Clark to Cameron, upon which the Lowerys resided from 1740 to 1758 or '59. In 1759 he purchased of sheriff Smith, four hundred acres, sold as the property of Daniel Lowery, his brother. (Duffy's park farm, is a part of this place.) He removed to it in 1760, and lived in a log house—which stood in the meadow south of the barn—a few years. About the year 1762 he commenced to build the present stone mansion. His partner, Joseph Simons, brought carpenters from Lancaster and conducted its erection. Col. Lowery went amongst the Indians, and did not return until the building was completed. In 1763, at the time of the massacre at Bloody Run, Col. Lowery was sent back to Fort Rays, (Bedford,) in the evening, to get something left there by the traders. In the night the Indians murdered many of the traders and their men, (amongst whom was Daniel Lowery, his brother,) and destroyed an immense amount of goods. When he returned, about daylight, he discovered the terrible havoc made by the Indians, who attempted to capture him. He ran for the timber and was hunted for several days amongst the mountains; they finally discovered him when near the river, on the York county side of where Vinegar's Ferry now is, and made chase. He swam the river and made good his escape. This was the only instance in which he was molested by the Indians.. He often remarked, that they were so frenzied that they knew not friend from foe.
In 1770 he purchased of sheriff Stone, eight hundred acres, and the ground rents in Maytown, and a tannery adjoining, sold as the property. of Jacob Downer. This land ran from Maytown to the river, and was afterwards sold to Alexander Boggs, Longenecker, and others. In 1774, when hostilities broke out with the mother country, Col. Lowery at once became very active on the side of the colonies. In July, 1774, he was placed on a committee of correspondence, to consult with other committees of conference in the province, who met in Philadelphia, July 15th, 1774. De-
OF LANCASTER COUNTY - 377
cember 15th, 1774, he was appointed on a committee to watch the suspected persons, and prevent, if possible, the purchase and use of tea. Mrs. Lowery, being a member of the Church of England, sometimes induced the teamsters when they went to Philadelphia, to procure her some tea. When Col. Lowery discovered it, he invariably destroyed it. On another occasion, when he was from home, she procured a " Coat of Arms," and placed it upon his carriage; when he returned he destroyed it, and every other . emblem of aristocracy. He was elected a member of Assembly in 1775, and served on many important committees. He was also elected colonel of the Lancaster county militia, 3d battalion; and in 1776 a member of the Assembly, and a member of the convention which framed the first Constitution of Pennsylvania. In 1777 he was appointed, with others, by the war office, to supply the army with blankets, the army being entirely destitute of clothing during the winter of that year. He commanded the Lancaster county militia at the battle of Brandywine. He was elected a member of Assembly in 1778-80, and a member of the Senate to fill an unexpired term of one who died. After the Revolutionary war, Col. Lowery retired to his farm at Marietta. August 29th, 1791, Gov. Thomas Mifflin commissioned him a justice of the . peace for the townships of Donegal, Mount Joy and Rapho. Maytown being a lively place at that time, fights were a common occurrence. The parties often came to Col. Lowery to settle their disputes. His manner of dealing with them suited the times, and saved the county unnecessary expense. Re usually placed the combatants upon the green sward in front of his house and made them fight it out, he standing by to see that there was fair play and no gouging. Sometimes he turned in and whipped both of the parties. This novel arid summary way of dealing out justice, put a stop to the quarreling, and especially their complaints before Col. Lowery. Daniel Clark, the father of Myra Gaines, widow of the late General Gaines, was a wagon-boy of Col. Lowery's, and usually accompanied him on his western trips amongst the Indians. After attaining his majority, he went down the Mississippi river and settled at New Orleans. It is said,
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378 - BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY
when trading with the Indians, in the absence of weights, that Col. Lowery used his hand, which weighed two pounds, and his foot, which weighed four pounds.
About the close of the Revolutionary war James Cunningham, of Lancaster city, (who was lieutenant colonel in Col. Lowery's battalion, and served many years in the Legislature with him, and was a companion in his western trips,) died. An express was sent to Col. Lowery, notifying him of the sad event. He hastened to Lancaster, and arrived there just as the remains of his departed friend was about to be placed in the grave. The coffin was opened to permit the friend of his life to gaze once more upon his features. He advanced with tears in his eyes, and grasped the hand of the corpse, and exclaimed, "honest Jimmy Cunningham, that never told a lie, or did a dishonest or mean action, has gone to his fathers." It has been related by those who were at this funeral and witnessed this, that it was a most affecting scene, and drew tears from all present. Col. Lowery was a bluff man, with a commanding voice. He spoke as he thought. When in conversation with a friend, and about to enter the church at Donegal, of which he was a member, he walked in, continuing the conversation, and in the same tone of voice, which was unusually loud, until he had finished what he had to say. When Congress sat in York, Anderson's ferry, now Marietta, was the principal crossing along the river. Often boats were prevented from crossing by reason of the floating ice. Col. Lowery's house during these occasions was filled with officers and members of Congress, who were on their way to York. General Gates and lady, with some staff officers, were thus delayed and invited by Col. Lowery to his home. He placed them in the hall and proceeded to the kitchen, to enquire of Mrs. Lowery whether she could entertain them. She at once declared she could not think of it—when her husband told her to hush, that the party was at his heels and would hear her if she made much noise. Alex. Lowery was married in 1752, to Miss Mary Walters, by whom he had six living children. In 1772 he married Ann Alricks, widow of Hermanus Alricks, who was prothonotary, register:
