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Hon. Wick Tayler.
Among the strong members on the Republican side of the Seventy-third General Assembly is Wick Tayler, one of the two representatives from Mahoning county. He was born at Youngstown, Ohio, October 2, 1855. His education was received at that place, in Columbus, and in Washington, D. C. He is a brother of Congressman R. W. Tayler of the McKinley district, and a son of the late R. W. Tayler, Comptroller of the United States Treasury. He has been a clerk in the Census Bureau and in the Dead Letter Office. His present business is real estate and insurance. He is a faithful Republican, and as such was nominated by his party in Mahoning county for the Seventy-third General Assembly, and after a warm campaign was elected in November, 1897, by 230 majority. He is chairman of the Committee on Girls' Industrial Home, and a member of the Committees on Municipal Affairs, Manufactures and Commerce, and on Institution for Feeble-Minded Youth. He is careful and earnest, and his work is thoroughly done and highly satisfactory. He belongs to the B. P. O. E. and the U. R. K. P.
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Hon. Rufus Walt Lane.
ONE of the Republicans elected on the fusion reform ticket to represent Hamilton county in the 73d General Assembly is Rufus W. Lane. Dr. Lane is a native of Tennessee and Memphis is his birthplace, but the early removed to Oxford, O., where he received his education. He attended Miami University at Oxford and later on Earlham College at Richmond, Indiana, thus fitting himself for the medical profession. He has been engaged in active practice ever since.
Dr. Lane in the organization of the house of the 73d General Assembly was assigned to the Committees on Fish Culture and Game, Hospital for Epilitics, and Manufactures and Commerce, where his sterling integrity and sound business sense is of great value in assisting to arrange the legislation of 1898. He is a tireless worker, and fearless in his opinions.
Dr. Lane is a grandson of Ebenezer Lane, the founder of Lane Seminary at Walnut Hills, Cincinnati. He is an Odd Fellow, and a member of the Presbyterian Church in Oxford.
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Hon. John T. Kenney.
AMONG the bright young Democrats of the 73d General Assembly is John T. Kenney, of Mercer county. Mr. Kenney was born December 21, 1865 in Adams county, Indiana, and after acquiring a common school education, he began teaching, which profession he followed with success, at the same time finishing his education. He graduated from the Ohio Normal University in 1886, and returning to the work of teaching was elected Superintendent of the Mercer schools in Mercer county, where he served until he entered the Cincinnati Law School. From here he graduated in 1890, and on the 6th of October of same year, entered into partnership with W. E. TouVelle and began the practice of his profession at Celina, Ohio. His interest in education and experience as a teacher caused him to be selected as a member of the Board of School Examiners of Mercer county, in which capacity he served to the satisfaction of teachers and public from 1891 to 1894.
Mr. Kenney is an able and unflinching Democrat of the aggressive type, and as such was he nominated and elected by his party to the 73d General Assembly. He is a member of the Committees on Judiciary, Library and Fish Culture and Game, where his exceptional abilities are utilized to great advantage. He is an excellent debater, and much of the legislation of 1898 is influenced both by his work in the committee rooms and his ready attack or defence on the floor of the house.
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Hon. A. E. Hull.
HON. ADDIS EMMET HULL was born in Todds, Morgan county, Ohio, April 14, 1862, but his early life was spent on a farm in Bearfield township, Perry county. He received his edncation at the Deavertown public schools and the Zanesville Business College. For years he has been a travelling salesman for the Crooksville Stoneware Company. He has always affiliated with the Democratic party, and held the office of Postmaster at Rendville, Perry county, during Grover Cleveland's first administration. He was married June 7, 1896 to Miss Etta Brannon, and has one child.
He was the candidate of the Perry county Democracy in the campaign of 1897 for the 73rd General Assembly, and after a spirited and exciting contest was elected in November. He takes rank among the most efficient members on the Democratic side of the chamber, and his advice in legislative matters is eagerly sought after.
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Hon. Benjamin F. Dutton.
