AGNEW, ROBERT, a physician of Sadsbury township. He was elected a member of the Legislature in the years 1826 and 1827. His son, David H. Agnew, was born in Sadsbury township, where he practiced medicine for a number of years. He is now a distinguished professor of surgery in the University of Pennsylvania.

ALBRIGHT, JACOB, was born June 26th, 1791, in Lancaster city, Pennsylvania. He received a fair education, and when a young man, taught school for some time in the old Lancaster Academy, in North Queen street, between Lemon and James streets. He was united in marriage with Mrs. Susan Sherer, on the 25th of November, 1847. For some years he was engaged with Dr. Benj. Sherer, in the forwarding and commission business. Mr. Albright was elected Mayor of the city of Lancaster, in the year 1855, on the ticket commonly known as the Know-Nothing ticket, and held the office for one year. He was an official member of the Moravian church, and also a member of the Masonic Order. He was a man of quiet and retiring disposition, very amiable and agreeable in his manners, and was highly respected as a citizen. He died shortly after his retirement from the Mayoralty, March 18th, 1856.

*ALBBIGHT, REV. JACOB. The father of Rev. Jacob Albright, (Albrecht in German), was John Albrecht, who emigrated from Germany to this country and settled in Douglas

*Contributed by J. B. Good, esq.


township, Montgomery county, Pennsylvania. His domicile was at or near a mountain ridge, known as Fuchsberg (Fox Mountain), about ten miles southeast of Pottstown. In this obscure spot his son Jacob, the subject of this sketch, was born on May 1st, 1759. The house which sheltered his infant head, and where he spent his childhood and youth, is still standing; it is a one-story stone building, of solid but plain architecture.

His parents were poor, and compelled to struggle hard to provide for themselves and their children the necessaries of life. The neighborhood, in its social, moral and religious aspects was then, and is now of such a nature, that one is forcibly reminded of the place where the founder of our religion was brought up, and of which it was said, " Can there any good thing come out of it ?" However, the poverty and privations of his youth, served as a rugged school to prepare him for the severe and almost superhuman labors of his later years.

Like most men of his early surroundings, hardly anything is known of his boyhood. His parents belonged to the Evangelical Lutheran Church, whose minister baptized him in his infancy, and gave him the usual catechetical instruction when he arrived at the proper age. He also received such instruction as the schools of his time afforded. Our beneficent common school system had as yet no existence. In rude log cabins, unworthy of the name of school-houses, the simplest rudiments of education were imperfectly taught. Rev. H. Harbaugh, in the Pennsylvania German vernacular, says ofthese schools :

Inwennig, um der Offe rum

Hocke die kleene Tschäps,

Sie lerne artlich hart, verschteh,

Un wer net wees sei' A B C—

Sei' Ohre kriege Räpps.

Die arme Drep ! dort hocke se

In Misserie—juscht denk !

Es is kee' Wunner—nemm mei Wort—

Dass se so wenig lerne dort,

Uf selle hoche Benk.

In one of these unpromising institutions, young Albright acquired the art of reading and writing the German language,


and also the first principles of Arithmetic. He never enjoyed the advantages of an English education. Of the German, he acquired a correct knowledge, by reading Luther's translation of the Bible, as also other books written in pure German. Among the latter was a Commentary on the Bible, which he valued very highly.

In person he was of medium stature, about five feet eight inches in height. He had an aquiline nose, his mouth and chin were exquisitely formed. His eyes were blue, and very bright, his hair was black and his complexion fair. Though in his temperament the sanguine and choleric dispositions predominated, yet his bearing was always graceful and dignified. About his person and dress, he was scrupulously neat and precise. Some persons who knew him but imperfectly, thought he was proud ; those, however, who understood his character better, knew him to be entirely innocent of this charge.

In 1785, when about 25 years of age, he was married to Miss Catharine Cope. Soon after his marriage, he moved to Lancaster county, and purchased a tract of land, eligibly located near Frysville, in the present East Cocalico, but then Earl township. Here, besides farming, he also carried on the brick and tile business. At that time many of the dwellings in Lancaster county were covered with tiles. Some of these antique relics are still in existence.

In 1790 several of his children died of dysentery. At the funeral of one of them, Rev. Anton Hautz, a minister of' the German Reformed Church, preached a sermon which touched Albright's heart. Of the state of his mind at this time, he says : "In my early youth I had received catechetical instruction in the doctrines of the Christian religion. I did not then comprehend the great truths I learned, and could not appreciate them; but a feeling of reverence toward God was implanted, which never left me. This feeling was very undefined, but it induced me to regard every place where God was worshipped as sacred, and I could not despise or persecute those persons who engaged in the worship of the Most High, no matter to what sect they belonged. This reverence for the worship of God, induced me to frequently


attend religious meetings, and to listen attentively to the exhortations of the Ministers of the Gospel. * * * I became frightened at myself, the judgments of God stood before my imagination, my spirit experienced a deep dejection, and at last, on a certain day of July, in my thirty-second year, it rose to such a degree that it bordered on despair. * * * fell upon my knees, tears of bitter repentance coursed down my cheeks, and a long-continued, earnest and ardent prayer for pardon and salvation, went up to the throne of the Most High." In this state of mind he was met by a sincere, warm-hearted Christian, named Adam Riegel, whose sympathies at once entwined themselves around this sincere penitent. It was in this man's house where they earnestly prayed together, that Albright experienced the truth, that the Son of Man has power on earth to forgive sins. Of this experience Albright says : " All distress of my heart vanished. The peace of God filled my soul, and the Holy Spirit bore witness with my Spirit, that I was a child of God."

At this period, the German churches in Pennsylvania were in a deplorable condition. German adventurers, whose moral and literary attainments precluded their preferment at home, hunted their fortunes in America, and presumed to meddle with holy things among the rude and unlettered colonists. Tradition has handed down plenty of anecdotes, which plainly show the grotesqueness of manners and general uncouthness of the clergy of these times. The old adage, " Like priest like people," was fully illustrated in this instance. The people were industrious and frugal, but nevertheless ignorant, coarse, intemperate and profane. Church discipline, if such a thing was ever thought of; was exercised with extreme laxity.

On this subject Albright says : " At this time I knew no class of professing Christians that seemed more zealous unto good works, and who had a better discipline than the Methodists. For this reason I went with them and had opportunity to obtain great good and many blessings for my soul. As many things in their exercises were as yet not clear to my mind, and were conducted in the English language, and as I was not yet fully conversant with that language, I commenced


its study with great zeal, and soon was enabled to fully understand their book of discipline and their articles of faith, which pleased me very much. I sought to conduct myself precisely according to their rules and regulations."

He joined a class that held their meetings in his neighborhood. Mr. Isaac Davis, whose farm adjoined his own, being their leader.

Albright's talents and zeal were so marked, that an Exhort-er's license was soon given to him ; ' and as there was at that time considerable religious inquiry among his German neighbors, opportunities frequently presented themselves to exercise his gifts.

On this point Albright says : " I had no gift of eloquent speech, and I must confess that I was herein less competent than any other man who might have undertaken it." Competent judges, however, assure us that Albright under-estimated his powers, as humility was a marked feature of his character. At this time he had no thoughts of regularly preaching the Gospel, and he passed through great struggles before he could make up his mind to take that step. He clearly foresaw the labors, difficulties and afflictions he would have to endure. And then his keen sensitivness as to his own inefficiency, weighed heavily on his soul. He hesitated until the conviction of his divine call to the ministry became irresistible, and he felt with St. Paul: " Wo is unto me if I preach not the Gospel." He especially felt a deep solicitude for his German countrymen, whose spiritual welfare lay near his sympathetic heart. He soon became known in his neighborhood as a very zealous worker.

As regards his relations to the Methodist E. Church at this juncture, it is difficult to arrive at a correct conclusion. It is doubtless true that though some Methodist ministers occasionally preached in German, there were none that exclusively labored in that language. The impression seems to have extensively prevailed, that the German language would soon die out on this continent, and that therefore it was impolitic to employ German preachers. Albright, however, felt such a powerful internal call to labor among his German brethren, that he could not remain silent or inactive,


but continued zealously to labor in his divine Master's cause.

At first his success was but moderate. From 1796, when he first set out on his mission, until 1803, when the first Conference was held, the number of his followers did not exceed forty ; and besides him, there were only two preachers, namely, Revs. Walter and Lieser.

This slow increase was principally owing to the illiterate and obscure character of the ministers engaged in the work, and the powerful opposition and persecution which was aroused against them. Besides this, Albright and his coadjutors had, up to this time, confined themselves almost exclusively to the counties of Bucks, Berks and Northampton, emphatically Albright's home ; and a greater than he had said before him, that "a prophet is not without honor save in his own country and in his own house." Afterwards, when the theatre of their operations was transferred to distant fields, whose soil perhaps was more promising, their labors yielded more abundant fruit.

On September 15th and 16th, 1807, at Mühlbach, Lebanon county, Pennsylvania, they held their first regular annual Conference. At this meeting five itinerant and three local preachers, and twenty official lay members, were present. Here Albright was elected Superintendent of the Society, and by a resolution of the Conference, he was directed to prepare rules of discipline for the government of the religious Society thus organized. This, on account of his declining health and early death, he was prevented from accomplishing. The discipline was afterwards prepared by Rev. G. Miller, in the year 1809. The membership at this time numbered two hundred and twenty.