OF LANCASTER COUNTY - 379
recorder, clerk of the court, and justice of the peace for Cumberland county, and grandmother of Herman and Hamilton Alricks, esqs., of Harrisburg. When he married her, he had been a widower but six months, and she a widow but ten months. He promised to say nothing about the affair, but when they arrived in the vicinity of Maytown, several hundred persons turned out in all sorts of conveyances, and lined the public road for several miles to receive them, to the mortification of his bride. The colonel, being fond of a joke, evidently sent word in advance of his coming. She was a sister of Francis West, the grandfather of chief justice Gibson. Congress having made the continental money a legal tender, Col. Lowery sold the Clark farm to James Anderson, (who sold to Brice Clark,) and most of the Downer lands for that kind of money. When absent from home, James Polk, uncle of the late President Polk, a resident of Sherman's valley, Cumberland county, Pa., came and offered to pay a judgment note, held by Col. Lowery against him, in continental money. Mrs. Lowery, Who was a spirited woman, refused to take the money, when Polk deliberately put his horse in the stable and declared his intention of staying until the colonel came home. He actually remained several days, and badgered and annoyed Mrs. Lowery so much, that she took the money, and bade him clear out and never show his face there again. Frances Evans was the only child by this marriage; she married. Samuel Evans, a
member of the Legislature from Chester county. John Evans, his ancestor, a native of Wales, landed in Philadelphia in 1690, with a family consisting of seven persons, viz : his father, mother, wife and daughter, brother and sister. In the spring of 1696 John Evans purchased a tract of land 400 in the State of Delaware, called the " Welsh tract." In 1715 he purchased four hundred acres on the white clay creek, in Chester county, Pa., now owned by Esquire Niven. . In 1718 John Evans, jr., married Reynold Howell, a native of Wales, who came to this country the same year. They left a family of six children, all of whom died young, except Evan, George
and Peter. Evan was the father of Samuel Evans; Evan had three sons and three daughters. George served as a
380 - BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY
sergeant in Bailey's regiment during the Revolutionary war, and was wounded at New York, by a bayonet which was thrust through his body ; he lived many years thereafter. His daughter married Johnson, the Napoleon of the turf in this country. The first fee received by the late Judge
Yeates, was from Col. Lowery. He had a wonderful memory, and was frequently called upon in different parts of the State to settle disputes about the title of lands. A few years before his death, he and Joseph Simons selected referees, one of whom was the late Adam Reigart, to settle the partner. ship affairs, which ran through more than forty years. Strange as it may appear, there was not a solitary record or scrap of paper to show the transactions between them, which must have amounted to many thousand pounds. Colonel Lowery would call Mr. Simons' attention to an amount of money paid him on a certain log, perhaps thirty or forty years before, when Simons would give his assent thereto, and in return remind Col. Lowery that he paid him a certain sum of money at a certain spring many years before, and. thus these honest men recapitulated circumstances which covered forty years of time, without one word of dispute, and settled up their affairs. Mr. Reigart often remarked, that he never saw or heard of such a settlement.
Col. Lowery was married a third time to Sarah Cochrane, a widow, who lived near York Springs, in 1793. Samuel Eddie wrote the marriage contract. Col. L. had been on a visit to the Gibsons, in Sherman's valley. On his way home he stopped at York Springs; some of his friends, whom he met there, intimated to him that there was a spry widow, named Cochrane, at the springs, for whom he had better "set his cap." He hastened home and returned with his carriage, and at once proposed to the widow to marry; promptly she responded that she would. While crossing the mountain, on his way home, she manifested great fears lest the carriage would be overturned, and intimated that she would rather walk. The Colonel told Sammy, her son, who was driving, to stop and let his mammy out; he drove on and halted at the foot of the mountain, and remained there until his wife came up. She was a large woman, and suffered very much; she car-
OF LANCASTER COUNTY - 381
ried her shoes in her hand ; she never thereafter manifested her fears by expressing a desire to walk. It turned out that a trick had been played upon the old man, who was nearly seventy years of age. This Mrs. Cochrane was not the widow of that name who was first at the springs, but a. very inferior woman. When he discovered the trick which had been played upon him, he built the house, (afterwards owned by Duffy), and placed her there, and never afterwards lived with her. Her sons, who were sporting men, robbed the old man of many hundred pounds, which they squandered at the races, &c. He died January 31st, 1805, leaving a large landed estate in different parts of the State. Col. Lowery was in the habit of saying that James Wilson, a member from Pennsylvania, of the convention which framed the Constitution, was the author of it. He knew the persons engaged in the murder of the Conestoga Indians, at Lancaster, and told his daughter, Mrs. Evans, that many of those engaged in it died a violent death.
- M -
MACKEY, JAMES, was elected a member of the Legislature A in the years 1831 and 1832.
MARSTELLER, PHILIP, a member of the Legislature in 1776. He was also a delegate in 1776 to the convention which adopted the first State Constitution.
MARTIN, B. F., elected a member in the Legislature in 1851.
MARTIN, DAVID M., elected Clerk of Quarter Sessions in 1848.
MARTIN, GEORGE, elected Sheriff of Lancaster county in 1854.
MARTIN, HUGH, was a farmer of Drumore township, and was elected to the Legislature on the Federal ticket in 1816 and 1817. His brother, Samuel Martin, was a clergyman, who had received his education at the Rev. Mr. Latta's
382 - BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY
academy; at Chestnut Level. He ministered at the Presbyterian church, at Chanceford, in York county. Be was a man of good ability and ripe scholarship.