IN Harrisville, Ohio, April 24, 1850, B. F. Dutton was born of ancestry that runs back in an unbroken genealogy to William the Conqueror. At an early age he removed with his parents to Morgan county. As a young man he engaged in almost every sort of common labor, and received his education as he could in common schools and night schools. He at length learned the jeweler and watchmaker's trade, in which vocation he is still engaged. He has been a leader and teacher of brass bands. In the severe training be received in his youth was laid the foundation for the strong self-reliance and practical ability which is characteristic of him. He was appointed Deputy Collector of Internal Revenue by President Harrison. In 1895 he was the Republican candidate for the Seventy-second General Assembly was elected by 350 majority, and in the desperate campaign of 1897 was re-elected by 177 majority. In the Seventy-third General Assembly he is chairman of the Committee on Federal Relations and member of the Committees on Corporations and on Manufactures and Commerce, where his strong common sense and high legislative talents are well employed. Mr. Dutton was married November 26, 1885, to Miss C. L. Porter, and they have one child living. He is a member of the Masonic fraternity, I. O. O. F. and K. of P.
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Hon. Josiah M. Allen.
ATHENS county is well represented in the Seventy-third General Assembly by the man whose name forms the caption of this sketch. Mr. Allen was born August 13, 1858, in Athens county. He obtained a collegiate education at Ohio University, Athens, Ohio, and at the National Normal University, Lebanon, Ohio. For some time he taught school and then entered the field of journalism. He is at present editor and publisher of the Athens County Gazette. He is a member of the Church of Christ. In 1884 he was married to Miss Sarah L. Jones. He is a member of the Masonic and Knights of Pythias fraternities. His sound judgment and great efficiency as a worker was early recognized in the House, and he was made chairman of the Committee on Public Works and member of several other important committees, where his worth and influence have shown to particular advantage. He is regarded as one of the sound, substantial, conservative members of the House.
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Hon. Philip M. Ashford.
PHILIP MARCH ASHFORD is the Republican representative from Columbiana county, and was born in Middleton township, that county, April l3, 1865. He received his education at the common schools and at Poland Union Seminary, in Mahoning county. After teaching school for five years, he was admitted to the bar in 1889, and has practiced law since that time at Salineville. For six years he was Solicitor of the village of Salineville, and in 1895 made his first race for the General Assembly. He was elected, and two years later was again the choice of his party for that position. He is chairman of the House Committee on Library, and has other important positions in the councils of the law-makers. On October 21, 1891, Mr. Ashford was united in marriage to Miss Lyda N. Orr, and they have one child, a daughter four years old He is a member of F. & A. M. and K. P., and the Presbyterian Chinch.
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Hon. David C. Baldwin.
LORAIN county is represented in the 736, as it was in the 72nd General Assembly by one of her ablest sons, David C. Baldwin. Mr. Baldwin was born in Elyria, Lorain county, Ohio, September 18, 1836, and finished his education at schools in Middleton, Conn., and Wilbraham, Mass. He entered mercantile business with his father and others in Elyria in 1855, continuing therein until 1893. As first lieutenant in the one hundred day's service, he was actively engaged in some lively skirmishes in West Virginia, where John Brown located. Mr. Baldwin has been actively connected with the Western Reserve Historical Society at Cleveland, Ohio, as incorporator and trustee, and is the donor of a fine archaeological collection from American and foreign sources. He is chairman of the House Conimittee on Claims, and member of Common Schools and Revisions, where his ability and experience are well utilized.
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Hon. James W. Bell.
THE Republicans of Madison county re-elected to the 73d General Assembly their representative in the 72nd, J. W. Bell. Mr. Bell was born in Union township, Madison county, November 26, 1862, and worked on the farm until twenty-two years old, attending district school in winter. He took a two years' course in the Ohio Normal University, Ada, Ohio, and then engaged in the profession of teaching. However he has determined to become an attorney, and is now engaged in the study of law.
Mr. Bell is an earnest legislator, chairman of the Joint Committee on Enrollment, and member of Committees on Common Schools and Institution for Feeble Minded Youth. He was married August 28. 1896, to Miss Minnie F. Blaugher. He is a member of the K. P.'s and I. O. O. F. at London, Ohio, and tie belongs to the M. E. Church.
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Hon. John P. Bower.