It was soon apparent that Albright's health was daily failing ; but he still continued to travel and to labor as much as his impaired strength permitted him to do. During the winter he traveled with the late Rev. J. Dreisbach, who was then a young man, but who has recently died at the advanced age of eighty-two years. Their circuit extended partly over the counties of Dauphin, Lebanon, Lancaster, Berks, Bucks, Montgomery, Northampton, Lehigh and Schuylkill. They had about thirty appointments or places


to preach, of which some were from twenty to thirty miles apart.

It was during this season that the Society at Millersville, Lancaster county, received great accessions in numbers, among whom was John Erb, who afterwards became an

itinerant minister.

On Easter-day, 1808, a quarterly meeting was held at Albany, Berks county, Pennsylvania, where Albright for the last time, appointed his preachers to their several fields of labor. He now began to sink rapidly. Incessant travel, exposure to the inclemency of every season, the privations incident to the itinerancy, and the almost superhuman labors performed by him, had at last undermined his constitution and broken down his health to such a degree that he was compelled to return home. He was suffering with a pulmonary affection, which, however, had now progressed so far that he never reached his earthly home any more. He remained with Christian friends at Mühlbach, Lebanon comity, Pennsylvania, who kindly nursed him during a short illness, being confined to his bed for only a few days. He died on the 18th of May, 1808, in the fiftieth year of his age. His remains were buried on the 20th, in a neighboring burying ground, where, in commemoration of his death and burial, a church has since been erected, which bears the name of " Albright's Church."

Since his death, the religious Society founded by him has enjoyed great prosperity. The number of regular or itinerant ministers, exceeds five hundred, and the lay membership approaches to one hundred thousand. The Society supports several institutions of learning ; their book concern is in a flourishing condition ; and one of their papers, "Der Christ-liche Botschafter," is the oldest German religious paper in the country. They support promising missions in Germany and Switzerland, which appear to be destined to exert a great influence in the future.

AMWEG, JOHN MICHAEL, was a native of Prussia, who emigrated to this country and settled in Lancaster county before the American revolution. He settled in Cocalico, at a place near Reinholdsville. He was a man of a


good education, and pursued the calling of a school-master. Being industrious and economical, he soon acquired property around him. He was the ancestor of the family name in this county. One of his sons was named Jacob, and his son William, was the father of Jacob B., William S., and John M. Amweg, members of the bar of Lancaster. Wm. Amweg died in 1861.

ANDERSON, JAMES, a citizen of Donegal township, who resided near the borough of Marietta. He was a member of the Legislature in the years 1776, 1778, 1779 and 1780.

ANDREWS, HUGH, a member of the Legislature in 1840 and 1841.

ARMSTRONG, ANDREW, a citizen of East Donegal township. He was elected a member' of the Legislature in October, 1866, and served one session. He is a man of considerable intellect and force of character, and entertains very independent and decided opinions. He has been one of the early and firm friends of the Free School System.

ARMSTRONG, ARTHUR, a painter of considerable repute; many of whose paintings are yet preserved by citizens of Lancaster. The following notice of Mr. Armstrong, by a cotemporary, seems to depict his artistic skill in its proper light : " It does not require a connoisseur in the fine arts to discover something remarkable in the style of Mr. Armstrong's painting; he leaves nothing in the dark for the imagination. to work out; it is bold and distinct, and yet the distance is kept with such a natural harmony as to give it at once that ease and softness essential to the art. The picture (the one our cotemporary describes), is on a rich blue silk, and is intended as a banner for the Washington Fire Company of Louisville, Kentucky. The back of the canvass represents the Washington family, which is not a mere covering of the bare material, but with a persevering assiduity the artist has left nothing unfinished. The scene is under the portico of the mansion at Mt. Vernon, and consists of the domestic family circle. Ia the distance is seen the Potomac, studded with sails. In short, the whole is beautifully worked out and more worthy the gallery than the back of a banner.


This splendid piece of workmanship reflects a character of no ordinary degree on its author, and it must be a source of gratification to himself, as well as to his friends, that the reputation he has gained by his late productions, secures for him the patronage which his genius so richly merits. Mr. Armstrong is an eminent artist, indeed."

ARMSTRONG, JOHN, elected County Commissioner in 1869.

ARMSTRONG, THOMAS, a member of the Legislature in 1735 and 1736.

ASH, PHINEAS, elected County Commissioner in 1816.

ATLEE, JOHN L., M. D., eldest son of Col. Wm. Pitt Atlee, and grandson of the Hon. Wm. Aug. Atlee, was born in Lancaster, November 2d, 1799. With the exception of about one year, spent in Gray & Wiley's Academy, in 1813 and 1814, he received his preliminary education in his native city, and entered the office of the late Samuel Humes, M. D., in 1815. He graduated at the University of Pennsylvania in April, 1820, and from that time till the present, has practiced the various branches of his profession in Lancaster. He took an active part in the organization of the Lancaster City and County Medical Society, and has been twice elected its President ; of the State Medical Society in 1848, of which he was elected President, in 1857; and of the American Medical Association, of which he was chosen one of the Vice Presidents, in 1868.

At the union of Franklin and Marshall Colleges, he was elected Professor of Anatomy and Physiology, and lectured annually to the classes until within the last three years.

He has always taken an interest in the subject of education in his native city, and for more than forty years was a member of the Lancaster City School Board. As a member of the medical profession, Dr. Atlee is a physician of rare skill, extensive practice, and widely famed as one of the most skillful surgeons of Pennsylvania.

ATLEE, SAMUEL J., was a colonel in the American revolution, and one who did effective service in the emancipation of the colonies from British rule. His father married Jane


Alcock, maid of honor to the Queen of England ; and the match being clandestine, they immediately sailed for America. They had three children, William Augustus, Samuel John, and Amelia. Samuel John was born in year 1739. Being a youth of great ambition and daring, he, at the early age of sixteen, obtained the command of a company in the provincial service (war of 1755), in the regiment under Col. Burd, and was present at Braddock's defeat. During the continuance of that war, it was his fate to be taken prisoner twice, once by the Indians, and again by the French. He remained in the service eleven years. After the expiration of this service, he read law, and was engaged in the pursuit of his profession until the breaking out of the revolution. He was married to Sarah Richardson, on the 19th of April, 1762.

At the commencement of hostilities with the mother country, Captain Atlee, being one of two in the county of Lancaster who had any knowledge of military tactics, undertook the duties of the drill, in order to prepare his fellow-citizens to breast the impending storm. His unremitting attention was devoted to this object during the greater part of the year 1775 ; and in the beginning of 1776, by virtue of an Act of the General Assembly of March 5th of the same year, he raised in the Pequea Valley and in Chester county, the First Regiment of State Infantry, of which he was appointed colonel. Although this regiment was called out simply for the defence of the province, yet Col. Atlee and his command voluntarily marched to New Jersey to cooperate with the American army in that quarter. He achieved imperishable honors with his regiment at the battle of Long Island,¹ on which occasion he was taken prisoner, having only a sergeant and sixteen men left, the rest having been previously killed or taken prisoners. He suffered eighteen months' imprisonment, part of it on board a prison ship.

¹A very interesting account of the battle of Long Island, in which Col. Atlee was prominent, may be found in the Life of President Reed, by his grandson, Wm. B. Reed, Vol. I., p. 221-224. In the same volume is also published an extract from Col. Atlee's journal, describing the particulars of the battle in a spirited manner, Vol. I., p. 413. See also in the Diary of the American Revolution, by Frank Moore, Vol. I., p. 297, in a foot-note, a sketch of Col. Atlee.


During his imprisonment he lived for two weeks on chestnuts. The British gaolers were in the habit of cutting up raw pork into small pieces and throwing them to the prisoners, calling " pig, pig." The prisoners were so near starved, that they killed their dogs and ate them, and roasted

their leather breeches for food.

¹Col. Atlee was chosen a member of the Continental Congress in 1778, and held a seat in this body up to 1782.

In 1780 Col. Atlee was appointed by the Supreme Executive Council, Lieutenant of Lancaster county. In 1783 he was elected Councillor of Lancaster county, and on the 21st of October of the same year he appeared in the Supreme Executive Council, subscribed the required oath, and took his seat as a member of the Board. He was one of the committee with Gen. Sullivan and Dr. Witherspoon, who were sent by Congress in January, 1781, to endeavor to conciliate the mutineers of the Pennsylvania Line. He was afterwards, in 1784, one of the Commissioners, on the part of Pennsylvania, who ratified the treaties of Forts Stanwix and McIntosh, with the deputies of the Six

Nations and the Wyandot and Delaware Indians. The Commissioners each were allowed forty-five shillings per diem for their services, the same as a delegate to Congress at the time received.²

¹About the 20th of January, 1779, he wrote to the Supreme Executive Council of the State, claiming to be appointed a Brigadier General. The Council ordered that the same be transmitted to His Excellency, General Washington, and his opinion requested thereon. In a letter of General Washington to President Reed, dated February 9th, 1779, (Pennsylvania Archives, Vol. VII, p. 181,) he considers the claim of Col. Atlee to rank. He says he has a high opinion of his merits and abilities as an officer, but he does not see that he can, at this time, be promoted to the rank of Brigadier, as the State having only two Brigades in the field, is entitled only to two Brigadiers-that Gen. Wayne was one, and that Col. Morgan and Col. Irwin, being senior officers, have superior pretensions to Col. Atlee.