*MARTIN, HON. PETER, was born in January, 1805, in that part of Elizabeth township which, since its division, is called Clay township, Lancaster county, Pa. He was of Swiss de. scent. His grandfather, John, or Johannes Martin, immigrated from Switzerland, and settled about two miles from Woodstock, Shenandoah county, Va. Here his father, Peter Martin, sr., was born, and resided until the Indians became very troublesome and rendered the residence of white settlers utterly unsafe. The subject of this sketch frequently listened to the relation of his parents concerning nightly surprises, habitations in flames, murdered husbands and fathers, and women and children hiding in grain fields, seeking safety from the murderous savages. These dangers induced his grandfather to remove to a place more remote from the Indian frontier. He chose the quiet and peaceful scenes of old Ephrata, Lancaster county, Pa. Here, after the grandfather's death, Peter Martin, sr., the father of the subject of our sketch resided for a number of years, following the business of a shoemaker and country merchant. He was appointed a justice of the peace by Governor Findlay, and afterward moved to. Elizabeth township, Lancaster county, where he acted as justice of the peace, and followed the business of a surveyor and conveyancer, and also kept a country store.
Here his son, Peter Martin, jr., was born. Concerning his early years little is known. He received such education as the schools of his time and neighborhood afforded. It is well known that the facilities for obtaining a good common school education were, at that time, far inferior to what they now are. He assisted his father in his store, and also in his business as a surveyor and conveyancer. His father's instructions and training, in a great measure, supplied the want of early education. He acquired the facility of handling his pen rapidly, and of drawing an article of writing with care and skill. He was frequently heard to talk of his youthful ex-
*Contributed by J. B. Good, esq.
OF LANCASTER COUNTY - 383
ploit of drawing an executor's deed for his father, without a blot or flaw on its face. The achievement was considered by him as a great triumph, on which his memory in after years delighted to dwell.
As his father advanced in years, the weight of business gradually shifted on his son's shoulders. The Governor appointed the son a justice of the peace, in the room and stead of his father, whose mantle thus fell on worthy shoulders. To the new incumbent the ordinary business of a magistrate's office had no attractions. In fact, he scarcely transacted any criminal business at all. This resulted partly from the moral condition of the community around him, and partly because his time was occupied with business more congenial to his taste. In his extensive practice as a surveyor and scrivener, he was constantly consulted in regard to the many legal questions which continually arise in the course of its pursuit. He was the friend and guide of executors, administrators, guardians and trustees of every kind. His mind became familiar with the statutes relating to these subjects, and with the decisions of the courts made under them. Whenever his advice was desired, he was indefatigable in examining the point in question in order to reach a correct conclusion. Although he never pursued a regular course of legal study, yet such was his industry and natural acumen, added in later years to his extensive experience, that his opinion was generally entitled to a great deal of respect. This was more especially the case in that branch of the law relating to the practice in the orphans' court and the' settlement of estates of decedents. Every change in the acts of Assembly, or a new ruling of court, was watched by him with an eagle eye, as he took a laudable pride in keeping up with the times, and having his mind amply stored with useful knowledge. It has been objected to his method of drawing instruments of writing, that he was unnecessarily prolix, and more especially in drafting wills, too circumstantial in detail. His own apology for this was, that if you confine yourself strictly to the truth, you cannot. say too much, and that it is better to be tedious than ambiguous. In the latter years of his life he frequently declared, that he
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knew of no instance in which a law suit originated out of al»a ambiguous or uncertain directions contained in a last will drawn by him.
He held his commission as a justice of the peace till the amended constitution came in force, under whose provisions he was twice reelected, although the , party .with which he acted was in a minority in the district where he resided. in 1850, however, he declined a reelection, and he never after. wards held a magistrate's commission. He had early identified himself with the Democratic party, and always claimed that, however party names and circumstances had changed, he still remained faithful to his old political principles, and that he never was or bad been anything but a genuine Jackson Democrat. In the local politics of Lancaster county he soon succeeded in obtaining a very prominent position, which he maintained for a long time. He, at several times, was the Democratic candidate for Congress, but on account of his party being in a hopeless minority in the county, always failed of an election. In the fall of 1843 he ran the last time for Congress on the Democratic ticket. The late Jeremiah Brown was the Whig candidate, and the Hon. A. E. Roberts the Anti-masonic standard-bearer. Mr. Brown was elected in this triangular contest. Upon the inauguration of the American, or Know-nothing movement, he identified himself with that party, and was their candidate for prothonotary in the year 1854, when Joseph Bowman, the Whig candidate, was elected, B. F. Holl having been the Democratic candidate for the same office.
Mr. Martin always was a friend of the late Col. Beah Frazer, familiarly known as the "Democratic War Horse." When the anti-Lecompton or Kansas troubles commenced,
which culminated in the organization of the Republican party, it was natural that he should cast his lot with them, and oppose the election of Buchanan to the Presidency in 1856. In this step, those of his friends who knew him best, believed he acted conscientiously and from principle, however his notions may have been impugned by his old friends, whose party he left, or by his political enemies, with whom he now affiliated. The Republican county convention,
OF LANCASTER COUNTY - 385
which met at Lancaster in the fall of 1857, nominated him as their candidate for the office of prothonotary. It may easily be imagined that this action of the convention was not approved by a great number of the old line Whigs, with whom Mr. Martin had fought so many political battles. The consequence was, that William Carpenter, one of their number, received and accepted the Democratic nomination for the same office. A very spirited and somewhat acrimonious canvass ensued, and when the election was over and the votes counted, Mr. Carpenter was returned as having a small majority. As usual, each party accused the other of fraud. The election was contested, and the Court, after a patient investigation, decided that Mr. Carpenter was elected by a majority of ten votes.
