ramifications were those prerequisites to success—no matter what the field of endeavour—0f proved ability, efficiency, integrity, perseverance, almost indefatigable industry, high probity, and absolute, unquestioned honesty 0f thought, purpose and deed. It is doubtful if Cincinnati will ever see his like again.

Thus was born, and thus lived, labored and died, Judge William Worthington—a brilliant lawyer, a wise judge, a citizen par excellence, a patriot in the finest sense of the word, and a true American gentleman, than which no greater tribute can possibly be paid to the memory 0f any man.


A true aesthete, Frank H. Tuchfarber, patron of music and the arts, and a lover of nature, left as a monument of his l0ve for the beautiful, two institutions of the greatest public benefit to Cincinnati, Ohio, t0day. One of these was the idea of the municipal orchestra, now exemplified in the nationally kn0wn Cincinnati Symphony Orchestra. The other is the beautiful "Tuchfarber Place," seven acres of carefully cultivated park whereon grows a rare c0llection 0f 0dd trees and plants, now made city property through the generosity 0f Mrs. Emery. Besides these tw0 outstanding souvenirs of his life work, Mr. Tuchfarber devoted years to developing a method of varnishing violins which would give them the satiny finish and mellow tone 0f the Stradivarius or the Cremona. That he succeeded was held to be true in many quarters by the year 1921, and his violins have enriched the concert hours of many musicians.

The grandfather of Mr. Tuchfarber immigrated to Ohio under the influence of literature broadcast throughout grape growing European countries by the first Nicholas Longw0rth. He purchased from Mr. Longworth a lease to a tract of land some two miles west of Sedamsville on the Delhi Pike, cleared the sunny hillside, and planted a large vineyard. One of his four sons was the father of the subject of this record, who mar-


ried in 1846 a girl from a village on the Rhine near the fortress of Landau.

On February 8, 1848, at Delhi, Ohio, Frank H. Tuchfarber was born in the old stone house still standing on the edge of the pike. Six years later his father bought a farm on the Rapid Run Pike in Delhi T0wnship. The son grew up there t0 the age of twelve, studying in the country schools and taking the few violin lessons which won his lifelong dev0tion to that instrument. When he left school he served an apprenticeship in the lithographing trade. At the age of twenty-one he started out as a lithographer and photographer in business for himself, and his business grew to be one of the largest decorative sign manufacturing companies in his section. For forty years he was located at Court and Sycamore streets. During a large part 0f that time he was most prosperous and lavished his wealth like a Maecenas 0n promoting opportunities for public enjoyment of music and aesthetic 0pportunities. In 1885 he bought the beautiful Westw00d estate, now so fine a botanical garden, and made that the seat of a musical culture and a delightful hospitality. Business reverses stripped him 0f his wealth, but Mrs. Emery preserved f0r him the home he so loved and at the same time gave to the public the opportunity to enjoy it and to learn of its rare secrets of nature from the cicerone who had developed it and who so l0ved it, and the people who visited it.

Mr. Tuchfarber was always creative, always constructive, reaching upward and 0nward to higher enjoyment for himself and the community. He was the first to introduce the lithographed metal sign in America, the innovator of glass and wood panel signs, and of fine art repr0ductions of celebrated paintings. He invented many improvements, trade secrets, and was granted many patents. He was particularly successful in evolving new effects with varnishes and gold leaf, his artistic products being awarded medals at all the fairs 0f his day, such as the Philadelphia Centennial, fairs at Vienna, Paris, Chicago, and St. Louis. He conceived the idea of a


city orchestra and in 1889 0rganized the Cincinnati Grand Orchestra Company with Michael Brand as conductor, and as the president and financial backer, engaged for the "P0p" c0ncerts on Sunday afternoons such famous soloists as Maud Powell. With his inborn love of the fine and the beautiful, Mr. Tuchfarber appreciated the instruments used by artists, their lumin0sity of coloring and their resonance and mellow tone quality. He experimented with violin varnish, reading everything he could get his hands on in order to learn the secret of the makers of the period of the Amati, Guarnerius, and Stradivarius. He made slow progress until he hit upon an approach to the secret. Not the high varnish, but the method by which a luminous oil varnish is applied is what preserves the tone of the wo0d and the quality of the sound. Thus a new violin could easily be given the satiny sheen 0f an old and the sweet, smooth, carrying tone of the old instrument. Mr. Tuchfarber rejoiced in his success, just as he did in the seven years during which he was able t0 continue the popular concerts, because real musicians and music lovers thr0ughout the whole population could thus have greater opportunities for enjoyment. Mr. Henry Froehlich, direct0r of the Grand Opera House Orchestra, a violinist, said of Mr. Tuchfarber's process :

