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Thus, Henry Johnson, kidnapped by slave catchers, and rescued, was brought to the judge's residence for trial. The crowd and excitement were so great that the strong front door was forced from its hinges. As Johnson desired a lawyer, the case was adjourned to the court house, on the ensuing Saturday, when Judge Shaeffer assisted by taking down the testimony, and Mr. Stevens appeared for the defendant. The proof of identity, and that Johnson had run away from the claimant, was clear, and Mr. Stevens, :seemingly paralyzed, could only express suspicions of forgery, &c. Judge Grosh, also in deep distress, asked time for consideration. The claimant's lawyer, with much heat, exclaimed, " Why, judge, a plainer case could not come before you ;" when the judge interrupted him with, " I generally do my own thinking," and ordered the case adjourned till Monday, at 2 o'clock, p. m. Leaving the crowded court house he went to Hinkletown, where his wife was on a visit. On seeing him\ she cried out, "Good God ! what ails you? how wretched you look !" He told her all, and asked to be alone that he might think: He read the testimony again And again, and worried through the weary hours, till w ith Monday morning came a ray of hope. He reached Lancaster at noon, on Monday, and Judge Shaeffer almost leaped with joy as he related his plan. At 2 p. m. the court house was so full that the judges had to get in through a window. After the opening Judge Grosh asked the claimant's attorney, " Can a person be legally a slave, unless born in a slave State, and of a slave mother ?" " If a free woman were kidnapped and carried into slavery, would her progeny be legally slaves ?" The answers were, " Certainly not." " Then (said the judge) the case is clear. In all cases where freedom and slavery are at issue, all constructions, all doubts, must enure to the advantage of freedom. So I should charge a jury, so I must govern myself. I doubt whether Johnson's mother was a slave. I will adjourn the court for one week, if you claim that you can remove that doubt." A dead silence, no motion for such adjournment, and he proceeded, " No answer I I therefore decide that you, Henry Johnson, are a free man," &c. Shouts rent the air,
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and it was some time before order could be restored. Toward the close of his second term, by the amended constitution, the office became elective, and Judge Grosh declined candidacy.
In 1842 his wife was taken ill and lingered along, until he, too, was prostrated by a fever, from the delirium of which be awoke to find that his affectionate wife had died August 26th, 1842, aged 68 years. He next married Miss Leah Bushong, of Reamstown, in 1843. She died October 15th, 1847. A fifth marriage was entered into with Mrs. Sarah Albright, on May 24th, 1849, who survived him. The close of his long life was quiet and peaceful. The deaths of many children, grandchildren and friends often excited the wish, that " these young plants could have been spared, and the old, useless trunk been taken in their stead," but he did not repine at Providence. His two sons aided him in his business, and, with their families, cheered his lonely hours. His general health continued good, and his faculties active, for one of his years, until his last comparatively brief illness, which terminated his life on November 4th, 1860, in his 85th year. Judge Grosh, though of quick temper, never bore malice; and though he reared a large family of children and dependents, he never but once inflicted corporal punishment on any of them. Indeed, most of "his failings leaned to virtue's side ;" and many portions of his life furnish interesting examples to encourage the poor and erring amongst mankind.
GROSH, SAMUEL, a member of the Legislature in 1823.
GRUBB, HENRY, emigrated from Wales to Lancaster county at an early day. His son, Peter, obtained possession of the Cornwall ore banks, and built a furnace as early as 1725. The title of the property was confirmed to Peter Grubb by the proprietaries, in 1732. Peter Grubb died in 1745, leaving two sons, Curtis and Peter, the former inheriting two-thirds, and the latter one-third of the estate. The 1783 consisted of Cornwall furnace, the Hopewell forges, and Union forge, on the Swatara, at the foot of the Blue Mountains. Curtis Grubb was a member of the Pennsylvania Assembly for the years 1775, 1777, 1778 and 1782.
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He died in the year 1788. His son, Peter, was Colonel of the 8th battalion of Lancaster county militia. He was a member of the Legislature in the year 1784.
- H -
HAINES, HENRY, was born near Columbia, Lancaster county, Pa., December 8th, 1759. His parents being in very humble circumstances, he was apprenticed at an early age to the tailoring business, and his education was entirely neglected. All the little learning he acquired was picked up by him after his marriage, in a German night school. At the early age of eighteen he evinced, his patriotism by en. listing as a soldier in the revolutionary army, in which he bore his part heroically. He was chosen as one of the guards to the Hessian prisoners, captured at Trenton, and assisted in their removal to Lancaster. Afterwards he was attached to Col. Bole's command in his expedition up the Susquehanna to subdue the Indians. After the revolution he settled in Maytown, where he spent the balance of his useful and active life. In 1797 he was appointed a justice of the peace, the duties of which position he discharged for many years. Some time after this he was elected and commissioned a captain of militia by Governor Simon Snyder.. Being a warm and ardent Democrat, he was nominated and elected to the Legislature in 1804. He was reelected again in 1810, and also in 1811, serving his constituents with great satisfaction. In 1825 he was again elected, and also in 1828; but owing to ill health, was obliged to retire before the close of the session. The Anti-Masonic party,¹ about this time coming
¹ The political complexion of Lancaster county has, from an early period of its history, been moulded to a certain extent by the religious sentiments of the people. The bulk of the early settlers being nonresistants, a line of division soon manifested itself which never ceased to be visible. Even an earlier difference than this separated the German and Scotch-Irish elements of the county. This was the earliest line of distinction, and it was some generations before it disappeared. Before its disappearance the difficulties between the Quakers and Scotch-Irish arose, chiefly brought about by the Quaker policy of Pennsylvania with reference to the Indians within the State. The Scotch-Irish, being the
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onto power, and Mr. Haines being a man of wide influence, was tendered by this party the position of Senator if he would attach himself to the new. organization. So fixed, however, was he in the principles of Jefferson, that he spurned the offer with contempt. He never further took an active
frontier settlers, were about the time of the outbreak consequent upon the French and Indian war, and afterwards in the conspiracy of Pontiac, subjected to be the victims of the most inhuman murders and tortures of every description that can be conceived; and being so situated they implored the Governor and assembly of the province to remove the defence. Deaf ears were turned by an assembly, the majority of whom Indians that they were harboring, and also vote supplies for their were Quakers, and non-resistance their religious policy. Out of religious sympathy the Mennonites of Lancaster county, and other nonresistant sects sided with the Quakers against the Scotch-Irish. This was the first line of political distinction that divided the people of Lancaster County.
Upon the breaking out of the revolution the old division was not obliterated. As is well known, the Quakers, Mennonites, and other non-resistant sects felt averse to the war, because of religious scruples. They were stigmatized as Tories and adherents of the British crown. In nowise did they side with the British government, but their conscientious scruples would not allow them to favor any war, defensive or otherwise. They chose therefore to remain quiescent and participate with neither party in the struggle. Non-resistant sects are in all countries found loyal to the powers that be. They paid their taxes and assessments the same as other citizens, and followed the employment of their lives, farming. The Mennonites, in particular, were no politicians then, nor are they yet, such at least as remain truest to the faith of their fathers.
After the achievement of American independence the Quakers, Mennonites, and other nonresistants, still clinging together out of old sympathy, and feeling the necessity of aiding, as speedily as possible, in the solidification of a new government, gave their early and hearty adhesion to that party which favored the new constitution and the establishment of the Federal Union. Being of those classes that are ever averse to revolution and change in government, they were not slow to perceiive that the Federalists, in their view, was the party to which their adhesion should be given. Early, therefore, having attached themselves to this party, (and at a time, too, when the ablest men of the nation. were arrayed under its banners), it is in accordance with experience that they should remain faithful to their new allies, now become the representatives of the government. They thus early became and ed the devoted advocates of the party of their first choice throughout the changing phases of its history. In other German counties of Pennsylvania, the early settlers of which did not belong to non-resistant sects, a marked difference of political attitude has been observed. The people of Lancaster county, for the reasons stated,
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part in politics; but so steadfast was he in his principles, that at the age of 83, when blind and feeble in health, he coup not be induced to abstain from voting, inasmuch as he re. garded the liberty of his country as resting upon the free exercise of this invaluable privilege. He deposited what,
being the great majority of them of German non-resistant sects, early became members of the Federal party, and not giving that attention to politics as many others did, even the unpopular measures of John Adams were not sufficient to wean them from their early choice.
The large majority of men of position in the county, from the origin of the government, continued the advocates of the measures of this party. The great Democratic victory in Pennsylvania, which carried Thomas McKean into the gubernatorial chair in 1799, and which broke the strength of the Federal party, had none of its laurels in Lancaster county. His competitor carried the county by a considerable majority. Thus we find parties at this early period. Occasionally a Mennonite, or his descendant, gave his adhesion to the Democratic party, but the great bulk of them remained attached to the old opinions of their fathers. When the Federal party became more and more unpopular in public estimation, the non-resistant sects chiefly abstained from the polls, and the Democrats (then called Republicans), occasionally carried the day in the county. Thus, in 1802, 1803 and 1804, the Democrats carried the county by small majorities. In 1805 the Federals gained, and likewise the following year. In this manner elections somewhat alternated ; one year the Federals carrying the victory, and another their opponents. A marked feature is, that the Democrats never carried it by a large majority, as would occasionally the Federals, showing that Democratic success was rather to be attributed to the apathy of their opponents than to their own numbers. The Federals carried the county in 1814 by about 800 majority ; in 1815 by 650 ; In 1816 by 460, and in 1817 by 1,000 majority. About this time the financial bubble burst, and with it collapsed the Federal party. From that time up to 1828 the Democrats occasionally carried the county, or elected a part of their ticket. Andrew Jackson, ih 1828, carried the county for President by over 1,500 majority. But the movement, of all others, that made the county of Lancaster the strong citadel of Democratic opposition, was the Anti-Masonic crusade that took its rise from the abduction of Morgan, in New York State, in the year 1826. Morgan's abduction was seized hold of by politicians, and by the fall of 1828 a considerable party was already organized upon principles of opposition to the Masonic order. It was a very captivating question with which to make capital for a party. A jealousy always exists in the human mind against that which is exclusive, and towards secret societies this feeling is ever alive. Particularly amongst the people of the rural districts does this jealousy exist the strongest ; and with many religious bodies secret societies receive no favor. The Mennonites, Omish, and other such German sects, were not hard to be persuaded into a party that had for its object
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as be surmised, proved his last ballot, with the remark: “Let it be so, this may be my last vote and I must cast it. for may children's children." He died February 1st, 1842, highly esteemed and respected by all who knew him. He was a man of great firmness, purity of principle, and one
the overthrow of Masonry, and they therefore welcomed the crusade that was being preached against the murderers of Morgan and the advocates of the Masonic iniquity, as they regarded it.
An organ of the new party was started in June of the year 1828, at, New Holland, entitled the Anti-Masonic Herald, with Theo. Fenn an its editor. This sheet was widely circulated through the county, and the effect was tremendous. Quite a number of those who had hitherto acted with the Democratic party received the new paper, and became converts to the new cause. The party grew with great rapidity. The most of the German non-resistants warmly espoused the cause. In the election held in 1829, the Anti-Masonic party swept the country with a. considerable majority. From that time for several years Anti-Masonic principles in Lancaster county were in the ascendant. Masonry sank rapidly below par. No longer was a member of the Order free from insult, and they mostly ceased all connection with their lodges. These were closed one after another, and every lodge in the county remained closed for some years. Most of the rural lodges were never again reopened. Lecturers passed through the country detailing the horrors of Masonry ; exhibitions were given in which the different scenes of Masonic initiation were said to be represented upon the stage ; and almanacs, both English and German, were filled with cuts representing Masonry in the most ludicrous light. Feeling became more and more intense against the Order ; and he was a bold man, indeed, who any longer owned himself the member of an organization resting under such public odium. Most members of the Order denied that they were Masons, and it even become matter of insult to charge a man as being a Free Mason.