HON. JOHN P. BOWER, representative from Logan county, is a Democrat of long standing and exceptional worth. He was born at Big Springs, Logan county, Ohio, April 29, 1861, and has spent his life in and about the village of his birth. Hisearly education was in the common schools, but later on it was supplemented by courses in the Universities at Urbana, Ada, and Delaware, Ohio. Though early trained to farm work, Mr. Bower became a teacher, and after following that for some time, engaged in mercantile pursuits. In 1897, he was the nominee of his party for the General Assembly, and as his opponents were divided and his own popularity was pronounced, he was elected by a plurality of 492. He is one of the most influential men on his side of the chamber, and his advice and support is eagerly sought on all pending measures. Mr. Bower was married August 2, 1892, to Miss Clara Rosebrook. He is a Presbyterian, a K. P. and a K. G. E.
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Hon. Edward J. Bracken.
ONE of the ablest advocates of labor in the 73d General Assembly is E. J. Bracken of Franklin county. Mr. Brackett believes that the safety and prosperity of the Nation depend upon the condition of the wealth producing classes, and as one of the chief steps toward promoting their welfare, he favors a change in our monetary system. Hence in 1896, under the direction of the Democratic National Committee, he was on the stump to aid W. J. Bryan. As a Democrat in the 73d Assembly, he is prominent in the interests of labor. As he had fought monopoly in the 99-year street railway franchise, so now he introduced the two-cent railroad fare bill, the strongest effort for cheap transportation ever made in Ohio. Mr. Bracken is effective alike in committee and in the chamber, and is of unquestioned probity.
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Hon. H. F. Bramley.
ONE of the leaders on the Republican side of the chamber is M. F. Brainley. of Cuyahoga county. This is his second term. He was born at Independence, Cuyahoga county, January 4, 1868. His youth was spent on a farm, but removing to Cleveland, he received there a High School education. Afterward he obtained employment as a laborer with a paving company, advancing until he became Superintendent. In 1893 he went into the paving and construction business for himself, and is still engaged in that business. He was the leader of the Republican contingency which organized the House of the 73d General Assembly and voted for R. E. McKisson for U. S. Senator. He is one of the most powerful men on either side, a fine parliamentarian and a finished speaker. He is chairman of the Committee on Railroads and Telegraph, and a member of the Committees on Finance and Insurance.
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Hon. Joseph H. Breck.
JOSEPH HUNT BRECK, one of the representatives from Cuyahoga county, was born in Brecksville, Ohio. His father, a Presbyterian minister, moved to Cleveland while his son was quite young, but later retired and moved to Newburg on the farm where Mr. Breck still lives. He was educated in the Cleveland public schools and Shaw Academy at CoHamer, Ohio. In 1893, he was elected as a Republican to the 71st General Assembly, and was re-elected to the 72nd and 73d. In all, he has been prominent as a hard committee worker. He is chairman of Asylums for Insane, and member of County Affairs and Elections. He is fearless in his opinions and outspoken in his Republicanism, au able legislator and a man deservedly popular.
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Hon. William J. Connolly.
HENRY county, well satisfied with the wort: in the 72nd General Assembly of her representative,. W. J. Connolly, re-elected him to the 73d by a majority 777 greater than before. Mr. Connolly was born hi Washington township. Henry comity, February 27, 1860. His education was obtained first in the district schools and later in the High School of Liberty Center, of which he is a graduate. He is a farmer by oc,amatiott, but taught school for fifteen years, and in 1888 and 1889 was in the railway mail service. Although a sterling and life-long Democrat, he never held office before his election to the 72nd General Assembly. He is a member of several important committees and one of the strongest men on his side of the chamber.
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Hon. George W. Lamb.
G. W. LAMB for the second time represents Fairfield county in the General Assembly. He was born in this county and resided ou a farm, attending a country school until he was eighteen years old, then Fairfield Union Academy two years. He then taught school for a number of years in country districts and was Principal of the Carroll Schools for four years. He was a merchant at Carroll for two years, and then went to Hooker Station and engaged in the grain business. Five times he was Treasurer of Greenfield township, Fairfield county. He was elected to the 72nd General Assembly as a Democrat by a majority of 1366, and to the 73d by 1781 majority. He is one of the leading Democrats of the House, and his influence is widely felt in all legislation. Mr. Lamb was married in 1873 to Miss Carrie S. Brown, and has five children.