²In a letter of Col. Atlee to President Dickinson, dated Pequea, Lancaster county, November 18th, 1784, he mentions his arrival at his home, and reports that part of their mission to the Northern tribes is satisfactorily concluded. He then claims that notwithstanding his absence in

discharging his duties as a Commissioner, he is entitled for two years. longer to a seat in the Council, and protests against the election of a

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He was elected to the General Assembly of Pennsylvania for the year 1782, and also for 1785 and 1786.

Whilst Col. Atlee was attending as a Commissioner in the ratification of the Indian treaty, he contracted a cold by lying on the damp ground, from the effects of which he never recovered. In November, 1786, whilst walking in the streets of Philadelphia, he was seized with a paroxysm of coughing, ruptured a blood vessel, and shortly afterwards expired.

In personal appearance Col. Atlee was very handsome, with a fresh and ruddy complexion, brown hair, blue eyes, straight and portly, and very military in his carriage.

ATLEE, WM. AUGUSTUS, brother of the above, was born at Philadelphia., July 1st, 1735. He moved to Lancaster at an early day, and read law under the instruction of Edward Shippen, esq. He was admitted to the bar, August .8rd, 1758, and soon became prominent in his profession as one of the leading lawyers of his day. He was elected Chief :Burgess of the Borough of Lancaster, September 15th, 1770, to which position he was thrice subsequently chosen, and administered the duties of said office up to September, 1774. Upon the breaking out of the American revolution, he became tan active and leading Whig, and in 1776 was chosen chairman of the Committee of Public Safety of Lancaster. He was appointed August 16th, 1777, by the Supreme Executive Council, second Judge of the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania, his associates being Thomas McKean and John Evans. During the years 1777 and 1778, he held the position of Commissary of the British prisoners confined at Lancaster. He was re-appointed Judge of the Supreme Court, August 9th, 1784; and on the 17th of August, 1791,

Councillor from Lancaster county in his stead. This claim seems to have been allowed, as Graydon, in the Memoir of his own Times, p. 384, congratulates himself upon having received the appointment of Prothonotary of Dauphin county, in 1785, and goes on to say : " The Republican party possessed a majority in the Council, and Col. Atlee, who belonged to it, was designated for the office. He was conspicuous as a party man, and if I mistake not, 'was at the time a member of the Legislature, and on the scale of services and character no one had better claims. To keep out Atlee the Constitutionalists were disposed to give their votes to any one of his competitors. The President (Dickinson) had probably given a promise to Col. Atlee as well as myself."


he was appointed President Judge of the district, composed of the counties of Chester, Lancaster, York, and Dauphin, which position he filled up to his death, September 9th, 1793. As a member of the Supreme Bench of Pennsylvania he rendered efficient service and it is somewhat noteworthy, that a remarkable uniformity of opinion is observable in the proceedings of the Supreme Court at that early day. Lord Mansfield, speaking of Dallas' Reports in 1791, used the following language : " They do credit to the Court, the bar and the reporter. They show readiness in practice, liberality in principle, strong reason and legal learning."

In private life Judge Atlee was a man of easy and very gentlemanly deportment, and noted for his high-toned integrity and strong adherence to his sense of right.

ATLEE,Wm. A., son of Dr. John L. Atlee, is a graduate of Yale College, of the class of 1851, and a member of the Lancaster bar, admitted in 1854. He was elected District Attorney of Lancaster county, in 1865, and in 1869 chosen Mayor of the City of Lancaster, administering said office for two years.

- B -

BACHMAN, CHRISTIAN, was for a long time cashier of the old Lancaster Bank. He was appointed Prothonotary of Lancaster county in 1830. His son, Benjamin C. Bachman, was President of the Lancaster Bank at the time it failed, in 1856.

BACHMAN, JACOB, a member of the Legislature, in the year 1823.

BAER, JOHN, was the principal founder of the leading German paper of Lancaster county, the Volksfreund and Beobachter. In 1817 he came in possession of the old Volksfreund, founded in 1808, subsequently consolidated therewith the Beobachter, and made the paper a complete business success. He managed the paper up to the period of his death, November 6th, 1858. It is now conducted by Reuben A. and Christian R. Baer, under the firm name of John Baer's Sons.


*BAILEY, FRANCIS, occupied an old house on the premises of his father, in Sadsbury, which he used for a printing office, and for some time he used the upper part of the spring-house for that purpose. About the year 1800 he erected a large stone printing office on the place, which is standing at the present day, where the business was carried on by him until about the year 1815. He was a zealous advocate of American independence, and his name appears very frequently in connection with the Freeman's Journal, throughout five volumes of the. Colonial Records ; an order was drawn in his favor on the Treasurer, December 2d, 1779, for the sum of £4,873 7s.. 6d., the amount of his account for printing work done for Council.¹ It appears by the records that he executed the public printing for Council up to the year 1790.

An order was drawn in his favor on the 18th of August, 1779, for £5,000, to be forwarded for the purpose of purchasing flour for the army; and September 2d, 1780, an order was drawn in his fairor for $12,988, for sundry articles purchased by him and delivered to Col. Ryan for the use of the militia called into service.² Large numbers of orders were drawn in his favor at many different times for printing and binding, for copies of the laws and constitutions of the. different States, for his Journal for the use of the members, &c., and for printing done for the Comptroller General's office, and for printing the tax lists and advertisements in the Freeman's Journal up to the year 1790.³ He executed a large portion of the State printing, at his office in Sadsbury township, from the year 1790 until after the close of the administration of Thomas M'Kean. The pamphlet laws were printed at his office until the administration of Simon Snyder, and within the recollection of our oldest inhabitants. Francis Bailey was a worthy patriot of revolutionary times. He was also a pious and religious man; and about the year 1788, beside Count Buelow and Reichenbach, he and his family were among the first in Lancaster county to receive

*Contributed by Isaac Walker, of Sadsbury.

¹Col. Rec., Vol. XII., p. 188. 

²Col. Rec., Vol. XII., p. 467.

³Col. Rec., Vol. XVI., p. 526.


the doctrines of the New Jerusalem Church.¹ When far advanced in life, he removed with some of his family to the city of Philadelphia, and his lands and residence were purchased by Wm. Maxwell, the father of the present Robert

and Richard Maxwell.

*BAILEY FRANCIS, son of Robert Bailey, was an active young man at the time of the American revolution. He learned the trade of a printer and worked a short time in Lancaster borough. He was appointed in 1777, by the Executive Council, Coroner of Lancaster county. On the 8th of April, 1778, Francis Bailey and Captain Long were appointed to bring seventeen of the leading Quakers in Pennsylvania (who were arrested by order of Congress and supposed to be inimical to the American cause), and convey them to Winchester, Virginia.² They were also charged to bring the prisoners home again.

¹Rupp's History of Lancaster Co., p. 431.

²The following is a copy of the order of discharge :

LANCASTER, April 10th, 1778.


Gentlemen : The enclosed resolves will show that you are appointed and authorized to conduct the prisoners sent from this State from Virginia, from Winchester, the place of their present confinement, to this borough ; and on your arrival here, acquaint this Council thereof. Those of them who are in health, you are to bring with you, treating them on the road with the polite attention and care which is due to men who act upon the purest motives, to gentlemen whose station in life entitles them to respect, however they may differ in political sentiments from those in whose power they are. You will please to give them every aid in your power, by procuring the necessary means of traveling in wagons or otherwise, with such baggage as may be convenient for them on the road. Your own prudence and good sense will direct you, in such incidents as may turn up, in which the Council have no doubt but your conduct will justify their confidence in you."

On the 27th of April, Messrs. Bailey and Long reported to the Executive Council, then sitting in Lancaster, that they had received the following persons from the jail in Winchester, Virginia, agreeably to the orders of this Council, viz. : Israel Pemberton, James Pemberton, John Pemberton, Henry Drinker, Samuel Pleasants, William Smith, Edward Pennington, Thomas Wharton, Owen Jones, Charles Eddy, Charles Gervis, Elijah Brown, Thomas Fisher, Samuel R. Fisher, and Myers Fisher ; and that Thomas Gilpin and John Hunt were dead.

*Contributed by Isaac Walker, of Sadsbury.


*BAILEY ROBERT, one of the early settlers of Sadsbury township. He purchased 300 acres of land in Sadsbury township, on the road leading from the Gap to the copper mines. At the time of the revolution, although advanced in years, he was an early and influential advocate of American independence. He was, on the 15th of November, 1774, elected by the citizens of Lancaster county one of the Committee authorized to be chosen by resolution of the Continental Congress, which Committee was authorized to watch the conduct of all persons as regards their action and sentiments with reference to the pending difficulties between the mother country and the colonies. He was also entrusted with money by the Council of Safety, to distribute amongst the needy associators of Lancaster county.