Jarvis F. Hanks, a Mason of ten years' standing, and eighteen degrees, from New York State, began on Monday, May 4th, 1830, holding exhibited first in Lancaster, and afterwards in Mt. Joy, Strasburg, New Holland, Manheim and other places. He carried with him tools, implements, robes &c., by which the better to illustrate the Masonic initiations. He charged twenty-five cents admittance to his exhibition. He represented himself as an artist by profession, a member of church in good standing, and an editor of the Investigator, an Anti-Masonic poor, blind candidates,” with a bandage over his eyes, and a rope around his neck; “neither naked nor clothed, barefooted nor shod,” His exhibitions purported to represent the oaths, mysteries and ceremonies of Free Masonry, and to display before the eyes of his audience the spectacles and workings of a Masonic Lodge. His exhibitions were numer-
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ever resolved to stand by what his conscience dictated as duty.
HALDEMAN FAMILY. In Rupp's History of Lan.. caster county, p. 397, a list of citizens is given who were chosen in 1775 as a Committee of Public Safety, in the
ously attended. In his exhibitions Hanks generally represented the first evening the Entered Apprentice and Master Mason's Degree ; the next evening the Royal Arch Degree, and on the third, the Templar Degree. At Mt. Joy he exhibited in the school-house ; but great Oppc, sition was made. to his exhibiting in the public building. He also exhibited to audiences of ladies the initiations into the Entered Appren. tice and Master Mason's Degree ; and at Mt. Joy a lady of standing received the " Heroine of Jericho," or lady degree. He exhibited to the ladies without compensation. These exhibitions were held all over the county, and were designed to bring the Masonic. Order into public contempt. Anti-Masonic papers were full of prospectuses and announce. ments of the publication of books and rituals exposing the secrets of Masonry. One writing in 1830 says : " The developments and exposures of Masonry have already thrown the institution into disgrace. Five years ago no one dared to speak against it, but now its members become angry if called Aasons, and publicly talk against it. No public parades are any more held, and no initiations are made into the Order. The Democratic party found itself obliged to exclude all Masons from its ticket."
Lancaster Lodge, No. 43, after being closed for a considerable time, was again opened, and members stealthily began to visit it in small ntimbers, few members of respect, for a long time, frequenting any of the meetings. Robert Moderwell, esq., Mayor Albright, and Dr. Geo. B. Kerfoot were amongst the most respected and influential Masons who helped to lift the Order again to respectability. In 1837 the meetings of the Lodge were small, and those who visited them sought access so as not to be seen by their neighbors. An odium hung over the Order even for years later, and it was not much before 1850 that Masons felt bold enough to hold their public processions as in times prior to the Anti-Masonic excitement. It soon became clear that the Anti-Masonic party could never become national, its strength being confined very generally
to the North. Although it had already lost its distinctive importance, the election of Ritner as Governor, in 1835, was regarded as an Anti-Masonic triumph. About this time, however, the Anti-Masonic party in Lancaster divided, a part calling themselves Whigs. Fromt his time Anti-Masonry continued to decline in the county until Stevens came to Lancaster from Adams county, in 1842, and attempted, but unsuccessfully, to revive it. The leading Anti-Masons were Amos Ellmaker, Isaac Burrowes, Thos.. H. Burrowes, Roland Diller and Samuel Parke. The
leaders who brought up the Whig party in Lancaster county. were Christopher Hager, John Shaeffer, John F. Long, Win. Gleim, Geo. W. Hamersly and Luther Richards.
OF LANCASTER COUNTY - 257
troubles which resulted in the war with England, and among numerous German names, that of Jacob Heman appears as one of three for Rapho township. To his grandson Henry Haldeman,¹ a similar trust was confided at Harrisburg during the so-called Buckshot War in 1838. Jacob Haldeman was was the father of John Haldeman, (1753-1832) of Locust Grove, near Bainbridge,² on the Susquehanna, who lived in the house now occupied by his grandson John (son of John B.) Haldeman, about two miles below Bainbridge. The elder John was married to Maria Breneman, and they brought up a large family, most of whom were sons, and became successful business men.³ After a prosperous career, John Haldeman and wife left their homestead to their oldest son, John B., (1779-1836) and retired to a life of leisure in Columbia. The large stone mill at Locust Grove (subsequently transferred to his fourth son, Henry), was built by him and bears the inscription.— ERBAUET BEI JOHN HALDEMAN AND MARIA HALDEMAN, 1790.
About the year 1795 he was a member of the State Legislature for two terms at Philadelphia, where he made the acquaintance of various distinguished men of the period. He was well informed, fond of reading, and a subscriber to works like Guthrie's Geography,' 2 vols. 4to. 1794, and The World Displayed,' 8 vols. 8vo. 1795, both of which he presented to S. S. Haldeman when a boy. These imparted a taste for geography and travel to the recipient, who in 1837, when engaged in the geological survey of the State in the vicinity of Hummelstown, remembered the exaggerated description in Guthrie, of the cave on the Swatara. Upon visiting it he discovered the main cave, (pre-
¹ Born in German Switzerland, October 7th, 1722; died December 3d, 1783. General Haldeman, a native of French Switzerland, and the first British. Governor of Canada, visited Lancaster county in 1773, and offered to adopt one of Jacob Haldeman's sons, as he had not a family
of his own. The celebrated scientific writer, Mrs. Marcett, was related to this family.
² This town was founded by his sons John B. and Henry Haldeman.
³ Particularly the second Jacob M. Haldeman, (1781-1857) of Harrisburg, whose son Jacob S. was Minister to Sweden in 1862, and another son, (Richard J.) is now (1872) a member of Congress from Cumberland county, Pennsylvania.
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viously unknown), by climbing to a small hole into which he crept, and found a descent where a rope was required to reach the floor. In the apartment thus entered for the first time, every delicate stalactite was perfect ; there was not a foot-print in the soft clay floor, and the bones of bats were the only signs of previous visiters.
HALDEMAN, S. S., was born at Locust Grove Mills in 1812; the oldest son of Henry Haldeman (1787-1849) and his wife Frances Steman, (1794-1826). The house of his parents was well supplied with books, a pair of globes, &c., which afforded indoor occupation. He went to the local schools until the age of thirteen, and as there was little or nothing required of him in the way of employment, his time in the vacations was spent in the use of tools, in the shops on the premises, in shooting, fishing, boating, trapping, riding and swimming, thereby securing a good constitution and founding habits of observation which were afterwards applied to the study of the sciences. Scott's beautiful map of Lancaster county (published about the year 1824), had great attractions for him, and taught him the local geography; and as a boy he studied natural history, wading in the Susquehanna for shells, collecting plants, and traversing the river shore for minerals, Indian arrowheads and stone axes. He formed a little museum on the loft of the carriage house, where among other things, he had rude anatomical preparations made from rabbits, possums, muskrats, and other animals ; and a traveling Methodist preacher taught him how to stuff birds. From his father's house an eagle's nest was visible, upon a large buttonwood, on an island a mile distant, and it was easy to observe the eagle chasing and robbing the fish-hawk, and to ascertain that when he cannot thus get fish, he will dive for them himself--a fact first put on record by Mr. Haldeman, who also published the fact that the peregrine falcon nests in rocks, as in Europe, and not in trees, as Wilson and others had supposed. He had in reality procured young ones from a nest in the cliff (Chickies Rock) which rises behind his present residence.
In the spring of 1826, when nearly fourteen years of age, Prof. Haldeman was sent to the Classical Academy of Dr.
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John M. Keagy,¹ Harrisburg, where he remained for two years, and then went to Dickinson College, Carlisle, where he was a student for two years more. Here he took lessons in French as an extra study, a language to which his attention had been turned by the grammar used by his mother when a pupil at Litiz and his taste for natural science was encouraged under Prof. H. D. Rogers, subsequently the distinguished geologist. Preferring to direct his own studies, he returned home at the age of eighteen, and while occasionally assisting his father in the saw-milling business at Chickies, he continued his studies and gradually accumulated cabinets of geology, conchology and entomology, and a scientific and linguistic library.
In 1835 he published his first communication of a scientific character in the Lancaster Journal, being a refutation of Locke's "Moon Hoax," in which it was pretended that with a telescope
twenty-four feet in diameter, animals had been observed in the moon.² At this period he was interested in education, and was ready to lecture before lyceums, which came into vogue about that time ; and subsequently before educational conventions, on scientific and linguistic subjects, taking care to expose the scientific errors which are so often present in educational literature. To one of these books he devoted an entire pamphlet, (' Notes on Wilson's Readers'), of which the revised edition has the date of 1870. When editing the Farm Journal,' (1851, p. 2 and 66,) he ridiculed the Paine Light;' and when spirit rappings'
¹ See Mombert's History of Lancaster county, 1869, p. 398.
² The following paragraph will give an idea of this refutation: " The magnifying power of the new telescope is said to be 42,000 times, and capableof distinguishing objects of a few inches in diameter on the lunar surface. Now this power is much too great for an instrument twenty-four feet in diameter, and still not great enough to distinguish objects of eighteen inches. The unassisted eye, when viewing the moon, can distinguish a spot of about seventy miles, and of course with a telescope magnifying seventy times, one mile of lunar surface would just be visible. According to the rule for calculating the power of tele-s,copes, it would require a magnifying power of 37,000 to distinguish !en feet of lunar surface, and a lens to produce this power could not be less than sixty feet in diameter, with a focal distance of three hundred feet.
From this, we may judge to what an extent the powers of a twenty-four foot diameter telescope have been overrated."
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came up, they received like attention. On one occasion. a a .speaker spoke of the sciences as leading to skepticism, when he replied, that if it had not been for physical science we would probably have been executing witches to this day.
In 1835 Prof. Haldeman married Miss Mary A. Hough, and removed to the residence which they still occupy, at Chickies, where he was subsequently joined by his brothers, Dr. Edwin Haldeman and Paris Haldeman, in the iron business. In this connection he published a gaper, in 1848, on the construction of blast furnaces ; in 1855 he edited the :second edition of Taylor's "Statistics of Coal," and for many years he has been an officer of the State Agricultural So. eiety. In 1841 his " Freshwater Univalve Mollusca " of the United States was commenced, a work which had. no superior &n the style and finish of its plates.' About the period of 1855-8 he was professor . of agricultural chemistry and geology in Delaware College, confining his course to several months of each year, without residing permanently at the college. His paper " On Species and their Distribution," (1851), opened a question which has been more recently developed into what is now called Darwinism, and Darwin himself makes favorable mention of this article in his later editions.
As language is a characteristic of mankind, his attention was drawn to it as an aid to ethnology ; he studied it as a natural science, and the first result was his " Elements of Latin Pronunciation," (1851), in which the attempt is made to ascertain the ancient pronunciation. 2 Professor Haldeman subsequently lectured on the " Mechanism of Speech"
¹ The original shells figured have been presented to the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia ; and those of the continuation, published in Paris, were given to the celebrated Delessert-Lamarck collection in that city.
² That philosophical talent and tact so essential for investigations in natural science, which he is well known eminently to possess, he has here brought to bear on the elements of the Latin language with peculiar success. His conclusions, we fancy, are generally, if not always, correct, as they are founded on philosophical principles, having been drawn from various reliable materials, both ancient and modern, in a manner almost as satisfactory and as safely to be trusted as the deductions of mathematics.--Mercersburg Review, March, 1852.