To most men such a series of political defeats would have proved so disastrous that their prospects would have been irretrievably ruined. But such was not the case with Mr. Martin. He himself attributed his recuperative powers to the fact that he constantly retained the esteem and support of his neighbors, and never committed any act by which he forfeited their confidence and friendship. He understood the local politics of his county as well, perhaps, as any other man living at that time. His policy was to concentrate several of his neighboring districts, so that their weight and influence should go together. His next step was to seek alliances with other candidates in different parts of the county who controlled similar powers, thus effecting what he was accustomed to call " a concentration of strength." The practical result of these tactics was, that Peter Martin and his friends were ail but irresistible in county conventions. The most difficult part of this, as of many other programmes, was to begin right—that is, to have the votes and influence of your neighbors ; thus illustrating the wisdom of one of Mr. Martin's favorite maxims, that to a politician it was important, above all other things, to be " right with his neighbors at home.
From what has been said, it may be inferred that he had not much apparent trouble, in obtaining his nomination for the office of prothonotary by the Republican county con-
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vention of 1860; but there were still some of his party who objected to his nomination, and when his name was announced .as the successful candidate in the convention, it induced the Democrats to nominate Mr. Gerardus Clarkson, who had previously always been regarded as a Republican, as their candidate for the same office, hoping that the result of the election held three years before might again be realized. In these expectations, however, Mr. Clarkson and his friends were disappointed, and Mr. Martin was elected by a large majority. He served the office of prothonotary for the term of three years, to the satisfaction of his constituents and with honor to himself. After its close he retired to his home at Lincoln, where he remained in private life until the fall of 1866, when he was elected associate judge of the several courts of the county of Lancaster. This position he held at the time of his death, which occurred rather suddenly, on the 16th of August, 1867, at his home, having been sick only for a few days previous to his death. In person Mr. Martin was of medium height, inclining to corpulency. He had fine eyes, beaming with intelligence. He wore his hair short, which in his later years was entirely white. His face and chin were smoothly shaved. Though his manners were simple and unaffected, there was a certain native dignity in his bearing which at once impressed the beholder that he was a person of more than ordinary force of character.
MATHIOT, JOHN, was elected sheriff of Lancaster county in the year 1818. He was an alderman of Lancaster and carried on the business of a scrivener. Ile was elected in 1831, by city councils, Mayor of the city of Lancaster, and eleven times reelected. He died January 22d, 1843, in the 58th year of his age.
MAXWELL, HUGH, was born in Ireland, December 7th, 1777. When quite a youth he came to Philadelphia, and at the age of nineteen he entered in partnership in the book publishing business with Matthew Carey, and with him published one of the first literary magazines in the city of brotherly. love. He afterwards edited the Port-Folio, a magazine of some repute in its day. Whilst in the book
OF LANCASTER COUNTY - 387
publishing business, he cast his own type and made his own wood-cuts. Having met with severe losses in the financial crisis that succeeded the war of 1812-14, he for a time abandoned the editorial career and followed agricultural pursuits. His active temperament, however, soon introduced to Lancaster and established the Lancaster Gazette, which he him into other editorial enterprises. In 1817 he removed conducted with, decided ability for several years. He .next purchased the Lancaster Journal, one of the oldest Democratic papers of Pennsylvania, and this he published up to 1839. As a citizen, he ever ranked amongst the most active and enterprising in all projects looking towards the establishment and promotion of public improvements. He was one of the most active members of the company organized in 1820 for the improvement of the Conestoga navigation; and he it was who called the first meeting at Columbia, which discussed the project of uniting that place and Philadelphia by a railroad. He was gratified to live to see this enterprise completed in spite of much opposition and ridicule. The "Mechanics' Literary Association" of Lancaster, of which he was the first president, greatly owed its foundation to his spirit and enterprise. Hugh Maxwell was a man of considerable mechanical ingenuity, and among his inventions the " printer's roller," patented in 1817, was a fruit of his genius. He drew such attention to the cause of boiler explosions as elicited great praise in his day. With Wm. White, ex-sheriff of Lancaster, he discovered the Lykens Valley and Short Mountain coal fields, and shipped the .first coal to market from those mines. As editor of a newspaper, Mr. Maxwell had few superiors in his day. He was a vigorous writer, and could pen an editorial of great power, and withal; couched in .smooth and graceful language. He was a bold and independent thinker and fearless leader in public affairs. He died November 1st, 1860.
MAXWELL, ROBERT, was a citizen of Drumore township, and died November 6th, .1819, in the 80th year of his age. He was elected county commissioner in the year 1798. He was elected to the Legislature of Pennsylvania in 1806, 1807, 1808, 1809, 1812 and 1813.
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MAY, DAVID, elected Clerk of the Orphans' Court in 1848.
MAYER, CHRISTIAN, was elected State Senator in 1804, and reelected to the same position in 1808.
MAYER, GEORGE, a merchant of Lancaster, and brother of Dr. Mayer. He was possessed of a fine memory, and when a member of the Legislature in 1835, he took quite an active part in legislative proceedings. Abraham Kauffman, who was cotemporary with him in the Legislature, speaking of him said: " I once heard one of the canal commissioners remark of him after he had given some testimony before the House : what a mind and memory Colonel Mayer possesses; his language is fit for the press just as he speaks from recollection." He died September 9th, 1862, in the 82nd year of his age.