There is absolutely no doubt but what Mr. Tuchfarber has rediscovered the secret of the old violin masters. He brought me at different times cheap violins purchased for twenty-five or thirty dollars. As they came from the factory they were not worthy of a moment's notice either as to beauty or as to tone. In fact, there was no tone until Mr. Tuchfarber took them in hand. But once clothed with his varnish, a satiny, luminous luster at once was evident, and, the instruments played upon, gave forth a tone of true sonorous sweetness—the tone of a Cremona or a Strad. This discovery will revolutionize violin manufacture.

To Westwood also Mr. Tuchfarber gave musical opp0rtunities, for he brought many of his Cincinnati soloists to the Westwood Town Hall in the days before street cars and auto-


mobiles made trips to the city possible. It was at his Westwood home that the famous Cincinnati Double Quartette was organized with Professor Andrew Nembach as director. These singers also assisted in the Westwood Choral Society, formed under the direction of Nembach, and sang with the chorus at the three concerts given every winter, until the society grew into a fine institution.

His last years were devoted to caring for his gardens and instructing visitors in botanical lore. He died January 25, 1926, and the Cincinnati Symphony Orchestra, in a sense the outgrowth of his earlier orchestra, added to its Sunday program a memorial number for Mr. Tuchfarber.

On August 4, 1870, Frank H. Tuchfarber married Nettie Richardson, daughter of David and Jane (Burnham) Richardson. Children : Edith, wife of Fred Pffer, and mother of a son, Paul Pffer ; Howard, a commercial artist of New York City.

Infrequently has an American community developed so generous a patron of the arts as Frank H. Tuchfarber. His energy and resourcefulness called beauty into his own life, and his generosity shared his wealth with the people at large. His genius awoke from the earth the beauties 0f nature, and again his liberality 0f soul opened his gates wide to the people. The symphony orchestra and his own gardens are, it is true, a monument to his character and life-work, but so, in a larger sense, is the larger cultural development of the city of Cincinnati.


An English-born boy, who finished his education in a log schoolhouse in Ohio, became a resident of Cincinnati and the owner of a large wholesale grocery house there, John Taylor eventually became the owner of one 0f the largest farms, eight thousand acres, in Kansas. He was a forward-looking, wide-awake man, who founded the family fortunes through hard and patient toil at the beginning, supplemented with prudently


made investments in real property, which paid him fine returns. His name endures in the city 0f Cincinnati and in the region of his Kansas estate as of a man gifted with extraordinary capacity for doing business on a large scale and with a remarkable grasp upon men and affairs of his time and place.

John Taylor was born in Lincolnshire, England, April 15, 1825, and died in Kansas, February 16, 1900, son of William and Elizabeth (Wells) Tayl0r. He was one of a family of ten children, and attended schools in his native place until he came to this country. His elder brother, Th0mas, had come to live in Cincinnati, and 0n his return to England gave such glowing accounts of life in America, that when he again came to Cincinnati, John accompanied him. In 1838 he became a resident of Cincinnati, locating in the suburb of Brighton. Eventually nine of the ten children of his family came to live in that city. John Taylor was thirteen years of age when he came, and he finished his education in a log schoolhouse in Cincinnati. He was not long in setting about to obtain employment, once his school years were at end. His first position was as clerk in a wholesale grocery house, which his brother, Thomas Taylor, conducted. John came to the conclusion that this was a very good business in which to engage, and so later he established himself in the retail end of it by opening a store on Central Avenue, Cincinnati. This store developed into a wholesale grocery establishment, operated under the style of John Taylor & Company, and of which John Taylor was the proprietor until 1876, when he sold to Joseph Taylor, and the firm name became Joseph Taylor & Company. Upon his withdrawal from active connection with business life, in 1871, he acquired possession of about eight thousand acres of land in the State of Kansas. In 1885 he removed from Cincinnati to Kansas and lived on his vast acreage until his death. This land is still in possession of members of his family. In 1859 Mr. Taylor built a fine comm0dious house at No. 932 Dayton Street, Cincinnati, the interior finish, done according to the best workmanship, being all of solid black walnut.