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Hon. William E. Ludwick.
W. E. LUDWICK represents Darke county for the second time. He was born at McKeesport, Penn., January 26, 1860, and educated at Franklin and Marshall College, at Lancaster, Penn., and Heidelberg College, Tiffin, Ohio, graduating in the classical course in 1883 and theological, in 1885. Since that time he has been engaged in the ministry. He was elected to the legislature as a Democrat in 1895, and re-elected in 1897. He is one of the most careful and broad minded men in the House, and is a leader on the Democratic side. He has a firm grasp on the working details of the chamber. and this added to his previous legislative experience makes him invaluable in shaping legislation. Mr. Lud wick was married September, 1885 to Miss Minnie Meshinger, and has three children, Karl, Ralph and Paul.
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Hon. John A. McCurdy.
JOHN A. MeCURDY, representative from Miami county, was born in Stanton township, that county, March 26, 1844. He received a common school education, and graduated from the Troy High School in Tune, 1869. During the war he was a member of Co. B. 194th O. V.I. In 1875, he was elected County Treasurer. and re-elected in 1877. He was a Republican candidate for the 73d General Assembly in 1897, and was elected by 667 majority. Mr. McCurdy is a careful and conservative legislator, and his opinions are well received by the House. He is chairman of the Committee on Dairy and Food Products, and a member of Temperance and Public Buildings and Lands. He was married in 1877 to Miss Margaret Scott.
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Hon. W. S. McKinnon
ASHTABULA county is well represented in the 73d r General Assembly. W. S. McKinnon was born at Owen Sound, Ontario, December 19, 1852. He early removed to the United States, and settled at Cleveland where he spent his youth. Mr. McKinnon is a machinist by trade and is the owner of extensive machine shops. He has held several positions of trust among the people of Ashtabula county, having been member of the Board of Education, of the City Council and Mayor, all in the city of Ashtabula. He is a strong Republican, and as such was elected in November, 1897, to the 73d General Assembly by 3896 majority. He is chairman of the Committee on Fish Culture and Game and member of other important committees. April 2, 1878, he was married to Miss J. Octavia Porter and they have four boys and one girl.
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Hon. William R. Stewart.
WILLIAM R. STEWART was born October 29, 1864, at New Castle, Pa., and when three years old moved with his parents to Youngstown, Ohio, where he has since resided. He was educated in the common schools, Rayen School, and Cincinnati Law School. He was admitted to the bar iu 1888, since which time he has been engaged in his profession. He is the first colored representative from Ma-honing county, and was elected to the 72nd and 73d General Assemblies as a Republican. He is chairman of the Committee on Deaf and Dumb Asylum, and member of Claims, Revisions and Taxation. He is au able and conservative member, and his views are highly respected by his colleagues. Mr. Stewart was married May 6, 1890 to Miss Consuelo Clarke.
275 - THE OHIO BLUE BOOK.
Hon. William H. Clifford.
WILLIAM H. CLIFFORD, who was a member of the 71st General Assembly, returns to his seat in the 73d. He is a native of Cleveland, was born April 8, 1862, and received his education in the common schools He first followed railroading, but entered politics as a Republican, and since 1888 has been Deputy County Clerk of Cuyahoga county. In 1896, he was Delegate-at-large from Ohio to the National Republican League, and in the same year assistant Sergeant-at-Arms of I he St. Louis National Convention. In 1888, he was vice-President of the Ohio Republican League. In the House, he is chairman of the Committee on Prisons, and member of Enrollment, Municipal Affairs and Railroads and Telegraphs, and his earnest and able work meets with the full appreciation it deserves. Mr. Clifford was married April 14, 1886, to Miss Carrie Williams, and they.have a family of two children.
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Hon. James Manuel.
ONE of the two representatives which Montgomery county sends to the 73d General Assembly is James Manuel. Mr. Manuel wag born March 28, 1848, in Washington township, Montgomery county and spent both his youth and his manhood in that place. He received his education at the common schools, and served in the war in the 34th O. V. I. By occupation he is a contractor. He is a Republican and as such was elected from Montgomery county to the 73d General Assembly by a majority of 760. He is chairman of the Committee on Soldiers' and Sailors' Orphans' Home, and member of other important committees. He was married November 17, 1874 to Miss Cinda Allen, and has five children.