He erected the large and commodious residence now owned and occupied by . Robert Maxwell, where he spent the balance of his useful life.

BAKER, JOHN, was elected Recorder of Lancaster county, in 1867.

BAKER, REV. JOHN C., son of Samuel R. and Elizabeth Baker, was born in Philadelphia, May 7th, 1792. Having lost his father when a child of eighteen months old, he was reared under the roof of his maternal grandfather. He was delicate in constitution, but was strikingly precocious,

The case of the prisoners brought from Virginia, and now in this borough, being considered thereupon, ordered that they be immediately sent to Pottsgrove, in the county of Philadelphia., and there discharged from confinement ; and that they be furnished with a copy of the order, which shall be deemed a discharge. And that A. B., of the city of Philadelphia, gentleman, one of the prisoners referred to in the foregoing order of Council, is hereby permitted, with hishorses, servants and baggage, to pass unmolested into the county of Philadelphia, agreeably to the said order, which is to be respected as their discharge. Also a pass to Philadelphia, for Mrs. Jones, Mrs.. Pemberton, Mrs. Pleasants, and Mrs. Drinker ; and for Israel Morris, who attended them, being requested, was granted. And it is ordered that the whole expense of arresting and 'confining the prisoners sent to Virginia, the expenses of their journey, and all other incidental charges, be paid by the prisoners, and that an order be drawn on the Treasurer in favor of Mr. Bailey and Captain Long, for the sum of one hundred and fifty pounds, for which they are to account.

*Contributed by Isaac Walker, of Sadsbury.


and was regarded by all as a very thoughtful and conscientious boy. He early evinced a fondness for reading, and made more than ordinary progress in his studies. In 1802 he was placed under instruction in Nazareth Hall, a seminary of the Moravian church, in which institution he remained five years. He early determined to study for the ministry, though his friends had wished that he should succeed his father in the mercantile business. After remaining a short time in Philadelphia, he set out for Lebanon, Pa., and began the study of theology under Rev. Dr. Lochman.

In 1811 he was licensed by the Synod of Pennsylvania, and immediately thereafter accepted a call as an assistant minister of a German congregation in Philadelphia. In the following year the church at Germantown, Pa., having become vacant, Mr. Baker was chosen as the pastor of this church. His charge embraced Germantown, Whitemarsh, Barren Hill, and several other smaller congregations. He labored faithfully in this charge for the period of fifteen years, and, in 1818, chiefly through his instrumentality, the new church edifice was erected, a monument of his zeal and enterprise.

In November, 1827, he received a call from the trustees, elders, and wardens of Trinity Lutheran church of Lancaster, Pa., which he accepted.¹ The principal motive in his accepting this latter call, was the prospect of increased usefulness, and a more extended sphere for his pastoral activity. He entered upon his duties, in this new position, January 27th, 1828, delivering his introductory sermon in German, and on the following Sunday, in English. On February 17th, 1828, chiefly through his efforts, the Sunday School of the church was .organized. This school was opened on the 9th of March, with 413 pupils and 6 teachers. Mr. Baker preached in both the German and English languages, in both of which he was equally eloquent.

¹The call extended to Mr. Baker was signed by the following names.: George Musser, President ; George King, Vice President ; Peter Protzman, Christian Swentzel, W. Hensel, G. L. Mayer, Adam Keller, Joseph Hubley, George R. Krug, Jacob Snyder, Joseph Blandford, Henry Eichholtz, David Lebkicher, John Yost, Christopher Hager, F. D. Hubley, Christian Bachman, J. F. Heinitsh, Secretary.


On November 1st, 1852, Dr. Baker tendered his unconditional resignation of his office of pastor of Trinity Lutheran church, which, though with the greatest reluctance, was accepted, and on the 30th of January, of the following year, he preached his farewell sermon, in the presence of an

immense audience, and thus closed his twenty-five years of pastoral labor in Lancaster.

He removed to Philadelphia, and took charge of St. Luke's Evangelical Lutheran church, where he spent the evening of his days in building up a new congregation in the city of his birth. To this service he devoted himself with all his youthful zeal, and labored with great faithfulness without compensation; and even contributing from his own resources to the support of the church. In this charge he labored like a faithful steward, until the Master called him home to his reward. He died April 21st, 1859; and he lies buried in Woodward Hill Cemetery, in Lancaster.

Dr. Baker was an earnest, enthusiastic and indefatigable minister of the gospel. He could say, that "I must work while it is day; the night cometh when no man can work." This was his motto, and faithfully was it followed. He was unwearied in his varied ministrations, in his attentions to the old and young, rich and poor, healthy and sick. In the labors of the Sunday School he was ever faithful and attentive.

Dr. Baker was familiar with both the English and German theological works, and received from Lafayette College, in 1837, the degree of Doctor of Divinity.

He was an, influential member of the Lutheran Synod of Pennsylvania, and for many years filled the office of Treasurer. He also presided as president over the deliberations of that body. In Missionary operations he took a very active part, and for many years prepared the annual report.

For a long period he was a leading and influential member of the Lancaster School Board, and was a most regular and welcome visitor in all the schools.

His kindness of heart and simplicity of manners endeared him to all classes. He was, in short, a bright and shining light upon Zion's walls.


BALDWIN, J. C., was elected Clerk of Quarter Sessions and Oyer and Terminer, in the year 1863.

BALDWIN, ROBERT, was elected a member of the Legislature in the years 1849 and 1850. He was also elected to the State Senate in the year 1857.

BALMER, DANIEL, for many years a magistrate of Lancaster county, resident at Elizabethtown. He was elected a member of the Legislature in the year 1842.

BARBER, ROBERT, was a native of Yorkshire, England, emigrated to America, and settled in Chester county, Pennsylvania. He was a Quaker by persuasion; and either in Chester or Philadelphia, married Hannah Tidmarsh, a lady of the same religious principles as his own. Prior to coming to America, he had followed a seafaring life and had been captured and detained as a prisoner in France. He was an energetic man, and in 1721 was appointed Coroner of Chester county. In company with John Wright and Samuel Blunston, he purchased a large tract of land near where Columbia now stands. His tract of land lay on the eastern bank of the Susquehanna, and embraced one thousand acres bounded on the northwest by Chickies Hills, and to the, south by what was afterwards called Patton's Hill. He was the first Sheriff of Lancaster county; appointed October 4th, 1729. While Barber was Sheriff, owing to the belief that somewhat prevailed at the time, that the seat of justice would be established at Wright's Ferry (now Columbia), he built a prison near his house. This prison was a strong log building, and was torn down not many years since. It was in this prison that James Annesley, alias Lord Altham, was confined when he ran away from his master. Robert Barber had severgl children, the oldest of whom was killed by the Indians near the site of Pittsburg.

BARE, ADAM, was for many years an innkeeper, on the New Holland pike, and also was engaged in agricultural pursuits. He was one of the earliest and most influential members of the Anti-Masonic party of the county. He was elected Sheriff of Lancaster county in the year 1830. He was, in 1834, elected one of the County Commissioners.


*BARTON, BENJAMIN S., son of the Rev. Thomas Barton, was born in Lancaster, February 10th, 1766. His mother was the sister of the celebrated philosopher, Rittenhouse. The death of his parents occasioned his removal, in 1782, to the family of a brother, in Philadelphia, where he spent several years in the study of literature, the sciences, and medicine. In 1786 he went to Great Britain, and prosecuted his medical studies at Edinburgh and London. He, afterwards; visited Gottingen, and there obtained the degree of Doctor of Medicine. On returning to Philadelphia, in 1789, he established himself as a physician in the city, and his superior talents and education soon procured him competent employment. He was, that year, appointed Professor of Natural History and Botany, in the College of Philadelphia, and continued in that office on the incorporation of the College with the University, in 1791. He was appointed Professor of Materia Medica, on the resignation of Dr. Griffiths ; and, on the death of Dr. Rush, succeeded him in the department of the Theory and Practice of Medicine. He died December 19th, 1816.

Dr. Barton was highly distinguished by his talents and professional attainments, and contributed much, by his lectures and writings, to the progress of natural science in the United States. He published " Elements of Zoology and Botany," in which he made respectable additions to the zoological science of our country, and displayed a degree of genius, diligence, learning, and zeal, in this pursuit, which do honor to our republic, and which bid fair to place him among the most accomplished and useful naturalists of his time. In 1803 he published "Elements of Botany, or Outlines of the Natural History of Vegetables," &c. Dr. Barton has the honor of being the first American who gave to his country an elementary work on botany; and "if we may judge," says Dr. Miller, in his 'Retrospect of the Eighteenth Century,' "of the subsequent interest from the first fruits, it will be rich, indeed._ This work is illustrated by thirty plates, and discovers an extent of learning, and an acuteness and vigor of mind, and elegance and taste highly honorable

*Thatcher's Medical Biography.


to the author. Of the thirty plates that accompany this work, twenty-eight have claims to more or less originality, and many of them are completely original. They are well executed; and most of the subjects selected for delineation are remarkable for their rarity and beauty, or some other peculiarity of character. Every part of this work discovers that the author has not been contented with compiling the facts and opinions of his predecessors, but that he accurately observed and thought for himself. He will, therefore no doubt be pronounced, by the best judges, to have presented his countrymen with the most instructive work of this kind in the English language."