This residence is occupied by Mrs. Margaret (Maggie) (Taylor) Amick, widow of Dr. Marion L. Amick, and a daughter of Mr. Taylor by his first marriage.

Mr. Taylor was a charter member of the old Mohawk Lodge, Independent Order of Odd Fellows, and he for many years took an active interest in its work.

John Taylor married (first) Elizabeth Timberman, who bore him one daughter, Margaret (Maggie), married Marion L. Amick, M. D., of Cincinnati (see following biography). He married (second), in 1854, Margaret Ann Hart, and of that union nine children were born, of whom the survivors are : John H., Mrs. Jeannette Kruse, Clarence, Mrs. Florence White, and Charles W.


The memory of Marion L. Amick, M. D., is forever enshrined in the records of Cincinnati Medical College, which institution he served f0r the greater part of his life in the capacity of instructor, professor, or promoter. The college that launched him on his notable career as a physician and surgeon had a place in his affections second only to that held by his family. He did as much, probably, as any alumnus 0f the college of his generation to help upbuild his alma mater and to establish and maintain those standards, which have made it one of the leading institutions of medical learning in this country. For twenty-three years he was a member of the faculty, and for a dozen years at the latter part of his life he devoted his great skill to private practice in Cincinnati.

Marion L. Amick was born in Jennings County, Indiana, September 13, 1843, the son of Obed and Mary Amick, his father a native of North Carolina. The son, Mari0n L., received his preliminary education in the public sch0ols of his native place and prepared for Hanover College, whence he was graduated in the class 0f 1867. In his earlier school days he had a great desire to be of service to his fellow-men, and believed that he could best accomplish this end by ministering to their


bodily ills. Acc0rdingly he sought to have all his education conform to the worthy ambition that he cherished. He entered Cincinnati Medical College, graduating from the same in the class of 1869. His student record was of an exceptionally high order; he gave every evidence of having elected the profession for which he was by native endowment and cultural training, adapted. Immediately upon his graduation he was chosen for a place on the faculty as demonstrator of anatomy. He was an expert on this department of surgery and his ability along that line was recognized by all at the college—faculty and student body. He held the position of demonstrator for two years by mutual arrangement, but at the end of that period the college authorities would not permit him to sever his connection with the faculty. They deemed his services in his special department indispensable to the success of the institution, and appointed him to the professorship of anatomy. Dr. Amick in the two years that he filled the position of demonstrator made remarkable progress in the knowledge of anatomy and in ability to present the subject in a very practical manner for the enlightenment of the students. He was much loved by the faculty and students, maintaining his popularity with the entire c0llege body for the thirty-five years that elapsed from the time of his graduation until his death. In 1892 Dr. Amick resigned the chair of anatomy at Cincinnati Medical College, and from that time until his passing he gave all his attention to his private practice, which attained large proportions throughout the Cincinnati area. His death occurred in his Cincinnati home, November 15, 1904, and occasioned a deep sense of loss throughout the community, and especially was his going mourned by those members of the faculty of whom he had been an associate and the former students who sat at his feet during the years of his instructorship and professorship.

Dr. Amick married, July 22, 1879, Margaret (Maggie) Taylor, daughter of John Taylor, whose biography precedes, and Elizabeth (Timberman) Taylor, the wedding taking place


in Kansas, where the bride was visiting, her father being the owner of a farm of eight thousand acres in that State.

Dr. Amick was affiliated with McMillan L0dge, Free and Accepted Masons, and was a member of the Presbyterian Church. He was known among his friends and associates as a broad-minded man, generous in thought and purpose.


An outstanding figure in any enterprise pertaining to the advancement of education and also active in church work, Colonel Peter R. Neff will long be remembered for his connection with such activities.