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Hon. John L. Means.
JOHN L. MEANS, of Steubenville, bas represented Jefferson county in both the 72nd and 73d General Assemblies. He was born in Steubenville, July 25, 1870. Two of his uncles have been members of the Ohio Legislature. Mr. Means made an excellent record in the 72nd Assembly, and was the Republican caucus nominee in the 73d for Speaker Pro-tem. He is chairman of the Committee on Fees and Salaries, and a member of the Committees on Privileges and on Railroads and Telegraphs. He is a conservative man and an earnest worker, and his views carry great weight with his colleagues. Mr. Means resides at Steubenville, where he is the assistant manager of a large foundry aria machine works which have been operated by the Means family since 1820.
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Hon. Christopher B. Monter.
AMONG the Cincinnati delegation in-the 73d General Assembly is Christopher B. Monter. Mr. Monter is a Populist-Democrat and was elected ou the fusion ticket by a majority of about 2500. He was born iu Cincinnati, December 25, 1871, and attended the common schools until he was fifteen. He then took up the trade of a printer and has worked at it since that time. Mr. Monter is assigned to the Committees on Asylums for Insane, Public Printing, Elections, and the Joint Committee on Enrollment. He is an earnest committee worker, and a speaker of pronounced ability, while his probity vouches for the worth of airy bill he may support. He is a member of the Typographical Union, No. 3.
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Hon. Thomas W. Roberts.
IS one of Cleveland's representatives in the 73d General Assembly. He is well qualified to take part in legislation concerning labor, being a practical engineer. He was born in Cleveland, November 4, 1861, and received his education at her public schools. Engaging in his chosen occupation, Mr. Roberts rose to the front rank of stationary engineers. He held the office of Inspector of Boilers at Cleveland, from 1891 to 1893. During the exciting campaign of 1897, he was one of the Republican candidates for the legislature, and after a hot fight he was elected. He introduced and had charge of House Bill 26, providing for the state licensing of engineers. He is one of the careful and painstaking members. He was married May 18, 1885, to Mollie Waldisin, and has five boys. He is a member of K. P., the National Union and National Association of Stationary Engineers.
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Hon. Ernst H. Rothe.
HON. ERNST H. ROTHE is the only son of the silver-tongued German Orator and Attorney. Emil Rothe-, of Cincinnati, who died April 27, 1896. Mr. Rothe was born May 14, 1861 at Watertown, Wisconsin, and in 1869 removed to Cincinnati, where he has since made his home. He was educated at the common schools and at Woodward High School in Cincinnati, and received his professional training in dentistry at the Ohio Dental College. He began practicing in April, 1882, and has built up a large and lucrative practice. Ou December 4, 1885, he was married to Miss Matilda Graser. In 1897, he was one of the Democratic candidates for the 73d General Assembly from Hamilton county, and after one of the hottest fights ever known, was elected to the seat he now occupies.
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Hon. Thomas K. Strimple.
HURON county is ably represented in the 73d General Assembly of Ohio by Thomas K. Strimple, of Greenwich. Mr. Strimple is a native of Richland county, and spent his e trly life on a tarm receiving his education chiefly in the common schools. He is a practicing attorney at Greenwich. He is a strong Republican and has held several minor offices, among them Township Clerk, Justice of the Peace, Member of Board of Education, and Village Treasurer. In the fall of 1897, he was elected by the Republicans of Huron county to the 73d General Aesembly by 1042 majority. He is a Member of the Committees on Asylum for Insane, Public Works, and Library, where he does able and efficient work in legislation. Mr. Strimple is a member of the K. P.'s, I. O. O. F., and the N. U.
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Hon. Aquila Wiley.
WAS born February 20, 1835, at Cumberland, Pa., received his education at a private academy, and afterward engaged in teaching. In 1861, he organized Co. C., 41st O. V. I. being its Captain. In March, 1862, he was made major, and the following month was severely wounded at Shiloh. November 20, 1862, he was promoted to Lieutenant-Colonel of his regiment, and a few days later was made Colonel. He was again severely wounded at Mission. Ridge, resulting in the amputation of a leg. He was discharged June 4, 1864. Gen. Wiley now resides at Wooster, and is engaged in the practice of law and in looking after extensive farming interests. As a Democrat, he was elected to the 72nd and 73d General Assemblies. In the late election of a U. S Senator, he was the only Democrat who did not vote for the fu6iou candidate. He cast his vote for John J. Lentz.