Dr. Barton published " Collections for an essay towards a Materia Medica of the United States," which is the only work, professedly, on the subject of which it treats, that bad at that time issued from the American press. In 1810 the author published a third edition of this very valuable production. It is an original work, of great merit, and was peculiarly acceptable to the public, as it brought into notice numerous medical remedies, the production of our own soil, which had been entirely neglected, but which have since augmented and enriched the American Materia Medica. In 1805 Dr. Barton commenced the publication of the " Medical and Physical. Journal," to which he contributed many valuable articles.

As a naturalist, the merits of Dr. Barton are of no common kind ; and he has deservedly received a large share of praise in his own and in foreign countries, for his many and successful exertions in enlarging the sphere of natural knowledge. He published " Fragments of the Natural History of Pennsylvania," an " Essay on the Fascinating Power ascribed to Serpents," &c., and several memoirs on particular specimens in zoology, in the " American Philosophical Transactions." In his " Views of the Origin of the Tribes and Nations of America," will be found vocabularies of a number of Indian languages that were never before committed to the press; comparing these with languages more generally known, both on the Eastern and Western continents; and thence deducing new evidence in support of


the opinion that the nations of America and those of Asia have a common origin, and that all mankind are derived from a single pair. His various works evince a closeness of observation, an accuracy of inquiry, an extent of learning, and a vigor and comprehensiveness of mind, which are equally honorable to their possessor and to his country. It is but just to observe, that American science and literature are indebted to the indefatigable labors of him whose memoirs are here presented.¹

BARTON, GEORGE WASHINGTON, a grandson of Rev. Thomas Barton, was born in Lancaster, Sept., 1807. When a boy, he was very frolicsome and wild, and it was with difficulty that his attention could be attracted with books. His first instructor in the classics, was a Mr. Shiffer of Lancaster, but his truancy often prevented his appearance at recitation time. After making some progress with this teacher, even against his will, he was next sent to Nazareth, a school of wide repute. His stay at this Seminary of learning was between two and three years. Upon his return he entered a printing office, and began the learning of that trade, as he was altogether averse to the professions. Soon afterwards he went to Philadelphia, and meeting with his cousin, Wm. C. Barton, an eminent Professor of Botany in the Jefferson College, he was by him induced to turn his attention to the study of botany. He returned to Lancaster, discontinued the printing business, and, for a time, pursued with great zeal the new study. Shortly afterwards he concluded to travel, and made several voyages to foreign countries. In one of these voyages he was shipwrecked on the coast of Buenos Ayres; and having made his way to the American Consul, he was furnished a passport, and sailed for New York. At this time he was little, if anything, over fifteen years of age. He afterwards made his way to Nash-

¹In the year 1785, Messrs. Rittenhouse, Ellicott, Peters, and Nevill, were appointed Commissioners to trace the meridian, northward, for the western boundary of Pennsylvania, beginning at the S. E. corner of the State. In this undertaking the services of Benjamin S. Barton were enlisted, a youth then of but nineteen years of age, but whose scientific acquirements, even at that early period of his life, had rendered a useful associate of the Commissioners.—Life of Rittenhouse.


ville, Tennessee, when about seventeen, and remained in that city about four years. During this time he was engaged in a printing office.. While in this situation he contributed several articles for the press, which drew the attention of Felix Grundy, who offered to instruct him gratis in the study of the law, as he perceived him to possess talents of a rare. order. Having at that time no taste for the legal profession, he declined the liberal offer. Hearing of the death of his mother, he concluded to return to Lancaster, and did so, arriving at his home in the midst of the Jackson campaign, of 1828. After his return, he wrote some articles for the newspapers, that caused quite a sensation ; and among the rest drew the attention of James Buchanan. Mr. Buchanan first met him at a barbecue at Cheves' woods, during a political campaign, and was so delighted with the brilliancy which his conversation displayed, that he invited him to call and see him at his office. He did so, and the result was, that he soon became a student of law in the office of Mr. Buchanan. He was admitted to the bar in 1830. He began the practice. of the profession with great eclat, and astonished everybody with the brilliancy of his declamation, which surpassed anything that had ever before been heard at the Lancaster bar. His smooth, graceful and polished oratory, is believed'by those who heard him, to have equaled the finest displays of eloquence of the American Congress; and he is remembered and constantly cited by the bar and people who heard him as the finest declaimer who ever spoke before a Lancaster jury.

After practicing law for some years, in Lancaster, with great reputation, he was appointed District Attorney for Philadelphia, where he removed, and was afterwards appointed Judge of one of the courts, by Governor Porter. He presided as Judge for three or four years. He subsequently practised in the profession, in the city of Philadelphia, for some time, and afterwards emigrated to California, and located, as an entire stranger, in the city of San Francisco. An opportunity was b'ut needed to introduce him on the Pacific coast. He tendered his services to an undefended criminal, and the great brilliancy and ability displayed in


this defence established him at once, and soon he was overwhelmed with business. He took rank, therefore, as one of the leading lawyers of San Francisco. But destiny reserved but a brief glory for this Achilles of the bar, and death removed the brilliant star of genius on the 25th of December, 1851.

BARTON, MATTHIAS, was a son of Rev. Thomas Barton, and was admitted to the bar in 1778. He was elected from Lancaster county to the Legislature, in the years 1793, 1794 and 1795. In 1796 he was elected to the Senate of Pennsylvania, and reelected in 1800.

Mr. Barton was a man of superior culture, and possessed a great fondness for natural history. In his travels through Pennsylvania and other States, he made considerable collections of natural history; and he noted, in an especial manner, the habits of animals; in particular the viviparous quadrupeds, and also of birds and fishes. He was for many years engaged in collecting materials for a work " on the Instincts and Manners of Animals." He also made a large collection of the mineral productions of Pennsylvania. In his collection were many specimens of the ores and clays of his native State.

Without the aid of a master, Mr. Barton excelled as a painter and drawer of sketches from nature. A considerable portion of his leisure time was employed in painting scenes from nature, and the animal productions of our country. Some of his drawings of birds and fishes of Pennsylvania were acknowledged by competent judges to have been amongst the most beautiful found in the department of natural history.

Mr. Barton was a gentleman very amiable in his manners, of unspotted private virtue, and whose charms in society endeared him to all with whom he came in contact. He was a useful citizen, and ranked amongst the ablest men of Pennsylvania. He died January 11th, 1809, in the 47th year of his age.

BARTON, THOMAS, was born in Ireland, in the year 1730. He was educated at Trinity College, Dublin. Shortly after graduating, he came to America, and was for about


two years engaged as an assistant teacher in the academy at Philadelphia. In 1755 he returned to England, bearing a recommendation from the Professors of the College, and the clergy of the Province of Pennsylvania, and with an earnest petition from the inhabitants of Huntingdon, Pennsylvania, that he might be appointed their missionary. After the requisite preliminaries he was ordained, and came back as missionary for the counties of York and Cumberland.

He reached Philadelphia, about April 10th, 1755, and immediately wrote to some of the leading men of his mission, who caused a number of wagons to be sent for his effects. He reached the field of his labors about the last of May, and his first care was to make himself acquainted with the condition and members of his three congregations, York, Carlisle and Huntingdon. After he had caused wardens and vestrymen to be established in the different congregations, these met in convention, and it was agreed that he should officiate three Sundays in six at Huntingdon, two at Carlisle, and one at York. The labors devolved upon him in attending three congregations, the extremes of which lay 148 miles apart, can be easily conceived. Besides having learned that there were within the limits of the mission, large numbers of the communion of the Church of England, in Shippensburg, and four or five other settlements, he determined to visit each of these four times in the year, in order to prepare them for the Sacrament of the Lord's Supper, and to baptize their children.

Scarcely had Mr. Barton commenced his labors, before his attention was drawn to the wretched condition of the Indians, some of whom resided at no great distance from the seat of his labors; and having heard that a number of them had come down from the Ohio to Carlisle, to dispose of their fur and deer-skins, he took occasion to go among them, and endeavored to secure their goed-will in the hope of making himself useful to them. He invited them to church, and such of them as had any knowledge of English, came and seemed attentive. Subsequently, these brought their brethren to shake hands with him and the result of the interview was, that he had great hope of being able to bring them


under the influence of Christianity. But just at this time, tidings came that the forces under the command of General Braddock had been defeated, as they were marching to Fort Duquesne, (now Pittsburg); and this was soon succeeded by an alienation of the Indians, which put an end to all hope of prosecuting, successfully, any missionary efforts among them.

Mr. Barton now finding himself exposed to the incursions of the French and Indians, was compelled to organize the young men of his own congregations for defense against their enemies ; and such was his zeal and activity, that he even put himself at their head, and marched either by night or by day when there was an alarm. In 1758, the young men within his mission offered to join the army if Mr. Barton, would accompany them; whereupon he proposed himself to Gen. Forbes, as chaplain of the troops, and his services were thankfully accepted. He was, however, absent from his ordinary duties but a short time, though it was long enough to give him the opportunity of making the acquaintance of Washington, Mercer, and other distinguished officers of the army.