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before the Smithsonian Institution, and in 1858 his " Tre-yeiyan Prize Essay " was successful in England, against six-This essay was published in 1860, by J. B. Lippincott & Co., and it contains specimens of about. Co., Philadelphia, under the title of " Ana-seventy languages and dialects, as heard from the lips of the natives themselves. In 1865 his Affixes to English Words'. appeared,
which claims to be the key to the analysis of 100,000 ,words¹ and in the Southern Review (Baltimore,. July, 1869), he has an article on American Dictionaries.²
Of late years the advance of learning has required an increase of professors in the large colleges, and among these the University of Pennsylvania stands in the front rank, its location in a large city like Philadelphia affording facilities for getting instructors in the various sciences. The last professorship added to the list in' this institution, was that of Comparative Philology, in 1870, to which Prof. Haldeman was elected. Studying language as a natural science, and simultaneously with it, he often gives definite information upon points which his predecessors had attributed to accident' or euphony ;' and studying the vocal elements of many languages by ear, he ascertained, for example, that a certain sound of Arabic and Hebrew occurs in Wyandot, another in Esquimaux, while another is common to Cherokee and Welsh. It is obvious that to ascertain such facts, the same person must hear the sounds compared, and. from native speakers. Comanche was thus heard in Washington, Ha, waian at Liverpool, and from Queen Emma in London, Gud-jerati from a Parsee in Paris, and thellanguage of the Tonga Islands, and Coordish, at the missionary college of the Propaganda at Rome, at which many languages are spoken.
At school and in college the subject of this notice was an
¹ Mr Haldeman has compressed in an elegantly printed octavo volume,* * a collection more rational, complete, and exhaustive of the component parts of our language, than we have had any good right to hope for within the present century; * * a most practical, useful work * * absolutely indispensable to systematic and thorough students of language. —Contemporary Review, London, July, 1867.
² It is a learned and exhaustive examination of the respective merits and demerits of Worcester's and Webster's dictionaries.—Trubner’s Literary Record, London, September, 1869.
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average student, acquiring knowledge slowly; and had he remained to graduate, he would probably not have taken any of the honors. His success is to be attributed to facility in determining the proper line of inquiry, caution in adopting results, and persistent industry in research; traveling to observe, but living the life of a hermit when working up his materials, and thus producing a series of from eighty to one hundred communications in the scientific journals, causing Dr. Hitchcock, the distinguished geologist, to express surprise that he should "find time to make and bring out so many new discoveries." As work produces fatigue, rest is required, and as rest may be secured in a change of study, the " Tours of a Chess Knight," (1864, illustrated with 114 figures) was the result of such a change.
Acknowledgments for his aid, or for suggestions, are given in various American works of science, such as Lynch's Dead Sea Expedition; and he has been honored with membership in a number of learned societies, American and foreign. One of his latest labors has been an essay on that curious dialect of German spoken among us, and called " Pennsylvania Dutch," which he was requested to prepare for the Philological Society of London, and which is now in their hands.
HAMBRIGHT, GEN. HENRY, was a member of the Legislature in the years 1813, 1814, 1816, and 1817.
HAMBRIGHT, GEORGE, elected sheriff of Lancaster county in 1815.
HAMBRIGHT, HENRY A., now Major of the 19th United States Infantry, brevet Colonel United States army, and brevet Brigadier General United States Volunteers during the late rebellion, was born at Lancaster, Pa., on the 24th day of March, 1819, and was the third son of Major Frederick Hambright and Elizabeth Shaeffer, his wife. The family of Hambrights were always fond of military life; in fact they were natural born soldiers; his father and uncle,. Col. George Hambright, both of whom were highly popular men, not only served as captains of our old-time volunteer companies, but during the war of 1812-14 marched to the battle-field-and defended their country. The father of Henry A. Ham-
OF LANCASTER COUNTY - 263
bright was Major-General of the militia of Lancaster county, and was a soldier in reality. Henry A. Hambright, after commanding a fine and spirited volunteer company, (as his father and uncle had done before him), in which he had served under his father as second sergeant, no sooner heard served of the declaration of war between the United States and Mexico, in 1846, than he volunteered and entered into the service of his country. His company had been previously twice called upon by the then Governor of Pennsylvania, David R. Porter, and marched to Philadelphia to quell die riots there taking place, and it rendered efficient service. He early felt the necessity of learning the " school of the soldier," and the efficiency of discipline. Giving proper attention thereto, he became a good soldier, and marched as First Lieutenant of a company in the 2d regiment of Pennsylvania volunteers, commanded by Colonel William B. Roberts, to the Mexican war. He served throughout the whole war in the valley of Mexico, from Vera Cruz to the City of Mexico, and was consequently present in the battles of Cerro Gordo, La Hoya-, Contreras, Cherubusco, Molino del Rey, Chepultepec; Belen Gate, and the taking of the City of Mexico. After his return with the regiment to the United States, which was mustered out of service at Pittsburg in 1848, he resumed his business as a contractor on public works, and afterwards was an efficient officer on the Pennsylvania Central Railroad, stationed at Lancaster.
It was in this capacity that he was serving when the rebellion became a "fixed fact," and having reorganized his old volunteer company, the " Jackson Riflemen," and tendered its services with his own to the Governor of Pennsylvania, was received and marched to Harrisburg. He was
mustered into service-in the 1st Pennsylvania volunteers, under Colonel Samuel Yohe, for three months, and participated in all the actions of the campaign under Gen. Robert Patterson. On the discharge of this three months' regiment, immediately raised a new regiment and offered its services to the government to serve for three years, which offer was accepted, provided he had it ready for service in thirty days, and to report to the Adjutant General, U. S. A., at Wash-
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ington city. This order was promptly complied with, after a short extension of time. The regiment proceeded to Pitts. burg, and was organized October 18th, 1861, with its fun complement of officers and men, and a fine regimental band. It was afterwards known throughout the whole war, as the gallant and efficient 79th Pennsylvania regiment, and Col. Hambright continued in its command until it was finally mustered out of service at the conclusion of the war. ou the 7th day of June, 1865, "for meritorious services in the field," he was commissioned by the President " brevet Brig. adier General of volunteers." While serving in the three months' service as Captain,. he received the commission of Captain in the 11t.h regiment United States Infantry, of the regular army ; 'this appointment he accepted ; but his higher temporary rank as Colonel of a brave regiment of volunteers where he was doing his whole duty, at times being in command of a brigade, kept him in full employment, and he continued in comihand as Colonel of the 79th, and brevet Brigadier General in the army of the Ohio, and that of the Cumberland, and formed part of Sherman's grand corps in the celebrated march to the sea: Under all circumstances he brought into service those active and energetic powers with which he was naturally gifted, and participated in all the actions and battles of the campaigns under Generals Buel, Rose-crans, George H. Thomas, Sherman and other commanders, which.ended the war ; eliciting from them all high commendations.
Colonel Hambright, since the close of the war, has served in Texas and other parts of the south, and is at present commanding officer at Fort Jackson, Louisiana, together with Fort St. Philip, lying adjacent thereto on the other bank of the Mississippi river, near its mouth. He is an honor to the army and a credit to his native State. His actions and meritorious conduct speak for themselves, and need no eulogy.
HAMBRIGHT, MAJOR FREDERICK, son of John and Susanna Hambright, was born at Lancaster, Penna., November 22d, 1786. Early in life he displayed a taste for military affairs, and in 1810 became a member of the Lancaster
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Phalanx. As fourth corporal of this company he marched to Elkton, Md., in 1813, under Captain James Humes. In 1814, when Baltimore was threatened with destruction and by the British, the Phalanx again mustered for the defence, and on this occasion the subject of this notice accompanied it in the capacity of ensign. The company was now under the command of his brother, George Ham-bright. After going into camp for three months the Pennsylvania troops were discharged, and returned to their respective homes. In the year 1815 Mr. Eambright was elected captain of the Phalanx, a position he held up to 1838, when the company disbanded. During the aforementioned period he had several times been elected major of a battalion, composed of different volunteer companies of Lancaster county, in which position he was highly esteemed and gave very general satisfaction.
In the year 1839, at the request of the " Jackson Riflemen," a very spirited company, composed chiefly of young men, he became their captain, and many new names having been added to the roll, he commenced a series of instructions that made it one of the best military companies in that branch of the service anywhere to be found. In 1840 he marched his company to Camp Wayne, Pa., and at the request of a regiment there assembled, composed of volunteers from various sections of the State, among which was his own company, he assumed the command. In July, 1841, Captain Hambright was called upon by a committee from York, Pennsylvania, to take command of all the volunteers to assemble at Call") Lafayette, in the following month; he accepted and marched to York with his riflemen, on the 23d of August, and organized the brigade. This is said to have been one of the handsomest displays of volunteers ever
witnessed in Pennsylvania, and gave Capt. Hambright great credit for the discipline of the entire command. He won golden opinions from all assembled, as he, on this occasion, a knowledge of military affairs inferior to none, and ranked himself as a commanding officer of rare military attainments. He continued in command of the Riflemen til 1846, when they disbanded their organization.
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On the 4th of July, 1842, he was elected Major Gcuel'al of the 4th division of the Pennsylvania Militia by the officers thereof. In the year 1824 Major Hambright marched two companies—the "Lancaster Phalanx" and the " City Guards), by invitation, to participate in the reception of the nation's guest, General La Fayette, on his arrival in this country, This, at that time, was one of the most brilliant receptions witnessed in the United States. Major Hambright also marched a command to Philadelphia on two several occasions when riots were taking place in that city, in obedience to the call of David R. Porter, Governor of the . corn/non. wealth. On those occasions Major Hambright was the re. cipient of much applause for the high state of discipline which his command exhibited, and for the very efficient services which he so cheerfully rendered. As a civilian, Major Hambright held a prominent and influential position amongst his fellow-citizens. In the fall of 1821 he was elected High Sheriff of Lancaster county, an office previously filled by his brother, Col. George Hambright. As an evidence of the esteem in which he was held by the people, upon the termination of his office of Sheriff he was elected a member of the State Senate of Pennsylvania, the duties of which he discharged honestly and faithfully. About twenty years ago he removed to Allegheny, where he resided up to the time of his death, which took place March 17th, 1872, at the residence of his daughter, Mrs. Charlotte Kennedy, in the 86th year of his age.
As a testimony of the regard in which Major Hambright was held by those under his command, the following certificates are appended, one signed by the officers of the " Lancaster Phalanx" which he so long commanded, and the other signed by the Lancaster city Battalion.
"I, Peter Reed, jr., First Lieutenant of the Lancaster Phalanx, a volunteer corps belonging to the city battalion of volunteers in the 1st Brigade, 4th Division, Pennsylvania militia, do certify that Major Frederick Hambright became a member of said corps at the organization, on the 18th day of July, 1810 ; and in the year 1813, when the said, corps marched to Elkton, in the late war, he was appointed a corporal; in the year 1814, when said, company marched to the defence of Baltimore, he was elected ensign in the corps ; in 1815 he was elected captain, which command he still holds.; and in the various duties of private,
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officer and commander, for twenty-five years, his conduct has been that q gentleman, a soldier and a patriot, alike anxious for the honor of leis corps and . the welfare and prosperity of the strong arm of our country's defence, the volunteer system.
Given under our hand this 4th day of May, A. D. 1835.
PETER REED, Jr.,
1st Lieut. Lancaster Phalanx.
We, the undersigned officers of the. Lancaster city battalion of volunteers, in the 1st Brigade, 4th Division, P. M., do hereby certify that Major Frederick Hambright was elected and commissioned Major commanding said battalion on the 12th day of May, A. D. 1826, which command he yet holds, and has conducted himself as an active disciplinarian, vigilant officer, and honorable gentleman, beloved and respected by his soldiers, and enjoying their highest confidence as a gallant commander, ever ready to defend the rights of freedom and the welfare and glory of his country.
Given under our hands this 4th day of May, A. D. 1835.
CHARLES NAUMAN, Adjutant.
JOHN LEONARD, Surgeon.
JACOB KAUFMAN, Quartermaster.
HENRY PINKERTON, Captain City Guards.