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Charles H. Gerrish.
THERE are few men better endowed for the position of Clerk than the man who holds that office in the House of Representatives in the Seventy-third General Assembly. His enunciation is distinct, his voice clear, musical and penetrating, and without apparent effort he makes himself clearly understood in the most remote portions of the chamber.
Charles H. Gerrish is a native of Cincinnati, and was born there April 22, 1867. He received his education in the common schools of Covington, Kentucky, and engaged in mercantile life. For a number of years he was a traveling salesman, but later studied law and was admitted to the bar. He held the position of Deputy Oil Inspector for some time. Mr. Gerrish is a Republican. In January, 1898, he was elected Clerk of the House of Representatives, and has discharged his difficult duties in a manner satisfactory to all. He is of engaging address, and is deservedly one of the most popular men to be met about the State House. Mr. Gerrish was married in January, 1895, to Miss Alice Gollins.
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Charles S. Hamilton.
THE man whom the House of Representatives selected to preserve order is Charles S. Hamilton, of Marysville, Union county. He was born November 3, 1856, at Unionville Center and received his education in the common schools of Marysville. He learned the trade of a telegrapher, and for eighteen years was a telegraph operator. But he had a distinct liking to the law and studied that subject while still telegraphing. As yet a telegraph operator, he was admitted to the bar in 1886. In 1897 he was elected Sergeant-at-Arms of the House of Representatives, Seventy-third General Assembly of Ohio.
Sergeant Hamilton is in politics a Republican, and personally is a pleasant and agreeable acquaintance. His position is one of more than usual difficulty, but he has performed his duties with zeal and fearlessness, and has earned the approval of the whole legislature. He has been compelled to visit various cities of the state in search of refractory witnesses, and has fulfilled his missions with great success.
On October 8, 1875, Sergeant Hamilton was united in marriage to Miss Nora B. Murray, and they have a family of two children. He is a Mason, a Knight Templar, and also belongs to the Knights of Pythias.
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FREQUENTERS of the Ohio Capitol for the past forty-three years will at once recognize the man whose portrait is on the opposite page. Probably no man in the state has a broader knowledge among Ohio statesmen than Frederick Blankner. His position, that of Third Assistant Sergeant-at-Arms of the House, as it has lasted so long in the past, will probably continue throughout his life, and he owes his immense popularity to the two facts that he performs his duties with absolute fidelity and does not mix in political contests.
Born in Germany July 28, 1836, before he was one year old he emigrated to America with his parents, and since that time has been a resident of Columbus. During the Civil War he served his adopted country two years in Company A, Fifth Independent Cavalry of Ohio.
Mr. Blankner is a genial man, a man of great resource, and one whom the legislators frequently call to their assistance. In spite of the intense bitterness aroused in the Seventy-third General Assembly by the struggle for United States Senator, both parties united upon Mr. Blankner for his present position, and his was the only name presented to the house.
Mr. Blankner is married and has a family of five children. He is a member of the B. P. O. E. and the I. O. O. F.
THE STATE OF OHIO.
Some people are born great, some achieve greatness, and others have the luck to be born in Ohio. In this statement is condensed an idea grown up from the fact that so many great Americans, soldiers, scholars, statesmen, hail Ohio as their birth place. But that the success of Ohio public men is a matter of good fortune not of merit, is wholly disproved by the character of the men themselves and the nature of the results which commemorate their labors. The state has furnished four Presidents who claimed Ohio as their residence and other of the nation's executives first saw the light on her historic sod.
The citizens of Ohio could not be other than energetic and intelligent, or they would disgrace their ancestors, the pioneers who overcame the cruel treachery and bitter hostility of the savage inhabitants and the far sterner difficulties of a primitive and forbidding wilderness. Entering from both the north and the south, encountering fearlessly the dangers of angry Nature and Nature's angry children, often defeated but never overcome, the grim and hardy pioneers advanced steadily through the forest, driving before them the kingdom of barbarism, subjugating the natural forces which had reveled in rank luxuriance for ages, and leaving in their path the busy hum and peaceful life of Anglo-Saxon civilization.