MAYER, REV. DR. Louis, an able divine, was born in the city of Lancaster, March 26th, 1783. His father was a gentleman of liberal culture. After he had made such proficiency in education as boys of his grade usually obtained, he resolved upon business, and made the experiment in Fredericktown, Maryland ; but having no aptitude for secular pursuits this result was not flattering. About this time his mind became aroused as to 'spiritual affairs, and he seemed to recognize in his internal feelings a call to the ministerial career, for which he cherished a peculiar fondness. He now entered upon the preparatory studies necessary as a preparation for this field of service. His mind being formed of solid material, he made rapid progress in his classical and theological studies, and he was licensed to preach in the year 1807, by the Reformed Synod of Pennsylvania. In 1808 he accepted a call from the Shepherdstown charge, including Martinsburg and Smithfield congregations. Here he labored with great zeal and efficiency for twelve years. Whilst serving these congregations several efforts were made to obtain his services, but without success. In 1821 he was induced to accept a call from the Reformed church of York, Pa., where he continued to officiate until he was called upon to preside over the theological seminary of the German Reformed church. In 1825 he resigned his
OF LANCASTER COUNTY - 389
charge in York, moved to Carlisle, Pa., and began his duties as professor in the seminary. The new institution was fortunate in obtaining the services of Dr. Mayer, at a time when everything depended upon those interested with its control and management. The new professor was popular and discharged his duties with great fidelity. The infant institution, however, was but poorly endowed, and this, in connection with other circumstances needless to detail, proved very embarrassing to the incumbent of the theological chair, and indeed to the Synod itself. In 1829 the seminary was removed to York, Pa. A second professor of the seminary was found necessary, and it was also resolved to connect a classical school with the seminary. This latter department was committed to Frederick A. Rauch,¹ a distinguished German scholar, and afterwards President of Marshall College, in Mercersburg, Pa. Dr. Mayer faithfully served the church in the capacity of professor in the seminary, until 1835, when it was removed to Mercersbarg. Not choosing
¹ A few remarks and reflections will not be untimed as regards the career and influence of Dr. Frederick Augustus Rauch, who, although never living in our midst, yet whose ashes lie amongst us, and whose influence is felt swelling the intellectual gales of our country. His monument reared on Franklin and Marshall campus, will, in coming time, be one of the objects of interest for visitors to the inland city of Lancaster. In the coming of Dr. Rauch to the United States, there was freighted into our country a cargo of philosophical thought that, in a great measure, has served to arouse American life to the existence of the gigantic intellectual revolution that had been fought across the waters in the fatherland. Prior to the arrival of this scholar in America, little was known as regards the state of opinion in Europe, and the little that it was came by way of England, that had itself scarcely waked up to a knowledge of the great world-battle that had been fought on German soil. From the time that Dr. Rauch was made President of Marshall I College in Mercersburg, in 1835, a new era dawned upon the American mind, and a tide of thinking set in which from that period has flowed onward with gathering strength. The names of Kant, Jacobi, Fichte, Schelling, Hegel, Schleiermacher and Daub, are familiarized to a circle
of American auditors, and the thoughts of these world-famed thinkers are works he brought with him, was as by charts enabled to point out the as one who had surveyed the whole field of the contest, could say what had been severally gained by the one, and lost by the other.
America, at that time, was still adhering to the nude dogmatism of
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to leave York, he resigned his professorship in the seminary, but upon the earnest solicitation of Synod, was afterwards prevailed upon to resume his professorship. He did so, however, with the distinct understanding, that his services should simply be regarded as temporary. In October of the following year, at the meeting of the general Synod, Dr. Mayer again tendered his resignation, which was accepted. From that time till his death he continued to reside in York, and was engaged, as far as health would permit, in preparing several works for the press.
As a preacher, Dr. Mayer was learned and faithful. In the early part of his ministry it was his custom to write and commit his sermons; but in his later years he preached chiefly extemporaneously. His preaching was plain, practical and impressive. In the delivery of his sermons he was measured, earnest, and always very serious. His style was clear, chaste, and adapted to the comprehension of his auditors; often argumentative, and at times very powerful. Being possessed of a clear, logical mind, he was very happy in his
creeds, abandoned by the philosophic mind of the world for near a century. Its intellectual status at that period, was but little developed in the direction of metaphysical inquiry and philosophical research; and, indeed, the grade of collegiate training seemed to aim at nothing higher than a preparation for practical life and the distribution of inherited opinions. That, it must be confessed, is too truly even yet the case; but with the meeting of Drs. Rauch and Nevin at Mercersburg, a new spirit arose upon American soil. It was the spirit of inquiry, and the same that served in Descartes for the complete overthrow of scholasticism. The new spirit grew and advanced, and some years afterwards found its main foothold in Lancaster county. It germinated in what is known as the Mercersburg school of theology, but that is simply one phase of the influence following the dissemination of the new principle.
The war of the American scholastics against the new school of thought was commenced, and, with scarce au intermission, has been continued up till the present. Our county in the removal of the Theological seminary of the German Reformed church, during 1871, from Mercersburg to Lancaster, has become a centre of thought-distinction, whose existence dare not be unrecognized. From it will continue to emanate an influence potent on American life and thinking, towards the building up of a clear systematic and rounded philosophy which can turn all the weapons of a puerile scholastic dogmatism.
The man from whom, in a large measure, this influence has flown, Dr. Frederick A. Rauch, and whose remains lie in Lancaster, was born
OF LANCASTER COUNTY - 391.
cxplanations of the Scriptures, and in setting forth their true sense. He had somewhat a taste for lecturing, and his expositions of the sacred oracles were, in general, very clear and forcible.