It was during the time that Mr. Barton was engaged in teaching in Philadelphia, in 1751, that he formed the acquaintance of David Rittenhouse, then about 19 years of age. A warm attachment sprang up between Mr. Barton and Esther Rittenhouse, which, in 1753, resulted in their marriage. It was chiefly through the instrumentality of Mr. Barton, that the uncommon ability of David Rittenhouse was first discovered, who afforded him every facility for developing his genius, by procuring him books and asssisting him in the study of the languages. The friendship thus early cemented between the philosopher Rittenhouse and Mr. Barton never ceased ; even the unfortunate difference of political opinion, as regarded the propriety of revolution, never marred the kind feelings which the one entertained for the other.¹

In 1759, Mr. Barton was appointed rector of St. James'

¹ Would that such liberality and high toned feeling would become universal in the hearts of mankind.


Church, and missionary for the congregations of Pequea and Caernarvon. This position he continued to fill for the space of 20 years. In addition to these three charges, he officiated occasionally at the churches of New London and White. Clay creek—the one distant 35 miles, the other 50 miles from his residence. So great was the amount of labor he performed, and such the fatigue and exposure to which he was subjected in his missionary excursions, that he became sensible that his constitution was greatly impaired ; but he still kept on laboring, to the extent of his ability ; and the letters which from time time he wrote to the Society for propagating the Gospel, show that he was resolved to persevere in his labors until his health should entirely fail, or. Providence should in some other way hedge up his path.

Mr. Barton had never lost, in any degree, his interest in the Indians; and was actually planning an excursion of a. few months among them, in or about the year 1764, when his hopes were again blasted by the breaking out of the Indian war, which rendered any approach to them utterly


In 1770, Mr. Barton received the Honorary Degree of Master of Arts, from King's College, New York.

As the difficulties between England and the colonies increased, Mr. Barton, on account of his suspected sympathy for the mother country, found his situation to become more and more embarrassing. He still continued to pray for the king, and this created so strong a feeling against him and his congregation, that it resulted in his church being nailed shut, and so remained till the close of the revolution' In a letter, dated November 25th, 1776, he thus describes his situation: " I have been obliged to shut up my churches to avoid the fury of the populace, who would not suffer the liturgy to be used, unless the collects and prayers for the King and royal family were omitted, which neither my conscience 'nor the declaration I made and subscribed when ordained, would allow me to comply with; and, although I used every pru-

¹ At the breaking out of the American revolution, every Episcopal church in Pennsylvania was closed.—Documentary History of State of New York, Vol. IV, p. 241.

- 3 -


dent step to give no offense, even to those who usurped authority and rule, and exercised the severest tyranny over us, yet my life and property have been threatened, upon mere suspicion of being unfriendly to what is called the American cause.' Indeed, every clergyman of the church .of England, who dared to act upon proper principles, was marked out for infamy, and insult, in consequence of which, the missionaries, in particular, have suffered greatly. Some of them have been dragged from their houses, assaulted with stones and dirt, ducked in water, and obliged to fly for their lives, driven from their habitations and families, laid under arrest and imprisonment. I believe they were all, or at least most of them, reduced to the same necessity with me, of shutting up their churches. It is, however, a great pleasure to assure the venerable Society that, though I have been deprived of the satisfaction of discharging my public duties to my congregations, I have endeavored, I trust not unsuccessfully, to be beneficial to them in another way. I have visited them from hour to hour, regularly instructed their families, baptized and catechized their children, and performed such other duties as atoned for my suspension from public teaching."

Mr. Barton's connection with the congregation of St. James, in Lancaster, ceased sometime in the year 1777, and near the close of the following year he and his wife went to New York, in pursuance of permission granted by the government of Pennsylvania, under certain conditions, one of which was, that he should not return again. His removal to New York was occasioned by his refusal to take the oath of allegiance to the American government, and a passport was furnished him by the Supreme Executive Council, for his banishment within the British lines. All his children, excepting the oldest, remained in Pennsylvania. For nearly two years he was not permitted to see his children. In 1779 his son returned from Europe, when David Rittenhouse, Col. Samuel J. Atlee, (formerly one of his parishioners), and others, exerted their influence to obtain an interview between the parents and children. In reply to a letter from one of these friends, apprising him of his son's arrival home,


after a long absence, dated January 30th, 1779, Mr. Barton thus explains the scruples which actuated his conduct, and reveals the sorrow which worked in the parental heart :

" I am just informed that my son has returned to his native country, after an absence of between three and four years. How melancholy and distressing is my situation! Separated from eight children, and three congregations, to whom I am bound by duty, gratitude, and every tie of

affection ! A parent only knows a parent's woes ; and such will feel for me. You are kind enough to tell me that my son equests me to return to my parish. What he can mean by this request, I am totally at a loss to understand. Could the matter have been determined by my option, I should never have left my parish for any prospect or preferment that could offer. But no choice was left me, but either to take the oath or to suffer a painful separation from my dearest connections, as well as from a country which has always had, since I have known it, my predilections and best wishes; a country to which I can declare (with an appeal to heaven for the truth of the declaration), I never did, or wished to do, any act or thing prejudicial or injurious; and, though my heart assures me that many conscientious and good men have conformed to the test-act, yet my own conscience always revolted at the abjuration part of it, and prevailed with me to surrender every worldly consideration that should come in competition or tempt me to a violation of it. This, sir, was the only crime (if a crime it be) for which I now suffer banishment from all that are most dear to me : with an interdict "not to return again." I cannot, therefore, comprehend how I can, consistently, return before this interdict is cancelled, or some assurance given me that I may again unite and live quietly with my family, without being subjected to an abjuration I cannot take. The proper duties and profession of a minister of the Gospel should, in my opinion, never lead him into the field of politics. In conformity to this opinion, every man who knows me can testify, that I never degraded my profession by intermeddling, directly or indirectly, in this present unhappy contest ; so that my own scruples would be a stricter tie upon me than any


that could be made by oaths or tests. You will excuse my troubling you on this subject, when I tell you. that the kind manner which you addressed me, has drawn it upon you."

In reply to another letter from Rittenhouse, he says : " To see and be united with my children, is my earnest wish ; but how that happy event is to be obtained, I know not ; if my son should choose to come to Elizabethtown, perhaps I might be indulged with a flag, to have an interview with him there." This letter, written on the 15th of February, 1779, in connection with the preceding extract, shows the motives and emotions by which Mr. B. claimed to have been influenced. To understand the motives which actuated the government in thus separating a father from his family, and a preacher from his congregation, we will glance at a correspondence then going on between Mr. Bryan, Vice President of the Council, and General Washington. From a letter dated March 5th, 1779, Mr. Bryan writes thus: 

" This board, ever watchful of the public safety and happiness, think it behooves them to communicate to you their suspicion, that Mr. Paul Zantzinger, of the borough of Lancaster, in this State, merchant, who has lately gone hence for camp, has a design of getting liberty to pass into New York. For this purpose he will hold forth his desire to visit his father-in-law, Rev. Thomas Barton, now in that city. When you know the character and conduct of this divine, your Excellency will judge better of such a request. Mr. Barton has long been a missionary stationed at Lancaster by the society in England for propagating the Gospel. It is believed that he has been very instrumental in poisoning the minds of his parishioners, who are generally of very disaffected principles, as to the present contest with Great. Britain. His late conduct in refusing to give the common proofs of allegiance to this State and abjure the King of Great Britain, and in taking the benefit of the indulgence of our Legislature, which allowed him to sell his lands and retire, as he said, to Europe; but above all, his acceptance of a chaplaincy in a British regiment at New York (as is credibly reported here), and thus actively joining the enemy, confirm the worst ideas that have been entertained of this


Gentleman. I would suggest, that Mr. Zantzinger is a trader, who has never manifested much attention to the present gentleman. contest, and very likely to be drawn by interested views to a mart where European merchandizes are sold at prices inviting to men who seek profit merely.

" Mr. Z. is probably accompanied by a son of Mr. Barton, a young gentleman lately returned from England, where he has been weaned of all fond attachment to that corrupted country, and brought to see the happiness and independence of North America in their proper light and connection. Young Mr. Barton is a much clearer character with us than his brother-in-law, and as such I venture to mention him." To this General Washington replied, under date of March 10th, as follows :

" I am much obliged to you for the attention you discover to prevent any intercourse with the enemy, which might be attended with doubtful circumstances. I had taken my measures with the gentlemen who are the objects of your information before I received your letter, and restricted them to our own lines at Elizabethtown Point, where they had liberty to see their friends if they could obtain leave to come over. This I imagined a sufficient security against any consequences which might be apprehended from a more liberal indulgence." .