GEORGE HAUGHMAN, Captain Jackson Riflemen.
PETER REED, JR., 1st Lieut. Lancaster Phalanx.
CHAS. NAUMAN, 1st Lieut. City Guards.
MICHAEL TRISSLER, 1st Lieut. Jackson Riflemen.
PHILIP PYLE, 2d Lieut. Lancaster Phalanx.
JACOB FOLTZ, 2d Lieut. City Guards.
GEORGE EAGLES, 2d Lieut. Jackson Riflemen.
HAMILTON, JAMES, a member of the Legislature in 1734, 1735, 1736, 1737 and 1738.
HAMILTON, JOHN, elected State Senator in 1825.
HAMILTON, WILLIAM, was born in the city of Philadelphia, and learned the business of printing in the office of Benj: F. Bache. In the winter of. 1794-5 he came to Lancaster, and entered into partnership with Henry Wilcox to Publish the Lancaster Journal, a newspaper which the latter had started. The partnership was not of long duration. Hamilton purchased the interest of his partner, and published the Journal from June, 1796. He continued its publication until 1820, when he sold out his interest to Huss & Brenner. Boring the year 1796 Hamilton favored the election of Thomas Jefferson for the next President, and so strongly that he alienated certain Federal leaders from him, and they
268 - BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY
withdrew their support from the paper. Among those who did so, were Robert Coleman and Charles Smith, esq.paper had ostensibly set out in its publication as a neutral in politics, but by 1799 it donned the full Federal uniform, and continued to wear this garb as long as Hamilton eontrolled it. He was elected a member of the Legislature iu 1810 and 1811, and a State Senator in 1812. Hamilton wag captain of a rifle company, raised in 1814, in Lancaster, and he marched with his company to Baltimore on the 3d of September, 1814. He was elected Treasurer of Lancaster upwards of $20,000, and his securities became resp county, in the year 1816, and twice reelected, in 1817 and 1818. He became a defaulter to a large amount of money, therefore. His securities were Geo. Musser, Wm. Cooper, and John Bomberger. The securities paid the interest on the defalcation debt for some years, and finally the County Commissioners exonerated them from the debt. Hamilton, after his failure, became so distressed in mind that he was believed by many to have become insane, and he was removed to jhe almshouse, where he died April 10th, 1820, in the 49th year of his age.
HAMILTON, WILLIAM, elected a member of the Legislature in 1855 and 1856. In 1860 he was elected to the State Senate.
HAMAKER, DANIEL, elected a member of the Legislature in 1829 and 1830.
HAND, GENERAL EDWARD, was born December 31st, 1744, at Clydaff, Kings county, province of Leinster, Ireland. He received in 1807 the appointment of surgeon's mate, or surgeon to the 18th Royal Irish regiment of foot, and sailed with the regiment from Cork, May 20th, 1767. He arrived at Philadelphia, July 11th. He was ensign of the same regiment, his commission bearing date in 1772. He went with the 18th regiment to Fort Pitt, and returned to Philadelphia in 1774, resigning his commission and receiving a regular discharge from the British service. In the same year he came with recommendations to Lancaster, in order to practice, his profession. The following year he married. In 1775 he entered the Continental service, his first commission bear-
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ing date in June of that year. In 1777 he was chosen colonel of the 1st regiment of Pennsylvania riflemen, one famous for its exploits during the Revolution. He was raised to the grade of Brigadier General and subsequently to that of Adjutant General. He was the Adjutant General at the battle of Yorktown, and marched with his troops back to Philadelphia, where they were dismissed. Upon the close of the war he resumed the practice of medicine in Lancaster. In 1798 he was appointed Major. General in the Provisional army. In 1785 he was elected a member of the Pennsylvania House of Representatives. In 1789 he was a delegate from Lancaster county to the Convention that amended the first State Constitution. He was a member of the Continental Congress in 1784 and 1785. In politics he was a Federalist. He died September 3rd, 1802, in the 58th year of his age. As a citizen he was highly esteemed, and as a physician greatly sought after and beloved, especially by the poor, to whom he was in the habit of rendering his services gratuitously.
HARBAUGH, REV. HENRY, an American clergyman and author, was born in Franklin county, Pa., October 28th, 1817. His great grandfather emigrated from Switzerland about the year 1736. His father was a farmer, and the subject of this notice spent his youth working on the farm until the 19th year of his age. Being very fond of reading, he was in the habit of saving all the spare money he could, and therewith buying himself books. In 1836 he started west, with the design of learning the carpentering trade. He followed this occupation for some time, still using his spare moments in reading. For three years he taught school in Winter and went to an academy in summer ; and in-the year 1840 he entered Marshall College, at Mercersburg, and at the same time read divinity in the Theological Seminary at the same place. He was licensed and ordained in 1843, and became pastor of the German Reformed congregation in Lewisburg, Pa., still continuing his literary studies with unabated interest. In 1848 he published "Heaven, or an Earnest and Scriptural Inquiry into the Abode of the Sainted Dead.” This work was well received, and has passed through
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numerous editions. In January, 1850, he commenced the publication of the Guardian, a monthly magazine, still continued. In 1850 he received a call from the First German Reformed church of Lancaster, which he accepted and entered upon his duties April 1st, 1850. Being a strong advocate of total abstinence, and having in his congregation a few liquor dealers and many more who did not disapprove of the moderate use of intoxicating drinks, considerable op. position soon manifested itself against him. He, however, overpowered the opposition, the Consistory sustaining him, The congregation, through his instrumentality and influence, began in 1852 the erection of a new church, which was completed in 1854. A committee of the Eastern Synod having recommended for the use of the Reformed church a provisional liturgy, Mr. Harbaugh gradually and cautiously introduced it during the morning service, without exacting the
responses from the congregation ; but even this partial leaning to what was termed " high churchism," created decided dissatisfaction. An attempt made shortly after to define the limits of membership, and admonish irregular members, created further trouble. Several of the members slackened their attendance, or ceased attending church altogether. The secret of opposition was their dislike to the liturgy, and this continued to increase until it culminated one Sunday morning in the Consistory locking him out of the church. For this offence they were arraigned before Classis, deposed from office, and suspended from the benefits of communion. This led to another secession of twenty or thirty members, most of whom connected themselves with St.. Paul's churoh. He still continued to serve the balance of the congregation until September, 1860, when he resigned. He accepted a call from St. John's church, Lebanon, where he served for three years, and was then elected Professor of Theology in the Seminary at Mercersburg, Pa., which position he held at the time of his death, December 28th, 1867. In 1851 he published " The Heavenly Recognition, or an Earnest and Scrip" tural Discussion of the Question, Will we know our Friends in Heaven." In 1853 he published "The Heavenly Home, or the Enjoyments of the Saints in Heaven." In 1854 he
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published " The Birds of the Bible." In 1857 appeared his fe of Michael Schlatter, and in 1857-58 the "Fathers of the German Reformed Church in Europe and America," in 3 volumes. Shortly after this he issued " The True Glory of Woman, as portrayed in the Beautiful Life of the Virgin
“Mary." He is also the author of " Union with the Church," and the "Plea for the Lord's Portion of a Christian's Wealth, in Life by Gift, in Death by Will." Dr. Harbaugh deservedly ranks as a man of high order of intellect. As a clergyman, he spoke with considerable force, being solid, weighty and emphatic in his delivery. As an author, his works give evidence of great industry, rather than profundity. His writings are chiefly of the popular order. He no doubt possessed the ability to become a theologian of eminence, but perhaps it may be suggested that his attention was too much dissipated in the collection of his material for and in the writing of his histories to allow him to bestow such attention upon theological questions as would have rendered him profound. Asa poet, he showed some ability in the Pennsylvania German, his native vernacular.
HARTMAN, DAVID, was elected Sheriff of Lancaster county in 1845.
HARTMAN, JOSEPH, elected Commissioner in 1837.
HAVERSTICK, GEORGE, elected Commissioner in 1828.
HAWTHORNE, GEO. C., elected Register in 1860.
HAWTHORNE, SAMUEL, a member of the Legislature in 1829 and 1830.
HAYES, ALEXANDER L., was born in Kent county, in the State of Delaware. He was educated in the Southern Boarding School, in Smyrna, afterwards studied in the Newark Academy, and graduated at Dickinson College, Carlisle, in 1812. He began the study of law in the office of Hon. Henry M. Ridgely, of Dover, where he continued to read for three years, the period prescribed for law students in that State, and was then admitted to the Delaware bar. He commenced the practice of the profession in Dover, but afterwards removed to Philadelphia, and was admitted as a Practitioner before the District Court, Court of Common
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Pleas, and the Supreme Court, in 1820. After practicing his profession for about a year in Philadelphia, he moved to the city of Reading, Pa., where he practiced the profession for about six years. While a resident of Reading he married a daughter of Galbraith Patterson, esq., of Mifflin county, Pa. In June, 1827, he was appointed by Governor Shultz, Associate Judge of the District Court of the counties of York and Lancaster, Judge Bradford being President of the court. He discharged the duties of the office of associate judge for about seven years, when the district of which this court was composed was divided, and a separate district court was formed out of the county of Lancaster. Upon the recommendation of the members of the Lancaster bar, he was, in 1833, appointed by Governor Wolf, president of this court.¹ Judge Hayes held this position by subsequent re-appointments, until 1849, when he resigned the presidency of this court and resumed the practice of the profession. It was not long after this that he became warmly interested in the enterprise, then first beginning to be discussed, of establishing a cotton mill in the city of Lancaster. He was among the first who subscribed money for the new project, and was selected by the stockholders to draft the first articles of the association. He was after wards selected by the stockholders as one of a committee of five, (Christopher Hager and David Longenecker being part of the number), who should visit the New England States, and make themselves acquainted with cotton manufacture in that section of the Union, and report upon the feasibility of the contemplated enterprise; and if, in the judgment of the committee, the establishment of such a branch of manufacture would seem warranted, then to secure the services of an architect, who should cause the erection of a first-class cotton mill in the city of Lancaster. This committee visited, in 1845, Boston, Newburyport, Lowell, Saco, in Maine, and the principal cotton manufacturing towns of New England. Upon returning, the committee reported in favor of the projected enterprise, which report was unanimously adopted by the
¹ The District Court of Lancaster was presided over by one judge alone, and he was entitled the president judge of the district court.
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stockholders, and they proceeded immediately to erect cotton mill No. 1, in the city of Lancaster. The report submitted by the committee that had visited the Eastern States, was framed by the subject of our notice, and evinces the great care and observation brought into requisition in the preparation of this document.
Judge Hayes was solicited to become one of the five managers who should superintend the affairs of the new corporation, but declined for want of sufficient time to do justice to the duties of the position. In 1846 or 1847, in consequence of the declination of John N. Lane, one of the five managers, he was again solicited to accept the vacant position, to which at length, with reluctance, he gave his assent, and was thereupon elected to this vacancy, and continued to hold the same until 1854. During this time he was elected general agent of the company, and upon the resignation of Mr. Hager, as president of the board of managers, was chosen President of the said board. In the meantime the company had erected two other cotton mills near the site of the first one, and were employing eight hundred hands in the mills, and running between seven and eight hundred spindles. In 1854 the Legislature having created an associate law judge of the court of common pleas of Lancaster county, Judge Hayes was elected to fill the said position so established, and thereupon resigned his position in the cotton mill company. The duties of this position he continued to discharge up to 1864, a period of ten years, when he was again relected to a second term of the said office, which position he yet continues to fill.
HEINITZSCH, CARL HEINRICH, is the earliest settler of the Heinitshst family in Lancaster. He emigrated from Leipsic, in Saxony, in the winter of 1781, and located in and established the first drug store west of the Schuylkill. The business thus established by him has been carried on by his son, and is still continued by his grandson, Charles A. Heinitsh. He died in 1803, and lies buried in the burying ground of the Trinity Lutheran church.