Colonel Peter R. Neff was born in Baltimore, Maryland, June 19, 1832, son of Peter and Isabella (Freeman) Neff, and was brought to Cincinnati by his parents in 1835. His grandfather, also named Peter, was the son of Rudolph Neff (Näf ), who emigrated from Switzerland to the United States in 1749. Peter Rudolph Neff was educated in a private school, Woodward High School and Cincinnati College. He also received private instruction in mathematics, English literature, Greek, Latin, and French.

Colonel Neff conducted the hardware business which was established by his father and his uncles in 1844 under the name of Neff & Brothers, and the name was later changed to Peter Neff & Sons.

He was appointed by Governor Dennison as a member of the military committee of Hamilton County during the Civil War, and served during the entire conflict. He was particularly interested in church and Sunday school work, and gained much prominence by his connection in that work.

Colonel Peter Rudolph Neff married (first), June 30, 1853, Caroline M. Burnet, who died August 4, 1864. To them were born five children, four daughters, all married, one of them Margaret C., who married Lawrence Mendenhall (see following biography), and one son, who died in early boyhood ; (sec-


ond), June 19, 1867, Josephine Clark Burnet, both wives being daughters of William Burnet, by different marriages. They were the granddaughters 0f Judge Jacob Burnet, of further mention. Colonel and Mrs. Neff were the parents of seven children, two daughters and two sons now living.

Judge Jacob Burnet was a son of Dr. William Burnet, of Newark, New Jersey, wh0 was one of the medical directors and surgeons-general in the Continental Army. Judge Burnet came to Miami in the spring of 1796, and began practice of law. He was a member of the first Legislative Council of the N0rthwest Territory. He was elected a member of the Supreme Court 0f Ohi0, resigning to serve as United States Senator. By virtue of the many prominent positions which Judge Burnet had held at different times, he was one of Cincinnati's leading citizens, and his judgment was referred to in many instances. He claimed among his friends such notables as General Lafayette, Daniel Webster, Henry Clay, William Henry Harrison, Lewis Cass, and many others.


A member of an old Cincinnati family and prominent in business, civic and literary circles, Lawrence Mendenhall, who claimed among his intimate friends men of literary fame 0f a generation ago and who had gained considerable renown by his literary activities, will long be remembered for such associations.

He was born June 5, 1855, in Cincinnati, a son of Dr. George Mendenhall (q. v.), who was for many years physician to Harriet Beecher Stowe, and who shared with Mrs. Stowe a bitter opposition to slavery, and with whom he was connected in various anti-slavery movements. It is claimed that several characters in "Uncle Tom's Cabin" were drawn from domestics in the Mendenhall household. Lawrence Mendenhall was educated in public schools of Cincinnati, then entered Earlham College, in Indiana, but was taken to Eur0pe by his


father to complete his studies at Weisbaden, Germany, before finishing his course. Upon his return t0 Cincinnati, Mr. Mendenhall operated a builders supply house at N0. 247 West Fourth Street, dealing in hardwood flooring and building specialties, from which business he retired about twenty years ago. He was well known in the building trade and for several years served as secretary of the Builders Exchange.

Mr. Mendenhall gained more than ordinary prominence during the latter years of the last century as a poet, historian and short story writer. He wrote a number of articles dealing with the early history of Cincinnati, and was the auth0r of short stories published in "Munsey's," the "Cosmopolitan," and "Scribner's" magazines, also a few poems. While attending Earlham College Mr. Mendenhall formed a lasting friendship with James Whitcomb Riley, and was intimately acquainted with Edward Eggleston, the novelist.

During the earlier years of his life he was interested in various civic affairs, serving as secretary in several welfare and civic organizations, and was much interested in prison reform work. He was a director 0f the old Cincinnati Exposition, and was a member of the Cincinnati Art Club. He was als0 a member of the Western Association of Writers, and was at one time an associate editor of the "Midland Monthly," a literary periodical of some twenty-five years ago.

In national politics Mr. Mendenhall was a Republican, but believed in voting for the best man in local politics. A devout church worker, he was one of the founders of Westminster Presbyterian Church, where he was an elder for many years, and a charter member of the American Bible Society. At the time of his death he was vice-president of the Society, and was a member of the Madisonville Presbyterian Church, 0f Cincinnati.