As a professor, Dr. Mayer was eminently qualified. For thirteen years he filled the chair of professor of theology, and a part of this time gave instruction also in the Hebrew language and church history. Like many of our eminent men, he was chiefly indebted to his untiring industry for his ripe scholarship. He was a fine linguist, and had made himself familiar with the various European systems of theology and philosophy. He was a fine German scholar, and he perused many of the works which emanated from that land of scholars and deep thinkers. His mind was admirably adapted to the study of biblical antiquities, hermeneutics, exegesis, and didactic and pastoral theology. Few, perhaps, surpassed him in sermonizing, and in preparing and dictating skeletons of sermons. If a skeleton prepared and read by a student was not au fait, it underwent a remodeling immedi-
in Hesse-Darmstadt, July 27th, 1806. At the age of fifteen he became a student of Marburg, where he took his diploma in 1827. Afterwards he spent some time at Giessen and Heidelberg. Upon leaving Heidelberg he became professor extraordinary in the university of Geissen, being at the time twenty-four years of age. Possessing a temperament that could ill repress real sentiment, he gave utterance to views offensive to the governing powers, and his safety required on his part a voluntary self-expatriation. He came to America in the fall of 1831, having just completed the twenty-fifth year of his age. He spent his first year in Easton, Pa., where he applied himself assiduously to the learning of the English language. His stores of classical and philosophical learning were at this time of little avail, and he derived the most immediate advantage to himself from his knowledge of music, of which he was a master. He procured his support by giving lessons on the piano. In June, 1832, he went to York, Pa., and took charge of the classical school, then an appendage of the Theological seminary, in which capacity he labored up to 1835. In this latter year he moved to Mercersburg, and was chosen president of Marshall College. In this responsible position he continued to labor, in the midst of great difficulties and discouragements,
up till the time of his death, which occurred March 2d, 1841. His remains, after resting in Mercersburg for eighteen years, were brought to Lancaster in 1859, and now lie in front of Franklin and Marshall college edifice. Lancaster you should be proud that your earth forms
the urn of one of Germany's noble band of philosophic thinkers.
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ately, or was altogether laid aside and another dictated at once. To his class he seemed always prepared on the topics of the recitation, and perfectly at home on all collateral matters claiming attention. On subjects connected with personal piety, he was in the habit of speaking to the students, and embraced every fitting opportunity to give them counsel and to urge upon them the importance of a prayerful and holy life..
Dr. Mayer edited for many years, with great acceptance, the Magazine and Messenger of the German Reformed church, and occasionally contributed ably written articles for some of the leading American reviews. Among his published works, are those on the Sin against the Holy Ghost ; Lectures on Scriptural Subjects, and his History of the German Reformed church. He died August 25th, 1849.
MAYER, NATHANIEL, was elected a member of the Legislature in the years 1862 and 1863.
McALISTER, ARCHIBALD, was a member of the Legislature in the year 1820.
McALISTER, JACOB, was elected County Commissioner in the year 1832.
McCAMANT, JOHN, was a member of the Legislature in the years 1824 and 1827. In 1826 he was the Democratic competitor of James Buchanan for Congress.
McCLEERY, CARPENTER, was elected Clerk of Quarter Sessions and Oyer and Terminer in the year 1845.
MCCLURE, JOSEPH, was elected to the Legislature in the years 1840 and 1841.
McCULLOCEI, Wm., was a member of the Legislature in the year 1820.
McEVOY, PATRICK, an extensive contractor and banker, was born at Millick, Queens county, Ireland. He emigrated to America friendless, and found employment with a railroad contractor in a subordinate position. Having shown a rare acuteness in business, he was encouraged to embark in contracting, and in this he proved remarkably fortunate. In a few years he became one of the most extensive contractors in the country, and had large contracts in the construction
OF LANCASTER COUNTY - 393
of the Pennsylvania railroad, the New York and Erie railroad, and the Susquehanna and Tide Water canal he was also a contractor on a railroad in New Jersey. It was he who built the section of the Pennsylvania Central railroad at Kittaning point, which is regarded by railroad men as one of the finest pieces of work in the United States. Mr. McEvoy lived many years -near the city. of Lancaster, and was a man highly esteemed and respected. In 1864 he was the Democratic elector for this district on the Presidential ticket. He was a director of the old Lancaster bank, and filled numerous other official positions of trust. At the time of his death he was engaged in completing a very heavy contract for the Philadelphia and Erie railroad company, in constructing Bennet's branch railway, eighteen miles in length, at Driftwood. He died February 1st, 1870, in the sixty-fifth year of his age.
*McGOWAN FAMILY. John McGowan emigrated from Ireland about the time of the last war with England, when quite young. He was an enterprising and intelligent man, and by his persevering industry and good character, rose from being a clerk to an extensive manufacturer of iron in Sadsbury township. He was united in marriage about the year 1830 with Catharine, the daughter of William and Sarah Knott, and settled on a farm which he purchased in the of valley. He died in the year 1851, leaving his widow with nine sons and five daughters, who are all living at the present time (except one which died in infancy.) The family now own most of the original tract of Moses Musgrove in the valley. They are the well-known, highly respectable McGowan family, among whom are William McGowan, esq., John McGowan and Joseph McGowan, late assistant assessor of internal revenue.
McGRANN, JOHN, brother of Richard McGrann, was an enterprising business man and contractor.
McGRANN, RICHARD, a prominent contractor, who died October 14th, 1867, aged seventy years. The following is from the Philadelphia Press :
"Richard McGrann was well known in Pennsylvania as one of the
*Contributed by Isaac Walker, of Sadsbury.
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most enterprising and courageous contractors in the State. The elegant bridge which spans the Schuylkill at the end of Chestnut street, Philadelphia, is a lasting and most creditable monument of his labor. The Pennsylvania and Northern Central railroads, as well as many other lines testify to his energy and success. At the time of his death he was engaged on a large and handsome railroad bridge near Easton. he came from Ireland when a young man, poor and friendless. He was a man of controlling weight in his county, and the head of a large and substantial family connection. He was a gentleman of warm impulses, unimpeachable integrity, and great public spirit."