This indulgence was not obtained until in April, 1780, when, chiefly through the influence of President Reed, the Council granted a passport, thus sanctioned by General Washington ; in pursuance of which, Mr. Barton met his family at Elizabethtown for the last time on earth. Of course the meeting must have been as affecting as the circumstances connected with it were painful. After the interview, he bade adieu to his children and returned to New York, where he died on the 25th of the following month, in the 50th year of his age. His remains were interred in the (formerly chancel of St. George's Chapel in that city. His wife a Miss Thornburg), to whom he was married in 177 6, survived him many years, much esteemed for her many virtues, by Mr'. Barton's descendants. His first wife (formerly Miss Ether Rittenhouse), now lies-interred under what


is known as " the Coleman pew," in St. James' Episcopal church, in this. city.*

BARTON, RHEA, son of Wm. Barton, born at Lancaster, was a leading physician of Philadelphia. He graduated with distinction at the University of Pennsylvania, and soon attained position as a surgeon, excelling in the treatment of difficult cases. His treatment of compound fracture of the leg by bran dressing, is still followed in our large hospitals. His name has been associated with a peculiar fracture of the radius, involving the wrist joint, and with an ingenions bandage for dressing a broken jaw. He was married to a daughter of the late Jacob Ridgway, of Philadelphia. Dr. Barton died at his residence on South Broad street, Philadelphia, January 1st, 1871.

BARTON, WILLIAM, the oldest son of Rev. Thomas Barton, was a man of solid ability and great energy of character. In September, 1775, at the suggestion of his father, he left America for England, bearing with him letters of recommendation from Bishop Peters, and other persons. While in Europe, he laid the foundation of his education, and otherwise advanced his literary interests, for which he had a peculiar fondness. He left England in 1778, and returned to America by way of Holland and the West Indies, and landed at Baltimore, January 8th, 1779. On his passage from the West Indies to the continent, he assisted in making prize of a British Privateer, which was brought to Baltimore. Immediately upon landing, he took the oath of fidelity and allegiance to the United States Government. Upon his arrival at Lancaster, he received a letter from David Rittenhouse, dated January 24th, 1779, in which he says : " I most sincerely congratulate you on your safe arrival, and impatiently expect the pleasure, of seeing you here. I received yours from Baltimore, ten. days after the date, and immediately wrote to your father, supposing him to be still in New York, though we cannot be certain as to that matter." He was shortly afterwards admitted to the Lancaster bar, and also chosen an officer of the militia of the

*Sprague's Annals of the American Pulpit. Documentary History of the State of New York, Vol. IV., pp. 229-240.


borough of Lancaster. His advocacy of the cause of the struggling colonies was warm and enthusiastic. On the 18th of August, 1789, he was nominated by President Washing, ton, one of the judges of the Western Territory, and the Senate ratified the nomination. He was afterwards (with but two exceptions), unanimously recommended by the Lancaster Bar, for the appointment to the President Judgeship of the district, composed of the counties of Lancaster, Chester, York and Dauphin. In 1779, he was an ardent Republican, and a staunch advocate of the election of Thomas McKean, for Governor of Pennsylvania. Being a finished scholar and a fine writer, he was, during that campaign, the one generally selected to draft the Democratic addresses, then a leading feature of political parties. He was, in 1800, appointed Prothonotary of Lancaster county, and this office, together with the commission of Clerk of the Orphans' Court, which he obtained in 1803, he held up to 1809, when he was succeeded by John Passmore. He afterwards removed to Philadelphia, and was chosen Secretary to the American Philosophical Society of Philadelphia. He obtained from the University of Pennsylvania the honorary title of Master of Arts. He is the author of a dissertation on the Freedom of Navigation and Maritime Commerce, and also of a biography of the Philosopher Rittenhouse.

BARTON, WILLIAM, was elected Clerk of the Quarter Sessions and Oyer and Terminer, in the year 1869.

BAUMAN, BENJAMIN, was appointed Register of Wills of Lancaster county, in 1818.

BAUSMAN, REV. B., D.D., son of John and Elizabeth Bausman, was born in rancaster township, Lancaster county, Pa., January 28th, 1824. The days of his childhood and youth were spent in the bosom of his parental home. As a youth and young man, he was trained to farm work. In early infancy, he was baptized by the Rev. John Henry Hoffmeier. He was nurtured and brought up according to the customs and faith of the Reformed church. At the age of

congregation eighteen of he became a member of the (First) Reormed congregation of Lancaster.


After enjoying the educational advantages then usual for boys of his age, he studied for several successive winters, with the late Thomas Yearrel, in the old Quaker meeting house, South Queen street (what has since become the Odd Fellows' Hall). In the winter of 1846 he studied in the old Franklin College, Lancaster. In the following May he commenced his studies in Marshall College, Mercersburg, Pa. He graduated in the college, and in 1852 completed his course of study in the Theological Seminary of the same place. In October, 1852, he was licensed to preach the Gospel, at a meeting of the Synod of the Reformed church, held in Baltimore, Md. Several months later he was ordained to the Gospel ministry, by the Susquehanna Classis, and installed as pastor of the Reformed church, at Lewisburg, Pa.

In April, 1856, his congregation gave him leave of absence, in order to make a tour to Europe and the East. On this tour he visited England, Scotland and Ireland, traversed Europe three times, from the Northern Ocean to the borders of Italy, spent two months in. Berlin, visited the leading cities of Italy, and tarried one month in Rome. Thence he proceeded over Naples and Malta to Egypt, visited Alexandria, Grand Cairo, the Pyramids, and the country round about; he proceeded on his journey through the Wilderness of Sinai, to Jerusalem. After visiting the principal sacred places in Palestine, he returned to the United States in the beginning of July, 1857.

In 1858, he was elected by the Synod of the Reformed church, associate editor of the Reformed Messenger, then published at Chambersburg, Pa. Subsequently he was promoted to the positiOn of chief editor of this paper. In 1861 he resigned this position, and accepted a call from the First Reformed church, of Chambersburg, Pa. In 1863 he became pastor of the First Reformed church, of Reading, Pa., where he is still laboring.

On the 1st of January, 1867, Dr. Bausman accepted the editorship of the Guardian, a monthly magazine, founded some twenty years ago, by the late Rev. Dr. H. Harbaugh, which position he is still holding.


After his removal to Reading, Dr. Bausman felt the want of a religious paper to suit the tastes and wants of the Pennsylvania German class of Reformed people. In 1867 he commenced the publication of the Reformirte Hausfreund, with the view of meeting this want. The object was to publish a paper, written, as far as possible, in the simple, transparent style of Luther and Claudius. It was, in a measure, an experiment, and, as the result has shown, a successful one. The Hausfreund still has its original editor. It is an unique publication, but one that has many warm

friends and considerable influence.

Dr. Bausman is the author of a work, entitled "Sinai and Zion, or a Pilgrimage through' the Wilderness to the Land of Promise," a volume of 543 pages, which has reached its

fifth edition.

He also edited Harbaugh's Harfe, a volume of poems in the Pennsylvania German dialect, written by the late Dr. H. Harbaugh.

At the commencement of Franklin and Marshall College, held in June, 1871, the title of D.D. was conferred on him.

BAUSMAN, JOHN, was born in 1780, in Freilaubersheim, in the Palatinate, Germany. His parents were named Henry and Barbara Bausman. He emigrated to America in 1802, and settled in Lancaster county. In 1805 he married Elizabeth Peters, and raised a numerous and very respectable family.

BAUSMAN, WILLIAM, was a Justice of the Peace, and acted for many years as a scrivener in Lancaster. He was elected County Commissioner in 1775. In 1777 he was elected Burgess of Lancaster borough. On February 1st, 1809, he was appointed Recorder of Deeds of Lancaster county. He owned considerable landed estate around Lancaster.

BAXTER, JAMES, emigrated from Ireland, and located in Bart township. He afterwards moved to Colerain. He was elected a member of the Legislature in the years 1810 and 1811. He was a pure, honest and upright man, and had the fullest confidence of his fellow citizens


BEATES, REV. Wm., was born in Philadelphia, in the year 1777. He served an apprenticeship as a tobacconist, but on arriving at the years of manhood, he became awakened on the subject of religion and studied divinity. After taking orders, he was stationed at Germantown, Pa., where he remained a number of years. Upon the solicitation of the people of Chestnut Hill, near Litiz, in this county, he removed from Germantown, and took charge of the Chestnut Hill congregation. Here he continued to labor for fiffeen years, with great diligence and zeal. He next removed to Lancaster city, and finding the German Lutheran congregation of Lancaster scattered and distracted by dissensions, he at once set to work to reorganize and heal all the differences existing in the congregation, and in this labor he was entirely successful. He found the church groaning under a load of debt, and no means at hand or prospect of its payment. He consented to serve the congregation as their pastor for a stipulated salary. His salary, however, as soon as he drew it, was immediately appropriated by him annually to the liquidation of the debt on the church, and in this manner did he serve his congregation until the whole indebtedness was removed. Thus did this faithful and devoted minister of Christ labor and toil, like his Master, virtually without compensation, but in doing so he raised an imperishable monument in the hearts of his people and of the community, never to be forgotten. Such works as his deserve to be recorded as memorials for all coming time. This genuine servant of Christ was no wolf in sheep's clothing, and for many years of his later life he bore in the community the affectionate name of " Father Beates." Long may he be remembered. He is gone, but his name is gratefully remembered by many.