From this stock of warlike and unconquerable pioneers, what posterity could ensue save a race of soldiers? When the great civil conflict broke out, Ohio's loyalty was unshaken, and she sent to the battle fields of the South, Grant, Sherman, Sheridan, McClellan, McPherson and Rosecrans. Behind them marched 317,000 Ohio soldiers. Their prowess is attested in almost every battle of the war, and their heroism is marked by soldiers' graves throughout the South. And not less in the councils of the nation did Ohio find a proud position. The great jurist, Salmon P. Chase, lent his intellect to the country in its emergency. And the active direction of the war devolved upon Lincoln's great Secretary, Edwin M. Stanton, of Ohio. Already one President, Harrison, had been furnished by this state. But since the war three more have earned the highest honor in the gift of the people, Rutherford B. Hayes, James A. Garfield, and the present executive, William McKinley ; while John Sherman, the greatest financier of the age, and bluff Ben Wade, and others, whose names and fame are household words, attest the greatness of Ohio as the home of statesmen.
Robert Cavelier de La Salle was the first white man to step within the boundaries of the present state. He had heard of a beautiful stream which flowed through a rich and lovely valley toward the setting sun, and which the Indians called Oyo. After long journeying he found the beautiful river of the Iroquois, descended it almost to the present site of Louisville, and April 9, 1682, took possession of the whole territory, naming it Louisiana.
The first English speaking settlement was at the mouth of Laramie's creek in what is now Shelby county. But the French and Indians snuffed its life out within three years. Later the Ohio Land Company was formed and through explorations and inducements held out to immigrants, gradually succeeded in establishing English posts along the frontier. This led, of course, to open hostilities with the French, hostilities which did not cease until the close of the French and Indian War, when by the treaty of Paris, February 18, 1763, France was stripped of her American
possessions and the English were undisputed masters of the Great Northwest.
For the government of this vast area, the Congress of the United States, which had just achieved its independence, passed on July 13, 1787, the Ordinance of Freedom, better known as the Ordinance of 1787. This document, next to the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution, is the greatest act of American legislative genius. It guaranteed freedom, religious and civil; prohibited slavery except as to criminals; provided for the maintenance of common schools; and set apart lands for a university. It is the model whereby all future territories were governed. Its authorship has been ascribed to several persons, with most probability to Dr. Manasseh Cutler.
Arthur St. Clair was the first territorial governor, and he found his path by no means paved with roses.
The Indians had been successful more often than defeated in the frontier warfare. Col. John Bowman and his Kentuckians had been defeated arid driven back across the Ohio in 1780. In May, 1782, the bold Delawares utterly routed a force of five hundred men at Upper Sandusky, and captured and burned at the stake their commander, Col. Wm. Crawford. Up to this time, the greatest success achieved by the pioneers was the wanton and infamous massacre of ninety-six peaceful Christian Indians, Moravians, in March, 1782.
By 1790, the Indian depredations had become so frequent that the settlers lived in constant dread, and the navigation of the Ohio had almost ceased. In this emergency, Gov. St. Clair summoned the militia of three states to assist him. An army of 1100 militia and 300 regulars was organized under Gen. Harmar met the Indians and were terribly defeated. The authorities were astounded. Gov. St. Clair gathered an army of 2000 men and himself commanding advanced against the victorious Indians 1500 strong under the celebrated chief, Little Turtle. The armies met Nov. 4, 1791, and St. Clair's army was overwhelmed and destroyed. Six hundred whites were killed and two hundred and eighty wounded.
These terrible disasters at length aroused Congress. They immediately commissioned Mad Anthony Wayne to subdue the hitherto invincible savages. Wayne took his time and thoroughly drilled an army of over 3000 men ; on August 20, 1794, he fell upon the dauntless redskins and defeated them with fearful slaughter. This settled the difficulties. The Treaty of Greenville was signed, and the Ohio settlers thenceforward had comparative immunity from Indian atrocities.