He was a delegate to the Democratic State Convention in 1863.
McLENEGAN, ZEPHANIAH, appointed Prothonotary in 1839.
McMILLAN, JOHN, a member of the Legislature in 1776.
McSPARREN, JAMES, elected Commissioner in 1806.
MEHAFFEY, GEORGE W., was elected Commissioner in 1871.
MEHAFFEY, HUGH, was appointed Register of Wills in 1836.
MERCER, CAPT. J. Q., was born in Sadsbury township, And belongs to Quaker ancestry. He was engaged in teaching school when the firing upon Fort Sumpter roused the country to arms. He immediately enlisted for the three months' service in company K, of 20th regiment (Scott Legion). Upon the expiration of this service he reenlisted as 3d duty sergeant in company P, 28th Pennsylvania volunteer infantry, and served in the same until after the battle of Antietam, when the company was transferred and made a part of the 147th volunteer infantry. His company afterwards formed part of the army of the Cumberland, under the command of Gen. Hooker. He was with his company and a participant in many of the hard fought battles of the rebellion, and amongst these, Lookout Mountain, Antietam, Mission Ridge, Chancellorsville, Ringgold, Resaca, Gettysburg, Snicker's Gap, and Pine Knob. In the latter engagement he was wounded in the right leg above the knee, June 16th, 1864, having been previously commissioned captain of his company, June 8th of the same year. On account of this wound he was necessitated to suffer amputation of his right
OF LANCASTER COUNTY - 395
leg, and after a hospital confinement of some months was discharged from service, March 2d, 1865. In October of 1866 he was nominated and elected clerk of the orphans' court of Lancaster county, the duties of which office he discharged to the satisfaction of the public.
MERCER, JAMES, was a member of the Legislature in the years 1781, 1782, 1783 and 1784.
MICHAEL, WILLIAM, was elected clerk of the Quarter Sessions in the year 1830.
MILLER, DAVID, was elected Sheriff of Lancaster county in the year 1785, and held the same for three years. He was elected to the Legislature in 1789. He was also elected to the State Senate in 1794, and in 1801 returned again to the Legislature.
MILLER, GEN. HENRY, a native of Lancaster county, was a conspicuous officer of the American army during the Revolutionary war. He was engaged in many of the hard fought battles of that stirring period. He was born in the year 1741, and died at Carlisle in the year 1824.
*MILLER, HENRY, was born in Reading, Berks county, Pa., December 18th, 1774, came to Manheim in 1803, where he carried on the hatting business. During life, being of a domestic, quiet disposition, he meddled little with public affairs. In 1826 the Federal party, to which he belonged, nominated him for a seat in the Legislature without his knowledge or consent. When apprised of it, he first declined ; after considerable persuasion, his friends succeeded in having him accept the nomination. He was elected and served the session of 1826-27. In 1827 he was again nominated for the same position. At this time parties Were closely divided between Democrats and Federals. General Jackson being nominated for President, strengthened the Democratic party considerably in the county, and he was this time defeated. He spent the remainder of his life in private, much respected in the community in which he was so well known. He died May 11th, 1847, aged 73 years, 7 months and 21 days.
*Contributed by Abraham Kauffman.
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MILLER, JOHN, a farmer of Manheim township, v,,as, elected County Commissioner in the year 1839. He was one of the early anti-slavery men of his district; a great friend of the free school system, when his township was opposed to it; and an advocate of the cause of temperance. He was one of the most devoted friends of Thaddeus Stevens ill the county. Besides agricultural pursuits, he latterly carried on the business of milling.
MILLER, MARTIN, was elected County Commissioner in the year 1843.
MILLER, TOBIAS H., was elected Recorder of Deeds in the year 1854.
MILES, COLONEL DAVID, is a native of Franklin county, Pa., born in 1831. In his youth he worked upon a farm, then learned the tin and sheet-iron business, which he followed till the breaking out of the rebellion. He went out as orderly sergeant of the Lancaster Fencibles in the three Months service, and after this term of duty had expired, he again marched as First Lieutenant of company B of the 69th regiment of Pennsylvania volunteers, under Captain Duchman. Upon the promotion of Captain Duchman to be Lieutenant Colonel of the regiment, Lieutenant Miles took his place as Captain, and afterwards succeeded him as Lieutenant Colonel when the former left the army. He participated in the battles of Perryville, Stone River and Chickamauga, in which last he was taken prisoner, and was detained as such in . Libby Prison, Richmond, at Macon, Georgia, and at Charleston, South Carolina. After being exchanged, he served in Sherman's famous march to the sea in command of a brigade, and fought in the battle of Bentonville, where he was wounded, besides many other minor engagements. He was discharged from service with the rank of Colonel by brevet. In 1866 he was nominated and elected register of wills of Lancaster county, the duties of which he discharged for three years.
MITCHELL, JAMES, was elected a member of the Legislature in the years 1729, 1744,1745 and 1746.
MOHLER, JOHN, was a member of the Legislature in the years 1801 and 1802.
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MOHLER, SAMUEL, was a member of the Legislature in the year 1827.