Lawrence Mendenhall married, in 1880, Margaret Currie Neff, daughter of Colonel Peter Rudolph Neff (a sketch of whom precedes) and Caroline Margaret (Burnet) Neff, granddaughter of Judge Jacob Burnet (see preceding biography).


Lawrence Mendenhall died December 30, 1924, and was buried in Spring Grove Cemetery.


The Banning coat-of-arms, hereafter given, without the supporters were granted t0 Pawle Bayninge, of London, in 1588, by Cooke, according to the publications of the Harleian Society, although there is doubt as to Cooke having filled the office of herald at that time. This latter point is immaterial, as the arms are properly registered and recorded.

Arms—Argent, two bars sable, each charged with as many escallops or.

Crest—On a mount vert, an ostrich argent, holding in the mouth a key or.

The Banning chart, of which the author is not given, but who apparently did the work for Pierson W. Banning, of Los Angeles, California, gives John Banning as a brother of James and Richard Banning, and names him as of Talbot County, Maryland. He was a son of "John Doe" Banning (Stephen was grandfather of John Banning, of Talbot County, Maryland). "John Doe" Banning was a son of Stephen Banning (of England in 1714). Stephen was a son of Stephen Banning, who died in England in 1688 and who married Mary Banning, of England. He was a son 0f John Banning (received the degree of B. A. from Oxford in 1620) (Subsidiary Rolls, 1642). He was a son of John Banning, of Burbage, England, in 1613. He was a son of John Banning, of Burbage, England, in 1565. He was a son of Robert Banning, of Burbage, England, in 1539, who was named as an old man in 1565.

The name Banning is one of greatest antiquity. It is of Danish origin, applying in early times to a class called hero worshippers, and signifying a home or dwelling. Reference to it is found in the "Scot and Bard Songs," the earliest ballads on


record, where it says "Becca ruled the Banning." This Becca was, no doubt, the hero or ruler of the Banning clan of Vikings.

The distinctive Anglo-Saxon terminationing has always marked the name, and in general it has suffered very slight changes throughout its many hundred years of existence and travel into different countries. Whatever changes have occurred are due to misspelling or to the natural accomm0dations to the languages. In Holland there appears Banningh, Banningk, Bannick, and earlier, Benningh, Benningk, and Bennick. In Denmark many Bannings live to this day, no doubt descendants of the first Bannings known, and in England there are found Bayninge, Banninge, and Baninge. Germany shows B0nning, Banninger, Baninger, Behning, Benning, while in this country is Branning, formerly De Branning, a French variety, and from Iceland come Bannon, Bannin, Branigan, and others of similar sound.

It is supposed that about the fourth or fifth century some of the Bannings migrated from their native place, now known as Denmark, to what is at present called Holland, which was but a few miles distant. Here they must have lived for nearly a thousand years before coming into prominence ; at least no trace of the name has been found in history until about 1386, when Gerrit Banningh, a cloth merchant of Nienwendyk, who came from a hamlet named Banningh by the Stadt of De Venter, and finally located in Amsterdam, is mentioned as being the progenitor of the Banning families in Holland, who governed that country to a greater or less extent for nearly three hundred years. (De Vroedschatap Van Amsterdam, by Herr Elias, director of the State Archives of Amsterdam, Pub. by Vincent Loosjes, about 1895, in Haarlam, Holland, 2 vols.)

Rembrandt's famous painting, the "Night Watch," shows as the central figure Captain Franz Banning-Coq, who, although dying at an early age, made his power and influence felt in a most wonderful way. This picture is generally supposed to represent a rally of the guard at night from the guard house, which a name on the picture states, but in fact represents


the members 0f a gun club as they are about to leave their old quarters just prior to moving into their new quarters on Singel Street. This picture was painted in 1642. The name was given it when the picture was discovered many years after it had been painted, in an old attic, and the real purport 0f the picture was unknown, but recent discoveries establish the above statement as to its meaning. At that time it was customary for prominent organizations to have paintings made of their members in groups. Franz Banning's mother was a Banning of the noble families, and married an apothecary named Coq, from Bremen, against the wishes 0f her parents. Their son Franz, of his own acc0rd, prefixed his last name by his mother's name, Banning, making it a hyphenated name.