HEITLER, RICHARD R., appointed Register in 1839.
HENDERSON, JAS., a member of the Legislature in 1839.
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HENDERSON, MATHEW, was born about 1770, in Sans. bury township, where his parents resided. He was of Scotch-Irish descent. His grandfather, Thomas Henderson, emigrated from Ireland about the year 1727. The subject, of this notice having received a classical education, studied medicine and practiced his profession for many years with fine success. In 1820 he was elected a member of the Penn. sylvania House of Representatives, and in 1821 reelected. In 1822 he was elected a member of the State Senate. After the expiration of his legislative career he retired from the practice of his profession and lived upon his farm. He died about the year 1830.
HENDRICKSON, GEORGE R., son of Okey Hendrickson, was born June 2d, 1826. After receiving an education he taught school for a number of years. In the autumn of 1851 he was nominated and elected Clerk of quarter sessions and oyer and terminer, and discharged the duties of that office in person for three years. He was the last clerk in the old court house, in Centre Square, and the first in the new one, and officiated at the court when held at Fulton Hall. He was, during the rebellion, elected quartermaster sergeant to Company F, of the 15th regiment Pennsylvania three months' volunteers. He was, in 1868, elected a justice of peace.
HENDRICKSON, OBEY, a descendant of a Dutch-Swede family, emigrated from New York to Lancaster county about the year 1815. He was a man of unusual enterprise and public spirit for his time. He was instrumental in the establishment of a post-office in Mount Joy, and was appointed the first postmaster, which position he held for many years under different administrations, until 1837, when on account of the active "support he gave the Anti-Masopic party, he was succeeded by a Democrat. He was re-appointed to the same position in 1841, under President Harrison, with whom he enjoyed a personal acquaintance, and whom he had entertained in his house, but died before entering on the duties of the office. Olit of respect for his memory, the appointment was promptly conferred upon James, his oldest son. The project of a railroad, connecting
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Lancaster with the State Capital, originated in the town of Mount Joy; and Okey Hendrickson, who was one of the incorporators, was influential, in concert with Jacob Rohrer, esq., Dr. Simon Meredith, Abraham Harnley, Henry Musselman, and Samuel Smith Patterson, in procuring a charter for the road, and the capital for its construction.
*HENRY, JOHN JOSEPH, was born November 4th, 1758, at Lancaster, Pennsylvania. He was apprenticed by his father, Wm. Henry, at the age of 14, to an uncle, who was a gunsmith, then a resident of Lancaster, but who after some time removed to Detroit, taking his nephew, John Joseph, with him. At that place his stay was but short, on account of the scarcity of business. He returned on foot with a single guide, who died in the wilderness which lay between Detroit and his home. It was here that hardships and misfortune first were felt, and which were his future companions during a length of years. Young Henry returned to his parents and home, dissatisfied with the employment a judicious father bad pointed out for him to gain a future subsistence. His arduous mind panted after military glory ; the troubles of his country, which was then making vigorous and ultimately successful struggles for a total emancipation from slavery, wrought strongly upon one, the acme of whose hopes and wishes was to be one of those who contended most for freedom. In the fall of 1775 he clandestinely joined a regiment, raised in Lancaster county, for the purpose of joining Arnold, who at that time was stationed at Boston. After enduring all the fatigues of a veteran soldier they entered Canada on his birthday, he being
then but 17 years of age. He endured hardships here which he has enumerated in his history of the campaign against Quebec. It was in prison, where he lay for nine months, that he contracted a disease, (the scurvy), which at that time did not make its appearance ; but six weeks afterwards, on his return home, at a time when least expected, it made its appearance under its most malignant form ; it was at a time when it became a duty for him to continue in the army. A captaincy had been procured for him in the Virginia line,
*History of the Campaign against Quebec.
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and a lieutenancy in that of Pennsylvania. He had designed to accept of, a command under the hero, Gen. Morgan, that of captain, but the disposer of all events arrested his career, and instead of his fond expectations being accomplished, all his hopes were blasted, his high prospects thwarted, and his life became a dreary blank, by the order of that Omnipotence which furnished him with the fortitude which enabled him through all his misery to kiss the rod that chastised him. It was after two years' continuance on the couch of sickness, that his leg, which was the unfortunate cause of his illness, began. to heal, and renovated health gave brighter hopes fc. him.
His lameness precluded all possibility of his again enter. log the army. He had, however, by a disregard of parental authority, at least so far as concerned his trade, forfeited his claim to his father's exertions to place him in such a situation, such as would make him capable of rendering himself useful to, society. A vigorous effort on his part was necessary resolution was not wanting ; it was made. He bound himself an apprentice to John Hubley, esq., Prothonotary of the county of Lancaster, as a clerk in the office for four years ; he pursued his business with the closest application, and discharged the duties of that office with unabated care and strictness, and when the labors of the day was over his nights were consumed in study, endeavoring to make up in_ some measure for the neglect that his education had suffered by his becoming a soldier. His frame, still somewhat debilitated by his illness, was not capable of sustaining the fatigues of office, his health suffered much from labor so severe and application so intense. The time of his indenture having expired, he commenced the study of law under Stephen Chambers,. esq. Here he became acquainted with his future companion in life, the youngest sister of Mr. Chambers. He was admitted to the bar in 1785, and began the practice of his profession, which he continued to pursue until 1793, when he. was appointed by Governor Main President of the second judicial district of Pennsylvania.
A number of years had now elapsed, and his family Was large. By an unfortunate removal to a district, at a sickly
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period, he was attacked by the gout, which from inexperience, old owing to his having no knowledge as to the consequences that would necessarily ensue, he did not take proper precaution so as to thwart the disease. Under that deceptious name, numerous disorders invaded his frame, and at times with so much severity that he was necessitated to continue at home, and he was thus prevented from executing his official duties as a judge. It was during some long years of bodily suffering that his mind and memory reverted to those scenes (more forcibly than ever) which formed so eventful a field in a life of misfortune and vicissitude. The interesting narrative of the sufferings of that band of heroes, of which he was the youngest, is a simple tale of truth, which he undeviatingly throughout his book adheres to.
He is supported in all his assertions by the testimony of a number of his companions in that arduous campaign, men of character and respectability—his relation of incidents, his descriptive accounts of the country they passed through, the situation of. Quebec and the disposition of the army, all mark him to have been a youth of accurate observation, of a comprehensive and intelligent mind. Possessing, as he must necessarily have done, activity of spirit and contempt of fatigue, he gained the approbation and esteem of his seniors. The buoyant spirits of youth rose high over misfortune ; under the pressure of that severest distress, vivacity was still retained and burst forth at intervals to cheer his hopeless companions.
Disease had now made rapid progress on a constitution weakened by repeated attacks and accumulation of disorders which no skill. could counteract or remedy. The non-performance of his duties caused petitions from the several counties to be presented to the Legislature for his removal; nothing was alleged against him but absence. That honorable House having examined and considered the charges, acquitted him with honor. His commission he retained for the space of two years afterwards; but illness and debility increasing, and a knowledge of his infirmities being incurable, compelled him to resign that office which he had held with integrity for seventeen years. Four months succeed-
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ing, his worn-out frame was destined to feel the stroke of death, and his freed soul to seek refuge in the bosom of his father and his God. He died at Lancaster April 15th, 1811. The history of the campaign against Quebec was written by Judge Henry, who often compared it in many respects to the celebrated retreat of the ten thousand Greeks, and said of it that it would require the talents of a Xenophon to do it real justice.
HENRY, WILLIAM, was an ingenious and successful mechanic of Lancaster, and for many years conducted a large gun manufactory and iron-mongery, at the southeast corner of Centre Square. He was inventor of the screw auger, which, previous to 1777, could be had only at his store. His discovery of the principle of the auger is thus said to have been suggested to his mind : He was at a time sitting on his porch and twisting thoughtlessly, with his fingers, a piece of lead, and this he bored into a turnip, and he observed that the twisted lead threw out chips, and this suggested to him the idea of the screw auger. He sent a sample of his invention to England and obtained a patent therefor. He acted as a justice of the peace for many years before the breaking out of the revolution. In 1772 he was appointed one of a committee, with John Lukens, Surveyor General, David Rittenhouse, and others, to survey the route of the Susquehanna and Lehigh rivers, in order to ascertain the best location for a canal, to be constructed through the interior of the State of Pennsylvania..
Mr. Henry was one of the most active men of the borough of Lancaster who espoused the cause of the colonies in their opposition to Great Britain. He was immediately engaged by the general committee of safety of the province of Pennsylvania, to. manufacture and repair arms for the continental army, and the privilege was accorded him by the executive council to choose such workmen as he might deem proper to be engaged in his employ, and that these men, so selected, should be exempted from draft in the army. He was, on July 4th, 1777, appointed by the executive council of Pennsylvania, a justice of the peace under the new constitution. This position he held continuously up to his death, and he
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was president of the county court from 1781 up till 1786. He was also chosen a member of the Pennsylvania council of safety, by act of assembly of 13th October, 1777. For some time during the revolution he was treasurer of the county of Lancaster.
Wm. Henry was one of the first who recognized in the youthful Benjamin West a genius of a high order, and his first master-piece, the " Death of Socrates," was painted at the former's suggestion. Young West, about 1749 being in Lancaster, and some of his paintings having met the eyes of Mr. Henry, the latter suggested to him that instead of wasting his time upon portraits, he should turn his attention to historical painting. He, at the same time, mentioned the death scene of the great Grecian philosopher as affording one of the best topics for illustrating the moral effect of the art of painting. Upon the painter's confessing that he knew nothing of the philosopher, Mr. Henry went to his library, and taking down a volume of the English translation of Plutarch, read to him the account given by the writer Of this affecting story. The young painter said he would be happy to undertake the task, but having hitherto painted only faces and men clothed, he should be unable to do justice to the figure of the slave who presented the poison, and which he thought ought to be nude. Mr. Henry had among his workmen a very handsome young man, and without waiting to answer the objection, he sent for him. On the young man entering the room, he pointed him out to West, and said, " there is your model." The instruction at once convinced the artist that he had only to look into nature for his models. The Death of Socrates was finished, and the fame of the artist was from that time established.
During the Revolution the house of Mr. Henry was somewhat a place of resort for men of culture and intellectual standing. The host being a man of acknowledged ability and well-known reputation, naturally attracted others of like grade around him. Whilst the British held possession of Philadelphia from September 1777 till June of the following year, David Rittenhouse, the philosopher, (then being State Treasurer), Thomas Paine, author of the Rights of
280 - BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY
Man, and John Hart, a member of the Executive Council were inmates of the house of Mr. Henry. The biographer of Rittenhouse, the philosopher, speaking of this period of life, says : " While he continued in the borough of Lancaster, he made his honie in the house of Wm. Henry, esq., at that time treasurer of the rich and populous county of the same name ; a situation which at that time was very corn. modious for the business of his office, from its connection with that of the County Treasurer, and one which was also the more agreeable by reason of Mr. Henry being a person of very considerable mechanical ingenuity." It was during the time that Thomas Paine was stopping at the house of Mr. Henry, that he wrote No. 5 of his celebrated political treatise, the Crisis. Mr. Henry was for many years one of the most active and influential assistant burgesses of the borough of Lancaster. He was commissary of the regiment of troops raised in Lancaster county in 1775, and which was destined to reinforce Arnold at Boston. All through the Revolution he was very active on the side of the colonies, and his correspondence in. 1779, as chairman of the committee on the supply and regulation of the flour market, shows him to have
been a good writer and a shrewd practical business man. He was a member of the Continental Congress from 1784 till 1786. Mr. Henry was a man of the strictest honesty and known probity. He was possessed of a strong and independent mind, and yet his conscience was one of the most
tender. He had a full and abiding faith in revelation, and his trust in the Redeemer seemed to him all-assuring in his later years. He was a strict and consistent member of the Moravian church. Ever of a benevolent and unsuspecting mind, Mr. Henry acted through life upon the principle, " that we should consider every one as possessing probity until we discover him to be otherwise." He died December 15th, 1786.