MONTGOMERY, JOHN R.,¹ was one of the ablest lawyers and finest pleaders that ever practiced at the Lancaster bar cotemporary, writing of him, says : " His mind was well schooled and disciplined in a knowledge of all of our political institutions, in the varied systems which prevail under the constitutions and legislation of the different States ; with a thorough knowledge of the adjudications of the national and State tribunals, and with all these qualifications he possessed, in an eminent degree, that untiring assiduity, energy and integrity which are necessary to discharge the high responsibilities that devolve upon the profession. In the inferior and in the superior courts, in every position in which he was placed in the profession, he displayed that legal learning that marked him as one of the ablest men of the State and nation." James Buchanan, in speaking of the case of Reichenbach vs. Reichenbach, which was the last in which he ever appeared as an attorney, and which had been prepared for trial by John R. Montgomery, said it was the best prepared case he had ever known. On another occasion he remarked to a legal friend, that "of all the lawyers he had ever encountered in the trial of a cause, John R. Montgomery seemed to him the weightiest." He died November 3d, 1854. The subject of our notice yet lives fresh in the memory of the members of the profession and people of Lancaster city and county, and throughout Pennsylvania; and whenever ability with oratory combined are being estimated, as to members of the Lancaster bar, amongst groups of legal gentlemen, a trio of brilliant names always associated are sure to be mentioned, those of John R. Montgomery, George Washington Barton and Washington Hopkins.
MONTGOMERY, JOSEPH; the father of John R. Montgomery, esq., was a member of the Legislature in the year
¹ When, in September, 18241 Gen. Lafayette visited Lancaster, John R. Montgomery engrossed much of his attention; and when he left Lancaster the latter escorted him in his carriage, drawn by match greys, as far as Port Deposit, Maryland. On their way they stopped at the Black Bear tavern, and at that place met with several of his old soldiers of the Revolution, and he shook hands with them for the last time.
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1782. He carried on the business of blacksmithing, and also farming. The following anecdote is told as regards him. Being a strict Presbyterian, his family had been in the habit of never preparing supper on Sunday. Having an Irishman as a journeyman blacksmith in his employ,.the latter Was told that it was the custom of the family to have no supper, as there was no work going on. The journeyman had been used to Sunday suppers, and, going out to the blacksmith shop, he began work hammering upon the anvil as usual. Mr. Montgomery going to the shop, asked the Irishman what all that meant, as he did not allow working on Sunday. The Irishman replied, that he had been told that he could get no supper unless he worked, and that he desired. The journey. man had no occasion further to begin working in order to get his Sunday supper.
MOORE, ANDREW, brother of John and Thomas Moore, came from Ireland in the year 1723, and settled near Sadsbury township, Lancaster county. He was a man of great piety, of indomitable courage and energy of character, and was in possession of considerable means. He purchased large tracts of lands lying on both sides of the Octoraro, and shortly after his arrival built the first mill in the southwest, near Penningtonville, Chester county, the old remains of which are yet visible. Although his own residence was on the Chester county side, yet his improvements extended into both counties. He erected another mill on the west side of the creek, and other substantial buildings, some of which are yet standing. He was chiefly instrumental in establishing the Friends' meeting-house, at " Old Sadsbury," in 1724, and his descendants stood at the head of the society for upwards of one hundred years.* He had seven sons and two daughters, all of whom reared families. His sons were James, David, John, Robert, Andrew, William and Joseph; and his daughter, Sarah, married to William Truman, and Rachel, the wife of John Truman. Andrew Moore lived to a very advanced age, and left sixty-seven grandchildren, several of whom attained to the age of 100 years. The only survivor among the grandchildren, is Phoebe Wicker-
*Retrospect of early Quakerism, by Dr. Michener.
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sham, who, in 1870, was in the 85th year of her age. Andrew and Isaac Moore, of Sadsbury, Lancaster county, and Henry Moore, of Chester county, are amongst his descendants, who. still own and occupy parts of the original purchases of land made by their early ancestor.
*MOORE, JAMES, son of Andrew Moore, was born in Ireland, 1716, and came over with his parents in 1723. He married Ann, daughter of Jeremiah and Rebecca Starr, about 1740. He was among the leading pioneers in the settlement of Sadsbury,¹ and was a very pious and worthy man. The old mill below Christiana was re-built by him, and he erected those substantial stone dwellings along the Octoraro which, together with the mill, have been standing in good condition for more than one hundred years. Most of the old improvements in that neighborhood were built by himself and his family. James Moore was a minister in the society of Friends, and labored greatly for the advance of truth and righteousness, not only among those of his own society, but amongst others.. He contributed largely for the purpose of erecting the present meeting-house at Sadsbury, about the year 1760, and afterwards bequeathed a large sum of money in care of the society, the interest of which was to be applied
¹ The first land purchased from the proprietors in Sadsbury township, and perhaps within the present limits of Lancaster county, is part of what is known at present as the "Pownall tract," lying west of the Octoraro, in the great valley about one mile south of Christiana, and containing about 300 acres. It was conveyed by William Penn to John Kennerly, of Shawangta, (or Shawanatown), and the deed bears the date of the year 1691. The deed is still retained in the Pownall family with the name of William Penn attached thereto. This tract was afterwards purchased from Kenuerly by Constantine Overton in the year 1796, and by him re-sold in the year 1708 to George Pierce, of Concord, Chester county. The latter, in company with Robert Pyle, was appointed by the quarterly meeting at Chester, to go down to Nottingham for the purpose of establishing a meeting there. Retrospect of Early Quakerism, p. 254. While at Nottingham he met with friends who expressed a desire to visit the Indians in the western parts of Chester county and at the Susquehanna, and he accompanied them. They traveled through the woods and were kindly received by the Indians at Conestoga.
At that time the Shawanese had wigwams along the banks of the.
*The sketches of the Moore Family were contributed by Isaac Walker, of Sadsbury.