In 1798 the male population of the Northwest Territory reached 5000, and as this entitled it to legislative government, Gov. St. Clair issued a proclamation calling for a legislature, This legislature met in 1799, and again the following year. Congress gave the territory permission to adopt a constitution, and this done Ohio was, on February 19, 1803, admitted to the Union, the fourth in order of admission. Edward Tiffin was first governor of the new State.
The War of 1812 was the next great event in the history of Ohio. By that time the state had grown to a population of about 235,000 with a taxable valuation of $25,000,000. Three regiments of Ohio militia participated in the campaign about Detroit and were surrendered to the English with that city through the cowardice of their commander, Gen. Hull. Gen. W. H. Harrison was placed in command of the Ohio militia and avenged the fall of Detroit and the overthrow of Gen. Winchester at River Raisin by defeating the British and Indians at Ft. Meigs during the first week in May, 1813. The British army of 1200 was again repulsed with great slaughter from Ft. Stephenson on August 1st and 2d by the heroic Major Croghan and one hundred and, sixty men. This glorious victory ended operations on land within the borders of Ohio.
But Lake Erie was still in the possession of the British. A young sea captain from Rhode Island conceived the idea of building a fleet and freeing the Great Lakes. His vessels he built during the spring and summer of 1813. On the 10th of September the young commodore sallied forth to meet the enemy. The result is national history. After an action lasting five hours and during which Perry had crossed in an open boat from his disabled flag-ship to the uninjured "Niagara," the entire British fleet was captured. It was on this occasion that Perry sent his famous dispatch to Gen. Harrison, "We have met the enemy and they are ours."
The boundary line between Ohio and Michigan was not settled until 1836, and at one time the dispute promised to involve the states in genuine war. But Congress took the matter in hand, asked for the disbanding of the assembled militia, and at length decided in favor of Ohio's claim, but gave Michigan as a compensation that tract of land now known as the northern peninsula. Thus Ohio secured the coveted harbor of Toledo.
Ohio was geographically and constitutionally opposed to the annexation of Texas and the war with Mexico. The call for volunteers fell flat throughout the North, but Ohio raised four regiments and three independent companies--more than any other northern state.
In 1851 the constitution of Ohio was revised, and the revision was so thorough and extensive that it amounted to a new constitution. Another revision has been attempted since, but the people voted it down overwhelmingly, and the constitution of 1851 is the one now in force.
Opposition to the extension of slavery now began to play a prominent part, and the state under the leadership of Joshua R. Giddings, Salmon P. Chase, William Dennison and others, was successfully guided in the direction of freedom to all men. Chase was perhaps the most effective man Ohio had yet produced, and to his re-organization of the militia is in a large measure due the glorious part Ohio took in the Civil War. The legislature of 1860 contained such noted leaders as the "Radical Triumvirate" Garfield, Cox and Monroe.
Within twenty-four hours after President Lincoln's call for 75,000 men, party lines had been obliterated in Ohio and twenty companies had offered their services to the Union. Within three days the legislature passed a three million dollar appropriation bill for war purposes alone. In 1861, David Todd was elected Governor to succeed Dennison whose term had expired; and he fulfilled the duties of a loyal executive as ably and actively as his predecessor. Treason within the state was overawed by the summary banishment of its leader, C. L. Vallandigham.
John Morgan, the rebel general, twice threatened Ohio. The first time he contented himself by threatening Cincinnati. But as that city prepared vigorously to resist him, he wisely withdrew. The second time, in July, 1863, he entered the state. After burning and pillaging several days, he was attacked and defeated near Buffington's Island, pursued for two days and captured at Salineville. He was confined in the Ohio penitentiary, but four months later he dug a tunnel and escaped, having in his summer raid cost the people of Ohio upwards of a million dollars.
In the campaign of 1863, the banished Vallandigham returned and led the Democratic party; but in spite of his great ability, Ohio remained true to the Union by electing John Brough to the office of Governor. He was the greatest of her war governors.
At the close of the war the vast army of Ohio soldiers, all that remained of 317,000 men, returned and mingled peacefully with the people, and the state has ever since moved grandly forward in the road of peace and progress.
Three presidents since the war have been selected from the sons of Ohio who served in the war. They are, Rutherford B. Hayes, James A. Garfield, and the present chief magistrate, William McKinley.