HERR, BENJAMIN, a member of the Legislature in 1843 and 1844.
HERR, BENJ. G., a member of the Legislature in 1837, 1838 and 1839.
HERR, CHRISTIAN, a County Commissioner in 1812.
OF LANCASTER COUNTY - 281
HERR, DANIEL, a member of the Legislature in 1852 and 1853.
HERR, DR. ELIAS B., was born the 1st of May, 1833, in Manor township. His descent may be traced down from one of five brothers who came from Europe prior to 1710. je was educated in the schools of John Beck, Litiz, and also in the York County Academy. At the age of eighteen he commenced the study of medicine with Dr. F. A. Muhlenberg, of Lancaster, and graduated at the New York University in March, 1854 ; he immediately followed his profession, and at the same time took a great interest in the cause of education, especially in his native district. Politically, he has always been an active Republican, and was elected to the Legislature of Pennsylvania in 1869.
*HERR FAMILY. John Herr came to this country in 1710, from Switzerland, bringing with him his four sons, and others of his friends; he had five sons married, Abraham, Christian, Emanuel, John and Isaac. Christian had come to this country before the rest of the family.
ABRAHAM HERR was the oldest, and came. with his father in 1710. He was married in Europe, and had a large family, some of his children being grown and married. He settled near Wabank, on the west side of the Conestoga creek. He was the only one of the family that settled in Manor township, and having several children grown when 14 came there, the family became very numerous.
CHRISTIAN HERR was a minister of the Mennonite church, and was the first .of the family in this country. He came with Martin Kendig, John Mylin, and others, in the year 1709. They were pleased with the country, and concluded to send for the rest of their friends. They therefore cast
lots who should go, and the lot fell on Christian, their minister; they not wishing him to go, Martin Kendig. offered to go, and in 1710 brought over the rest of the Herr family, and
others. Christian built a house of sandstone in 1719, half a mile east of Willow Street, where it stands yet, with his "me and the date upon it, now in possession of David
*Contributed by Christian Herr (farmer), West Lampeter.
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282 - BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY
Huber. Christian had three sons, John, Christian and Abraham.
John lived on the farm now owned by John Musselman, about one mile from Willow Street, on the road leading from Willow Street to Strasburg, and part of the original tract owned by his father, Christian. He had five 80118, Earned Abraham, John, Benjamin, Christian and David.
Christian lived on the farm now owned and occupied by David Huber, a half mile west of where his brother John lived; and also part of the original tract owned by his father, Christian. He had two daughters—both married Kendigs; one afterwards married Michael Withers. Her daughter, by the first husband, married George Withers, the brother of Michael. George was the father of Michael and George, living in Lancaster.
Abraham lived on the farm and in the mansion house built by his father, he falling heir to the home division of the priginal tract. He had four daughters—two married Barr brothers; one married a Huber, grandparent of David Huber, now owning said property ; the other married a Shaub. The family name expires with Abraham.
REV. CHRISTIAN'S SON JOHN'S FAMILY. Abraham carried on milling on Pequea creek, on the .road from Lampeter Square to Strasburg, where Daniel K. Herr now resides. he had five sons, and one daughter, married to John Huber. Their names were Abraham, John, Tobias, David and Emanuel.
John carried on milling on Pequea creek, near Soudersburg, now in possession of Benj. Herr, a grandson of said John. He had two children, one son and a daughter. The former, named John, also a miller. The daughter married Samuel Herr, grandson of Emanuel.
Benjamin lived where John Holl lives now in Strasburg. He died without issue.
Christian (Big) lived on the farm now owned and occupied by the author of this sketch, C. Herr, (farmer). He had two sons and five daughters. The sons, named Benjamin and Christian. The daughters married Jacob Breneman, Christian Snavely, Martin Mylin (blacksmith, and grandson of old
OF LANCASTER COUNTY - 283
John or Hans Mylin), Martin Light and Martin Herr, (grandson of Emanuel, one of the sons of the original John or Hans Herr).
David lived on the farm occupied by his father, John. He was the youngest of the family. He had two children, both daughters, named Betsy and Martha. The former married Adam Herr, (a grandson of Emanuel and a brother of Martin, who married Big Christian Herr's daughter). The other married Christian Brackbill. Here David's family name ends. This also ends the record of John's family. I Shall now take their children, beginning with Abraham's (miller) children.
ABRAHAM'S (MILLER) CHILDREN. Abraham lived on the farm occupied by his son a few years ago, adjoining his father's mill property, situated on the west side of Pequea creek. He had three children, all sons. Henry, (who died single), John and Abraham.
John lived on the homestead occupied by his father and carried on milling; he had one son, Samuel.
Tobias lived near Strasburg, on property now owned by John Book. He had four sons and three daughter's. Benjamin, John, David and Tobias. Nancy married John Shenk ; Betsy married a Hoffman, and she dying, he married Hettie, the youngest.
David lived near his father, on part of the homestead, in what is now called Turniptown. He had one son, Benjamin, who was killed in his grandfather's mill, then in possession of to his cousin, Samuel (John's son). He went to the cog-pit start the hoisting apparatus, and while doing so accidentally fell and was crushed to death ; stopping the mill, the gearing had to be taken apart to get him out. This occurred in 1830. He had also two daughters ; one married Adam Beck.
Emanuel settled somewhere in the vicinity of Martic Forge, and reared a family there. One of his sons was named Levi.
JOHN'S (MILLER) FAMILY. John lived on the place occupied by his father. He carried on milling, and was a justice of the peace. He had three sons and four daughters; namely, Benjamin, (miller), John and Henry ; Maria, who died single ; one married to Henry Witmer, one to Amos Witmer, and one to George Lefever.
284 - BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY
CHRISTIAN'S (BIG) FAMILY. Benjamin lived on the farm formerly occupied by his father, Christian, (big). Re sold his farm and went west, leaving some of his children mar. ried here. He had six sons and three daughters, viz : Anna married John Bachman, Lizzie married John Herr, her se. cond cousin, son of Tobias Herr, and grandson of Abraham Herr, (miller), but Lizzie dying, he married her sister Maria, The .sons were Martin, Rudolph, David, Benjamin, Christian and George.
Christian lived on the road leading from Willow Street to Martic Forge, about one mile south of Willow Street. He here carried on the distilling business. Afterwards he went west with his family. One of his daughters married her first cousin, George, a son of Benjamin.
John, also a grandson of Abraham, was married ,and lived as a renter, here and there. Two of his sons live in the eastern,ipart of the county.
Abraham, also a grandson of Abraham, lived by the side of his uncle John's mill. He lived there and raised a family of three sons and four daughters. One daughter married Aaron Witmer. Abraham has two children; Christian has one, and Elam two children.
Henry, Abraham's son, was a grandson of old Abraham, the miller, and died single.
JOHN'S. FAMILY. Samuel carried on milling where his forefathers before him carried on the trade. He was married, bilt died without issue.
TOBIAS' CHILDREN. Benjamin studied law and practiced in Lancaster.
John lives on the road from Willow Street to Conestoga Centre, in Pequea township. ,
David lives in Lancaster.
Tobias lives above Lancaster.
JOHN'S (SQUIRE) CHILDREN. Benjamin lives on the homestead of his forefathers, and also is a miller. He is married.
John lives on the road from Strasburg to Paradise, at Fairview.
Henry lives in Lancaster.
EMANUEL HERR, one of the five sons that came to Lan-
OF LANCASTER COUNTY - 285
caster in 1710, pitched his tent on the bank of the Pequea k, on the road from Strasburg to Lancaster, where John creek, now resides. It was he that built the first mill there, ran the burrs by water and the bolt by hand. He was married and had three sons : Rev. John, Martin and Emanuel, and one daughter, who married a man named Carpenter ; they were the parents of Christian Carpenter, and grandparents of Israel and William Carpenter, of Lancaster city. Hon. John W. Forney's (editor of the Press) mother, was a sister of Christian Carpenter.
Rev. John built his house and farmed the property now owned by Henry Keener, about one mile southwest from-Strasburg. He was twice married and had two sons by his first wife : John and Francis ; and by his second wife three sons : Henry, Martin and Adam ; and four daughters ; two of these daughters married Witmers, one married Tobias Herr, and the other married David Strohm, father of Hon. John Strohm.
Emanuel lived on the place owned now by Mrs. John Brackbill, near that of John Musselman's. He built the house there, was married and had one son, Samuel, and three daughters ; one married Henry Miller and another John Kendig.
JOHN'S (MINISTER) CHILDREN. John carried on milling at the mill formerly occupied by his father and built by his grandfather, now owned by John Musselman. John rented this mill to Mr. Gray ; Gray put in a conveyor to carry the ground wheat to the bolt ; when Gray's time had expired John took out the conveyor and said that this made lazy millers, and made carry it by hand again. He married and had one son, John.
FRANCIS’S. Francis built the house torn down a few years ago by Gabriel Wenger, and farmed that property, brothers. Owned by him now. He married Fanny Barr, a daughter of Mr. Barr; who married a daughter of John's one of the five years brothers. He had three sons : John, Francis and Martin ; and five daughters : Anna married Henry Mylin (a great grandson of the original Hans Mylin who came in with the five Herr brothers); Esther married Martin Eshleman, Francis married Benjamin Eshleman, Martha married Abraham Groff (saw miller), and Lizzie died single.
286 - BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY
Henry lived on the farm owned by Jacob Rohrer, in Strasburg township, north of Bunker Hill.
Martin lived on the farm now owned by his son Abraham, alongside of his father and grandfather's mill, across the creek. He was married three times ; his first wife was a daughter of (Big) Christian ; the third wife was Susan Buck. waiter. With the last wife he had ten children : Four boys, Abraham, Adam, John and Henry ; six daughters, Esther .was married to Mr. Metzler, Lizzie married Mr. Kreider, Mary married Jacob Huber (a grandson of the original Christian, one of the five brothers), Susan married Rev. John Kinports, Anna to Abner Rohrer, and Martha married Christian Miller.
Adam lives on the home-place, where his father lived, which property his father obtained with his last wife. He was married to Elizabeth Herr, (a daughter of David Herr, and grpat grand-daughter of the original Christian, one of the five brothers). He had five sons, viz : Daniel, Adam, Christian, David and John. He had three daughters, viz : Martha married David Herr, (whose mother was a sister of Martha's father, and from his father's side he was great-great grandson of the original Christian, one of the five brothers.) Elizabeth married Levi Lefever.
EMANUEL'S FAMILY. Samuel lived close by the mill formerly owned by John Herr, (Squire). The farm lay east or southeast of the mill. He was married to John Herr's (squire) sister, (great grand-daughter of the original Christian, one of the five brothers). He had three sons, viz : John, Benjamin, and Emanuel ; and two daughters; Anna married Frank Kendig, and Sarah married Abraham Keagy.
REV. JOHN'S GRAND-CHILDREN. John lived at the mill formerly owned by his father; his grandfather, and his great-grandfather, Emanuel, one of the five brothers. He married Christiana Mylin, (who was a great grand-daughter of Hans Mylin, who came with the five Herr brothers). He had two sons, Francis and Martin ; and one daughter, Lizzie, Who married a man named Zercher.
John lived on the farm now owned by his son, John F. Herr, one-half mile north of Strasburg. He married
OF LANCASTER COUNTY - 287
Elizabeth Groff, (who was a grand-daughter of Mr. Forrer, isrho married the daughter of John, one of the five brothers). fie had two sons, Benjamin G. and John F., and six daughters; vary was married to Christian Herr, Elizabeth to Rev. Daniel Musser, Anna to Henry Frantz, Martha to Dr. Jacob if user, Naomi to Dr. Benjamin Musser, and Fanny, died single.