From Holland, Franz Banning-Coq went to Basel, where he studied law. Returning to Amsterdam he soon became an alderman, then a magistrate, and in a short time burgomaster. The King of Frankreich raised him to the nobility. He built the building now used as the King's Palace, but which at that time was the City Hall or Governor's Headquarters. He died at an early age, childless, in the midst of an already w0nderful career.

Another famous painting by Van der He1st, entitled "Celebrating the Peace of Munster, or, Conclusion of the 30 Year War," which hangs alongside of the "Night Watch" in the Royal Museum at Amsterdam, has as its central figure Jacob Banning, the Standard Bearer, which pictures the members of a gun club gathered at a banquet to celebrate the Westphalian Peace in 1648.

The Banning coat-of-arms may be seen on the ceiling of the throne r0om in the King's palace in Amsterdam to this day, as well as in church windows, on gravestones, and in many 0ther places. At some unknown date, probably about 1500, the Bannings went t0 England and settled at what is now called Banningham in Norfolk. At the present time no traces of the Bannings can be found there, but are clearly traceable t0 Mid-


land and London, from which places the different branches now in existence seem to have come.

The Bannings in England became prominent in military and social life during the sixteenth century, taking an active part in the Crusade to the H0ly Land, for which a coat-of-arms was granted in London in 1588. Two Peerages also were created, both becoming extinct in the seventeenth century. The first Peerage was conferred on Sir Paul Bayning, Lord Mayor of London, who, in his Patent of Nobility, reverted to the original spelling Banning, and became Viscount Banning. His country seat was near Banningham, in Norfolk.

One branch of the family in England is about extinct, there being but one male member now living, and it is thought his only son is dead. Another branch has for many years been of local importance, having for several generations held in the family the highly coveted 0ffice 0f postmaster of Liverpool, besides other positions of importance in the governmental service.

Sometime in the seventeenth century Bannings came, supposedly from England, Ireland, Scotland, and elsewhere, to America. As to the places from which they came nothing is definitely known with one exception, but some of them are thought to have come from Midland or London. It seems almost certain that the first Bannings in America came from England, Ireland, Scotland, as the given names are English, or at least more common in England then elsewhere, e. g., Edward, James, J0hn, and Samuel. Sometime prior to 1678 an Edward Banning settled in Talbot County, Maryland, which was but a few years after Lord Baltimore was granted a charter for colonization purposes by the King of England. About 1700 there is record of a James Banning being in the same county that Edward Banning came to. About this same time two other Bannings are known 0f in or near Lyme, Connecticut, by name Samuel and John Banning. These last three, by tradition, are supposed to have been brothers, which, if a fact, makes it more than likely that they were sons of Edward


Banning, of Talbot County, Maryland. Some forty odd years later a Benoni Banning settled in Talbot County, Maryland. He came from Dublin, Ireland, to which place his father is thought to have come from Scotland or England, but about 1790 John Banning, who was born August 15, 1760, in Stafford, England, came to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. His son Daniel lived in Pittsburgh or Philadelphia, but of his descendants nothing is known. There is in Los Angeles County, California, and in Pennsylvania, a town named Banning, and in California a military camp by that name.

Some years after James Banning, and about the time Benoni Banning was known of in Maryland, there appeared Bannings in Delaware. It is not unlikely that they may have come from those in Maryland, as these two States are geographically one, but if they did not, it is possible that they migrated from Holland, where there were so many Bannings. From the names of some of their descendants, it is contended that they are of Dutch origin, and as Delaware was early settled by the Dutch, this may be the case. From the Delaware Bannings there have come two branches, one a branch in California, and a branch now in Delaware, and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. There is a strong likelihood that Phineas Banning was a brother of Ben0ni Banning, and his brother, James Banning, who came to Talbot County, Maryland.