Father Beates died May 16th, 1867, in his 91st year. He was blessed in the attainment of longer years than is usually allotted to man; and he was doubly blessed in his removal from earth, at a moment when, with sanctified mind, he was piously engaged in the administration of the blessed sacrament of the Lord's Supper to the members of his family. At that moment the angel of peace beckoned the aged and


faithful servant to come and sit down in the mansions of bliss, and accept the crown of glory which his life of humility and self-sacrifice on earth had merited.

BECK, JOHN, was born June 16th, 1791, at Graceham, Frederick county, Maryland. In his sixth year he came with his parents to Pennsylvania, who located in the neighborhood of Elizabethtown, Lancaster county, from whence they moved, some years afterwards, to Lebanon county, in the same State. In the district that his parents occupied, there were no schools, and the subject of this notice was sent to Nazareth Hall, in Northampton county, Pa., to receive an education.

Upon the completion of his education he returned home, and was, in accordance with the opinion of his father, (that every boy should be taught a mechanical occupation,) apprenticed in Litiz, in his 15th year, to learn the shoemaking trade. In this avocation the next ten years of his life were spent, as an apprentice and journeyman shoemaker. On the 2nd of January, 1815, he began teaching school in an old building that had been used as a blacksmith shop, and with eminent success. He had now entered the career for which nature had peculiarly fitted him. His efforts to promote the interests of his pupils, and the progress they made under his care, soon become noised abroad, and it was not long till pupils began to come to him from a distance. His reputation was established. Pupils entered his school from all parts of Lancaster county, and scarce a State in the Union but had its representatives in his academy. His eminent success in this line, led to the establishment of his large Educational Institute, in which several thousands of boys have laid the foundation of their education, and where students flocked for years from all parts of the United States, Canada, and the West Indies. Among his numerous pupils are men now engaged in various occupations, some as mechanics, manufacturers, lawyers, clergymen and physicians, principals of academies, members of State Legislatures and of the national Congress, and officers in the army and navy. His pupils fill the pulpits of ten different denominations.


elucidating several parts of the Scriptures which would easily have escaped the attention of men of more profundity of genius. His views are somewhat mysterious, yet deep and ingenious; but, in the present day, would be deemed little more than refined speculations sublimated into visions. Conrad Beissel died July 6th, 1768, aged 77 years and 4 months.

BETHEL, SAMUEL, was born in Columbia, Lancaster county, Pa. He was a sister's son of Samuel Blunston. Having lost his father when young, he, at the instance of Dr. Kuhn, was sent to Philadelphia, where he received a classical education, and graduated with the reputation of being one of the best mathematicians of the country. He was completely master of Euclid, and a case of his mathematical instruments is yet preserved. He read law, and was admitted to the bar in 1795. He inherited a large quantity of real estate in Lancaster county, and the ground upon which Bethelstown now stands, was his property. He married Sarah, a daughter of Gen. Edward Hand, of revolutionary memory. He was elected twice to the Pennsylvania Legislature, and served therein as a member during the sessions of 1808 and 1809. He died in the year 1819, aged about 48 years. He lies buried in the Brick Cemetery, in Columbia.

BILLINGFELT, ESAIAS, was born January 11, 1827, at Reamstown, Lancaster county, of poor parentage. He was left an orphan at an early age. He attended the public schools of his native place, where he made such progress that when twelve years of age he was occasionally employed as an assistant teacher. He was, however, soon compelled to devote his time to hard labor to earn a subsistence. He worked as a day laborer, and also learned the trade of a hatter. From his sixteenth year he taught school almost every winter until 1848. In the fall of the latter year he entered the office of the late Peter Martin, where he studied the art of surveying, and made himself familiar with scrivening and conveyancing. In 1850 the village of Adamstown was incorporated as a borough, and Mr. Billingfelt having previously moved to that place, he was in

that year elected


Justice of the Peace, which position he held by repeated reelections until the year 1863. Meanwhile, in e year 1862, be had been appointed Deputy United States Marshal for Lancaster county. In the fall of 1863 Mr. Billingfelt was elected to the House of Representatives of Pennsylvania, and was in the following year re-elected. His course in this position was so satisfactory to his constituents, that he was, in the fall of 1866, elected to the Senate of Pennsylvania, and at the expiration of his term, in 1869, was re-elected. In this capacity he served, during the session of 1870, as chairman of the Committee on Finance, and in 1872 he was chairman of the Committees on Federal Relations, Retrenchment and Reform, and also chairman of the Committee on Constitutional Reform.

BLACK, JAMES, was born in Lewisburg, Union county, Pennsylvania, September 23rd, 1823. He removed with his parents in 1835 to Lancaster city, which he has since made his permanent home. After the attainment of the rudiments of an English education, evincing a rare fondness for books, he was sent by his parents to the Lewisburg Academy, where he acquired a fair knowledge of the Latin and Greek languages. He next began the study of law in the office of James F. Linn, of Lewisburg, afterwards read with Wm. B. Fordney, esq., of Lancaster, and was admitted to the bar in 1846.

Early in life, conceiving a strong dislike to the fashionable habit of dram-drinking, he joined a temperance organization in 1840, of which cause he has proved himself one of the most ardent and efficient advocates. Since the period of the Maine prohibitory law movement, in 1851, Mr. Black has acted conspicuously as. a leading mover in the temperance cause, and his name has become widely known as one of the most sincere and enthusiastic champions of prohibition in America. No State or national temperance movement of importance from that period up to the present time has been held, in which Mr. Black's name does not appear as a conspicuous participant. Always alive to the evils of intemperance, as they presented themselves to his mind, he has ever worked with that glowing enthusiasm which heroism


inspires. His is the ardor which the rack and the funeral pile do not intimidate, and though by the unreflecting his zeal may pass for fanaticism, in the eyes of others it is the index of genuine nobility and true manhood.

In politics, Mr. Black was a Democrat until 1854, when the question of slavery began to absorb all others. His bitter hatred of southern slavery, then induced him to yield his adhesion to the Republican party of the country, which first unfurled its national banner in 1856. With this party he has continued to act until a recent period. At the National Prohibition Convention, held at Cincinnati, February 22nd, 1872, Mr. Black was nominated as the candidate of the Temperance party for the office of President of the United States, a marked tribute of respect for the ability and warmth which he had displayed in his humanitarian efforts to elevate his fellow men.

In sincerity, honesty and boldness of purpose, Mr. Black ranks amongst the noblest of his kind, and though his enthusiasm may be criticised, his motives can not be impeached.

BLUNSTON, SAMUEL, a native of England, was one of the early settlers of Columbia. He was a man of considerable means, and bought in 1728 five hundred acres of land, that had been the year before taken up by Robert Barber. His first house was a log cabin, erected near the spot where the present house of Samuel B. Heise now stands. He imported the bricks from England that were used in the erection of the present house of Mr. Heise, and some'of the bricks were used in the construction of the wall of the Brick Cemetery. He was an active, enterprising man,, in his day, and the citizens elected him a member of the State Legislature for 1732. He was three times subsequently elected, and served in that capacity during the sessions of 1741, 1742 and 1744. He served as a legislator, in all, four sessions. A Scotch filtering stone, imported by him from England, is yet preserved as a relic, by Mr. S. B. Heise. Samuel Blunston was married, yet left no lineal descendants, and his large estate was divided amongst his collateral heirs. He lies buried in the Brick Cemetery in Columbia.


*BOEHM, REV. HENRY. His grandfather was born in 1693, And emigrated from the Palatinate to America in 1715. He was induced to this step by the glowing descriptions given of this country by Martin Kendig, the head of one of the seven families who had settled in what is now Lancaster county. He landed in Philadelphia, from thence be went to Germantown, then to Lancaster, and finally settled in Pequea, Lancaster county. Soon after his arrival, he married a Miss Kendig, bought a farm, and built himself a house. He was by trade a blacksmith, the first

in all that region.

Martin Boehm, the father of our subject, was born November 30, 1725, and married, in 1753, Eve Steiner, whose ancestors were from Switzerland. Having inherited his father's beautiful farm, in 1750 he built a house, in which his children were all born.

Martin Boehm was first a Mennonite preacher, for that was the religion of his fathers. He became conspicuous in the movement which resulted in the organization of the church of " The United Brethren in Christ." Martin Boehm and Asbury were lifelong and fast friends. Asbury preached Boehm's funeral sermon, at Boehm's. chapel, April 5, 1812.

Henry Boehm, the subject of this memoir, was born in the old homestead, in Conestoga (now Pequea) township, June 8th, 1775. He was born nine years before the Methodist Episcopal church, of which he is a member, was organized. His memory recurs to the time when persons traveled to Fort Pitt on pack horses. He had a common school education, and the old school-house and the schoolmaster he remembers distinctly. The teacher boarded from house to house. His preceptor, being a fine German scholar, he acquired a correct knowledge of this language. This, in after years, was a great benefit to him when he preached in German, for he was one of the first among the Methodists that preached in that language. This he has done in fourteen different States.

When, after an absence of many years, the aged patriarch paid a visit to his native town, he inquired for his old school-

*Contributed by J., B. Good, esq.

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