Francis' father divided the homestead, and gave the eastern half to him he lived on it ; it is now owned by his son Francis. He married Fanny Neff, whose father, Jacob Neff, married a grand-daughter of John Herr, one of the five brothers. He had three sons, Amos, Cyrus and Francis, and five daughters. Elizabeth married Adam Herr, who was a great grandson of Emanuel ; Anna married Martin Weaver, Charlotte married Henry Herr, (who was son of Martin and great grandson of Emanuel) ; Fanny and Amanda are single.
Martin lived on the home-place with his father, Francis. He married Polly Herr, (daughter of John Herr, granddaughter of Abraham Herr, great grand-daughter of Rev. John, and great-great-grand-daughter of John, one of the five brothers). He had two daughters; Mary married John Kendig, and Martha married. Gabriel Wenger.
MARTIN'S FAMILY. Abraham lives in Lampeter Square, and married Susan Hess.
Adam died single.
John lives also in Lampeter Square. He married Fanny Kreider, and has two sons and three daughters.
Henry now lives in Lampeter. He, previous to this, carried on milling, where his son, Rev. Daniel K. Herr, carries on now. He was married three times. He had one son, D. K. Herr, (Rev.) and two daughters ; Susan, married to Daniel Musser ; and Lizzie.
ADAM'S (BROTHER OF MARTIN) FAMILY. Daniel Herr lives on the Philadelphia pike below Greenland. He was married to Sarah Strohm. He has three sons and three daughters.
Adam lives on a part of the farm now farmed by his son Alpheus, and formerly owned by Abraham Groff (saw
288 - BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY
miller). Ile married Elizabeth Herr (daughter of Francis and great-grand-daughter of Emanuel.) He has one soh and one daughter.
Christian lived on the farm now owned by David Rendig, in West Lampeter township. He . married Maria Light, whose father was married to (Big) Christian Herr's daughter. He had two sons and two daughters.
David kept store in Lampeter Square ; afterwards went to Ohio. He Was married to Mary Landis. He had six chil.. dren, two sons and four daughters.
John lives on a property close to the Green Tree Hotel, on the Beaver Valley turnpike. He was married to Anna Herr, daughter of the Rev. Christian Herr, of Pequea, and has but one son, Benjamin.
SAMUEL'S FAMILY. JOhn lived below Strasburg, and died there in 1871.
Benjamin died single.
Emanuel lived on the place now owned by John B. Herr. He went to Maryland 25 years ago.
JOHN'S (MILLER) FAMILY. Francis received the mill from his father, but traded it with Michael Musselman for a piece of land in Paradise township. He was married to Lydia Barr, and had two daughters ; one married Henry Stehman, and the other Nathaniel Mayrs.
Martin lives on the farm alongside of John Musselman's mill. He was married to Eliza Snavely, and has one son and one daughter, both single.
REV. JOHN'S FAMILY. Benjamin G. lives on the farm alongside of that on which his father lived, and he devotes his time principally to literature; has written some eight or ten books of poems. He was a member of the Pennsylvania Legislature for three years, 1886, 1837 and 1838. He was married to Mary Emma Witmer, and has five sons and three daughters.
John F. lives on the homestead occupied by his father, Rev. John, and farms his father's farm. He was a member of the Pennsylvania Legislature for one term. He was married to Martha Musser, and has three sons and two daughters.
OF LANCASTER COUNTY - 289
FRANCIS'S CHILDREN. Amos lives at Longenecker's meeting-house, and on the farm formerly occupied by John Longenecker. He was married and has four sons and five daughters.
Cyrus lives on the farm formerly occupied by David Miller, and adjoining the land south of the homestead of his father. He married to Mary A. Brackbill, and has four sons before him. He was married to Sarah Frantz and has eight children ; three sons and five daughters.
REV. D. K. HERR (MILLER) grandson of Martin and son of Henry, lives on the mill property owned by his father, Henry. He was married to Susan Musser, and has one son.
JOHN HERR, one of the original five sons that were the first settlers of the Herr family in Lancaster county, built a homestead on a tract of land of 530 acres, which he bought of William Penn for £30 6s., with a rent of a silver English shilling yearly for every hundred acres; his title was dated July 3, 1711. He built his house of sandstone; said house being on the same site of Jacob Herr's present house, who resides therein; said house being some five miles south of Lancaster, on the road from New Providence to Lancaster, in West Lampeter township. John had six children; two sons and four daughters, named John, Christian; Anna married a Forrer; one was married to a Burkholder; one to .a Barr, and one to Ulrich Brackbill. All the Brackbills in the county come from this family—Ulrich being the only son ; he (Ulrich) had one sister named Barbara, who married a Groff; they being the father and mother of my grandmother on my
father's side. This Brackbill family came to America in 1717.
John was born in Europe, came in with his father, was a small boy at the time of his father's coming in. He married and lived in the house built by his father, which was torn down by the Rev. Benj. Herr, a new house being on the same position, and occupied by Christian B. Herr, (Benjamin's son), said house being about three-fourths of a mile south of where his father lived, on the same road. He
290 - BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY
had three children, two sons and one daughter, ilamed Abraham, Christian, (Pequea); the daughter married Bach.a enstose.
Christian lived on the homestead where his father lived before him; he was married twice; first to Anna Kendig, then to Fanny Groff. He had one son and five daughters, Christian, Fanny, Anna, Mary, Elizabeth and Barbara; the three older daughters by the first wife, and the two other by the last, Christian being the youngest child. Fanny married G. Bressler; Anna, Benjamin Herr, grandson of Chris. tian, one of the five brothers; Mary married Abraham Witmer, who built the bridge across the Conestoga, near 'Lancaster, on the Philadelphia turnpike road. The two of the second wife were married ; first, Elizabeth, to Jacob Neff; and Barbara, to John Neff, two brothers.
Abraham lived on the homestead, and married a Barbara Weaver, and had five sons, named Jacob, John, Abraham, Martin and Joseph.
Christian lived on the place and in the same house now occupied by the Rev. Amos Herr. He married Miss Bowman; had one son, Christian, and six daughters; one married to George Diffenbaugh ; one to John Funk ; one to Christian Rohrer; one to Henry Bowman; one died single. As Christian lived close to Pequea creek, he received the Dame Pequea, which has ever since adhered to his family.
CHRISTIAN'S CHILDREN. Christian built a house across the road from where his father lived ; this house was torn down a few years ago, and a new one erected by his daughter, Elizabeth. He had four sons and three daughters ; Christian, John, Benjamin and Jacob, Fanny, Susan and Elizabeth. He was married twice; first, to Elizabeth Withers; second, to Mary Rohrer; two daughters, Fanny and Susan, by the first wife, and the rest by the latter. Fanny married Samuel Herr, son of John (miller), grandson of Abraham, (miller), great-grandson of John, and great-great-grandson of Christian, one of the five brothers ; Susan married Benjamin Breneman, and Elizabeth remained single.
ABRAHAM'S FAMILY. Jacob bought a tract of Martin Kendig, adjoining the home-place of his father. He here
OF LANCASTER COUNTY - 291
built his house upon it, now occupied by John Tout, and owned by Jacob Herr. He had one child, Jacob.
John lived on the home-place, formerly occupied by his father, Abraham. He was married twice ; first to a Miss Shultz, and then to the widow Stauffer, formerly Miss Brackbill, a granddaughter of Ulrich Brackbill. He had six children ; one son, John, and five daughters ; Susan, Polly, Barbara—these were of the first wifeElizabeth and Fanny, of the second wife. Susan married John Barr (he a grandson of the Barr who married John's daughter, one of the five brothers); he died ; she then married Hon. John Strohm; Polly married Martin Herr (son of Francis, grandson of Rev. John, and great-grandson of Emanuel, one of the five brothers) ; Barbara, married to David Strohm, (cousin to lion. John Strohm) ; Elizabeth, to Henry Hess; Fanny, to Benjamin Snavely, whose mother was a daughter of (big) Christian, who was a son of John, himself a son of the Rev. Christian, one of the five brothers.
Abraham lived south of New Providence, and was married to a Shaub, who was a daughter of Abraham Herr's, (son of the Rev. Christian, one of the five brothers) daughter, who married Henry Shaub. He had three sons, Abraham, JohnandMartin ; and one daughter, Polly, who married Jacob Groff.
Martin lived near New Providence, afterwards owned by Mowrer. He had three children, two sons, Benjamin and Martin; and one daughter, Barbara, who married Simon Groff.
Joseph settled on a farm now owned by Mr. Myers, situated near the termination of the turnpike leading from the Lamb Tavern, on the Willow Street pike, to Marticville. He married Maria Forrer, (who was a grand-daughter of the Forrer who married the daughter of John Herr, one of the brothers). He had eight children, five sons, viz : Abraham, Christian, Joseph, Martin and David ; he had three daughters ; Nancy, who married a Stoner; Barbara, who married Isaac Houser ; Maria, who married John Harnish. This ends children of Abraham.
in the house and farmed the place which
292 - BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY
his father, Christian, (Pequea), occupied before him. He married Nancy Forrer, a sister of Maria Forrer, who married his cousin Joseph. He had eight children, six sons and two daughters; Benjamin (Rev.), Elias, Christian, Joseph, Amos (Rev.), and Daniel; Maria married John Brackbill, a descendant of Ulrich Brackbill; Anna, who married John Herr, who was a great-grandson of Emanuel, one of the five brothers.
Christian, son of Christian, grandson of Christian, and great-great-grandson of John, one of the five brothers, lives on the farm formerly occupied by (big) Chris. tian, one mile southeast of Willow Street. He married Mary Herr, daughter of the Rev. John Herr, (she being great-great-grand-daughter of Emanuel, one of the five brothers). He had two sons, Amaziah and Ezra, and three daughters, Lizzie (dead), Louisa and Addie ; the daughters all single.
John lived on the farm formerly owned by Joseph Leamon, and adjoining, on the north that of his father's homestead, the whole being a part of the original tract of 530 acres. He was thrown from his horse crossing the creek at Herr's mill, formerly owned by Samuel, married to his sister Fanny. He was married to Susan Rohrer, daughter of Christian Rohrer. He had five children, two boys, Aldus and Henry ; Fanny, who married John Brackbill, jr.; Sarah Ann and Lizzie, both single.
Benjamin lives on the place formerly owned by Martin Kendig, who came in with the five brothers. The old house which Martin built, was used by Benjamin until he built a new one by the side of it. The old house was then used as a private school house for several families. Benjamin was married twice. First to Catharine Bair, by whom he bad two children, Christian S. B., and Mary Ann, who married Christian Witmer, (minister). By his second wife, Anna Sener, he had three sons, Sanner, Millo, and Aldus.
Jacob lives on the old homestead where his father, grandfather and great-grandfather lived. He married Anna Musser, and has seven children; five sons, viz : Benjamin, Hebron, Jacob, Francis and Amos ; two daughters, one
OF LANCASTER COUNTY - 293
married David Hess, the other is single. Here ends the record of Christian's children ; we now recur to that of Abraham's who married Barbara Weaver), descendants.
Jacob lived on the farm of his father. He married Martha Forrer, and had four children, three daughters and one son; Jacob F., who married Barbara Witmer, and has seven children, five sons and two daughters; Mary and Anna died single; Barbara married Tobias Kreider, (minister).
John lived on the old home-place with his father, John-, but went to Ohio some 37 years ago, and settled near Columbus. He had four sons, Levi, (a noted horse trainer and dealer, living at Lexington, Kentucky), Christian, Francis, and John, all in Ohio.
Abraham is dead, and his family is scattered.
John, his son, married a Miss Bartholomew, and had two daughters, Susan and Lizzie; the former is single, and the latter is married to Henry Miller.
MARTIN'S FAMILY. Benjamin was a fuller by trade, and carried on the fulling business at Martin Huber's, below the Valley tavern.
Martin was married to Jacob Martin's daughter.
JOSEPH'S FAMILY. Abraham lives with his brother Christian at Groff & Landis's mill on the Willow Street pike. He married Miss Stoner. He had four children, two sons named Abraham and Isaac, (and this Abraham is married and has, five children, two sons and three girls).
Christian lives on the farm spoken of in my last record of Abraham. He was married to a Hess, and has six children: four sons.
Joseph, a carpenter by trade, lives in Willow Street, on the road from Lancaster to Marticville. He married Miss Snavely, and has three children.
Martin Herr married a Miss Miller, and left four daughters.
REV. CHRISTIAN'S (PEQUEA) FAMILY. Benjamin lives on the property where the original John, one of the five brother's sons, John (the minister) lived. He married Nancy Brenneman, and has two children. He is a bishop of the Mennonite church.
Elias lives on a farm now belonging to his son Elias, and
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294 - BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY
lying over east from where his father lived. He has been married three times. He has five children; four sons : Jeremiah, Andrew, Elias, and Benjamin; and Mary Ann, married to Elias Groff.
Christian (Pequea) lives adjoining farm to his brothers Elias and Benjamin. He married Susan Breckbill, sister to John Breckbill, who married his sister Maria. He has four
children; three sons, John, Levi and Christian (Pequea), and one daughter.
Joseph lives on the property formerly owned by his aunt Barbara Forrer. He was married to Hetty Stauffer, and has two daughters.
Rev. Amos lives on the old homestead owned by his father and grandfather. He was married to Elizabeth Rohrer, and has one son, Christian, and three daughters; one married to Benj. Snavely, one to Mr. Ronk; the other is single.
Daniel lives about half a mile down the pike from where his brother Amos lives. He carries on the lime-burning business extensively. He was married to Anna Breneman, and has two sons, Enos and Reuben ; and Lizzie, a daughter, who was married to Christian S. B. Herr.
HERR, JOHN, was a member of the Legislature in 1838.
HERR, JOHN F., was a member of the Legislature in 1854.
HERR, JOHN, the founder or organizer of the New Mennonite church, was born in Lancaster county, Pennsylvania, September 18th, 1781. His father, Francis, was the son of Emanuel Herr, one of the five sons of Hans Herr, who emigrated to Lancaster county in the year 1710. Hans Herr was the pastor and spiritual leader of a large colony of emigrants who made their way into the bounds of Lancaster county, and settled in what was known as the Pequea valley, and which is now included in the townships of Strasburg, Lampeter, Conestoga and others. The subject of our sketch belonged to a family noted in the early history of our county as leaders in religious opinions, many of whom were clergymen of the Mennonite persuasion. It would seem somewhat appropriate in this connection, to glance at the causes which induced the important movement in the Mennonite church,
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which ultimated in its division into the old and new communions. It is an event of august concern in our county's one which deserves some consideration, and would space warrant, (which it does not) it should be treated in full detail. The inceptive impulse which led to the separation of the church was given by Francis Herr, the father of our subject. For sufficient reasons, Francis Herr became disunited with the old Mennonite church ¹ of his fathers, and so remained till the period of his death. Being a man of considerable intellectual vigor, he was able to attract a number of followers who sympathized with him in his views, and who were in the habit of meeting together for spiritual conversation and edification of each other. In these meetings of Francis Herr and his followers nothing seems to have been further in view than to endeavor to act in accordance with Christ's promise, that he would be in the midst of two or three of those who should meet together in his name. These small assemblies were congregated in the name of the Redeemer, and His promise was fervently invoked upon their meetings. The design of founding an antagonistic church to that to which his ancestry had belonged, never perhaps entered the thoughts of Francis Herr or any of his followers. He was an earnest investigator of the doctrines of Menno Simon, and he critically compared them with the teaching of the gospel and the whole of the New Testament. This
¹ The Mennonite Christians exhibit a simplicity of faith and worship that serves to call to mind the early days of the reformation epoch. Deducing their views from the literal sense of Scripture, they have not been seduced into the reception of new-coined and rationalistic theologies that have since the beginning of the eighteenth century been steadily making their way into the other churches of England, Holland, Prance and Germany. They may, (especially in America), therefore, be regarded as presenting the faith-type which most clearly portrays that Which obtained in Europe in the sixteenth century. They have successfully resisted the insinuating currents of free thought that have been Creeping into many of the other churches of Europe and America during the last one hundred and fifty years, and on this account they stand nearer than most others in accord with the views of the Reformed fathers. Perched upon the mount of Gospel faith, the rippling brook of deistic unbelief, the encyclopedic stream of French infidelity, and the surging flood of German rationalism have passed by scarcely noticed by th9 merudite followers of Menno Simon; and the opinions of. this early
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investigation served but to convince him that the teaching of that reformer was fully supported in the discourses of Christ and his apostles, and his chief aim seemed simply to be to aid in building up life-examples as the gospel enjoined. Doctrine, without a corresponding walk and conversation would, in his view, be of no avail. In all his exhortations to his small flock of followers, he urged upon them in the most emphatic manner, holiness of life and uprightness and godliness in all manner of conversation. What should it benefit him to be a full believer in the tenets of Menno Simon if his action did not conform thereto, and his walk be upright and pure. In a holy life, therefore, as he thought, did all Christian godliness consist.
In all this he had before him the example of the reformers of the sixteenth century. With them he agreed in endeavoring to bring back the purity of the early ages. Nothing further was his aim than the rejuvenation of Christian simplicity and piety in the life and actions of his small band of faithful followers. All this, in his estimation, was attainable outside of nominal church organization; and the communion of the spirit of Christ and his fellowship was all that was desirable. This could be secured in the bosom of his small company of sympathizers, who were in the habit of meeting together for mutual consolation.
But at length the winged arrow of death bore Francis
reformer yet shine in the vales of the fatherland and on the American continent in all their pristine purity.
The important movement in the Mennonite church, the establishment of a theological seminary in Europe in 1735, was an event that occurred after their early settlements had been made in America. This has given to the European church an educated ministry, and an array of distinguished Mennonite clergymen stand conspicuous in modern ecclesiastical history. Their brethren in America prefer, on the contrary, pastors of apostolic simplicity, and as yet maintain with a tenacious grasp the uncorrupted creed of their fathers.
The American Mennonites see in Christianity a perfect system as it flowed forth from the mouth of the Redeemer of mankind, instead of being a progressive science as is contended by learned modern expositors. Little else in their view is required of the ministers of Christ, save that they shall be able to read the Scriptures of the Old and New Testament' The critical acumen of a Reimarus, Wolff, Ernesti, or Semler, is not desired by these plain followers of the ancient doctrines.
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Herr from the scenes of his life's activity and from the companionship of his faithful circle of followers, and his freed spirit took its flight to regions beyond the skies. His mantle, however, fell upon worthy shoulders—upon him whose task t should become as the master workman to polish the unhewn material that his father had been gathering, and therefrom erect a living temple fitted to resist the adverse blasts of persecution, and which is being constantly increased, enlarged and beautified. The architect of the Christian edifice referred to is the subject of our notice.
Of the youthful career of John Herr, whose sketch we pen, little data exist. Having never preserved any diary of his labors, all that can be gathered of his career comes through tradition. It is, however, inferable from the career in which his father was engaged, that our subject was trained in the fear and admonition of the Lord, and that the lessons of truth and morality were taught him by his pious mother. It is said of him that in youth he was of a gay and lively disposition, fond of society, and that he engaged in the sports of his comrades to a great extent. His conscience was, however, cast in a tender mould, and his horror of sin was so acute that he frequently lamented with tears during the night, the follies of which by day he had been guilty. In these secret hours of the night, when all around him was hushed in sleep, he would deplore his imperfections and promise to the Saviour an amendment of his course of life. But these, like the ordinary evanescent promises of youth, were forgotten. The dawn of day and the appearance of his youthful comrades, again dispelled the good resolves, and carnal desires and natural enjoyments soon seated themselves in his affections.
His educational attainments were of limited scope. Besides the acquisition of the simple elementary branches of writing and arithmetic, he as a youth was not favored. Being possessed of a very retentive memory, he exhibited a great taste for reading, and was remarkably fond of investigation, He seldom accepted anything without prior careful study, and the reason of everything must be apparent. What little spare time he was able to snatch from the labors
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of the farm, he sedulously devoted to the reading of such works as came within his reach. His father's library, hop. ever, being composed of but few books, save of the religious and devotional kind, it is reasonable to suppose that he should become well versed in the Bible and works of a religious character. In his youth, therefore, he perused works on Church History and the Reformation, the lives of the Martyrs, writings of Josephus and those of Menno Simon, besides others; and his inquisitive mind led him thoroughly to investigate the doctrines of the Mennonite church, which he found, like his father before him, to accord with the Gospel. It is doubtful at this time whether he had access to any works on profane history, biography, travels or polite literature. The only works .of fiction, indeed, that he ever read, were the writings of John Bunyan ; and he uniformly condemned the practice of devoting valuable time to the reading of modern novels. Poetry he appreciated very highly, especially if of a devotional character ; and in his mature years he composed hymns on frequent occasions. As regards science, art and rhetoric, he had no opportunities whatever in his youth to acquire a knowledge of them ; and yet in his old age he had attained a fund of general infor• mation upon all these subjects. His extensive intercourse for many years with various classes of society, some of them the best scholars in the country, his great powers of observation, his faculty for minute analysis, his extraordinary memory and his extensive reading, caused him to become in his latter years, if not profound, at least well informed upon all ordinary topics.
As above stated, John Herr's youth was chiefly spent in the reading of the Bible and other religious works, and in hearing the important question of the soul's salvation and the scheme of redemption discussed by his father, and by those he met in argument. His naturally bright mind availed itself of the opportunity thus afforded, and he soon became well trained in this particular field which so admirably qualified him for the great work for which he was destined. When the period arrived for him to begin the work, his preparation had been of such a character, that he entered
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thereon, not simply as in the performance of a duty, but with the greatest of pleasure and zeal did he inaugurate the great work of his life.
Upon the death of his father, being painfully exercised by the conviction ofhis aotf sin, he took occasion to reveal the state of his feelings to some of his father's friends, who were also similarly concerned for their own salvation. But owing to the increase of worldly cares devolved upon him by the death of his father, he permitted himself again to grow languid in his love for Christ, and for a time seemed to regret that he had revealed his spiritual emotions to his friends. This state of feeling having continued for some months, an incident occurred in his career that served to lead him back to God. He now resigned himself wholly to the Lord, and soon found comfort. The friends who had sympathised with his father, were still in the habit of meeting together and mutually comforting each .other in spiritual converse. John Herr now became a constant attendant at these meetings. At one of these, held during the year 1810, Mr. Herr was requested to give his experience upon the all important question of the soul's salvation. This was an important epoch in the life of Mr. Herr. Clothed, as he felt, in the garb of truth, and mailed in the armor of righteousness, with the sword of the spirit in his hand, he stepped forward ready to battle and die, if need be, in the cause of the Redeemer. Animated by sympathy for lost humanity, and gratitude to God for His merciful plan of salvation, he addressed the small auditory in words of peace and comfort. Then it was that the firm resolve was made, that come what 'night, while life would last, his time and talents should be devoted to the cause of Christ; that he would mete out to his fellow-men the consolations of redemption, warn them of their folly and the wickedness of sin, and point out the way of truth as God should vouchsafe to instruct him. In spite of his comparative youth, being but as yet in his twenty-ninth year; in spite of adverse surrounding circumstances, he nevertheless dared the scorn of the ungodly, met the jeers of his associates, and openly braved the opposition of the whole unchristian world. His remarks, altogether