This family was originally of Neyland in Suffolk. Richard Bannyng, 0r Bayning, dwelt at Dedham about the end of the fifteenth century. His son, Richard, married Anne Raven, daughter and co-heir of Robert Raven, of Creting St. Mary's in Suffolk, and had Richard of Dedham, who married Anne Barker, daughter of John Barker, of Ipswich, by whom he had Paul (Andrew, a very eminent merchant in Mincing Lane, who died without issue December 21, 160, aged sixty-seven. See under Powers in Little Waltham).

Paul Bayning was a citizen and alderman of London, and one of the sheriffs of that city in 1593. He accumulated a very great fortune by merchandising, so advantageous was trade even


in its infancy, that Sir Thomas Gresham, Sir Andrew Judde, Thomas Sutton, founder 0f the Charter-house, and our two brothers, Paul and Andrew, laid immense and incredible riches by. These two have a monument erected to their memory in the chancel of the Church of St. Olave, Hart Street, by which it appears that Paul died September 3, 1616, aged seventy-seven. He had two wives. The first was a daughter of a Mowfe, of Needham, or Creting, in Suffolk, by whom no issue is recorded. His second wife was Susan Norden, daughter and heir of Richard Norden, of Miftley (remarried after his decease to Sir Francis Leigh, Knight and Bart). He died October 1, 1616, and was buried in St. Olave's Church, above mentioned, leaving his only son and heir, Sir Paul Bayning, Knight, then aged upwards of thirty.

Sir Paul Bayning was created a Baronet, November 25, 1612, constituted sheriff of Essex in 1617, advanced to the title of Baron Bayning, of Horksley, in Essex, February 27, 1627-28, and to the further dignity of Viscount Sudbury, in Suffolk, March 8, 1627-28. He married Anne Glemham, daughter of Sir Henry Glemham, Knight, by Anne ( Sackville) Glemham, daughter of Thomas, Earl 0f Dorset, by whom he had five children : I. Paul, his son and heir. 2. Cecily, married Henry Pierp0nt, Visc0unt Newalk, eldest son of Robert, Earl of Kingston. 3. Anne, married Henry Murray, Esq., one of the grooms of the bedchamber to King Charles I, afterwards created, March 17, 1673, Viscountess Banning, of Foxley. 4. Mary, married William Villiers, Viscount of Grandison, second to Christopher Villiers, Earl of Anglesea, third to Arthur George, Esq. 5. Elizabeth, married Francis, Lord Dacre; created, September 6, 1680, Countess of Shepey.

Sir Paul Bayning died at his house on Mark Lane, July 29, 1629, possessed of a very large real estate, as appears by the following particulars :

The manor and almost the whole parish of Little Bentley : Dikeley hall, Stones, Sheddinghow, Old hall, New hall, Abbots,



etc., in Maningtree, and parishes adjoining: The manor of Hampstalls, in Weeks : The manors of Great Horkesley Boxsted, River-hall, etc.: The manor of Small-land-hall, alias Marshes, in Hatfield Peverell : The manor of Powers, and Shepcote, in Little Waltham : The manor of Great Lees with Lyon-hall, and other great estates there : in Woodham Ferrers, the manor of Champions, and estates called Burrs, Illgars, and Latchleys : The manor of Gingjoyberd-laundry, alias Blunts in Butsbury, and Stock: half the manor of Farnham. And other estates and woods in Tendering, Thorpe, Roding-Beauchamp, Willingale Doe, Fifield. The rectories of Bradfield. And the advowsons of the Churches of Little Bentley, Great Lees, Stock, Mistley, Bradfield, in Suffolk. The manor and rectory appropriate of Lax-field : The manor of Rumborough : Divers lands, tenements, etc., in Laxfield aforesaid, Creting, Needham, Barking, Afpall, Thorn-don, Thwaight, Houlton, Aldringham, Wiffet, Rumborough, Speckhall, Credeston, Westhall, Hallesworth, Leiston, Knoddishill, Theverton, Kellishall. In Hertfordshire : Tenements and lands at Huxworth, with the advowson of the church. Inquis. 6 Caron, September 4, no 158. He also had an immediate personal estate of £153 15s., viz.: in debts £136,751 15s., and in ready money £17,000, without the jewels, plate, and household stuffs.

His widow was remarried t0 Dudley Carlet0n, Viscount Dorchester. His son and heir, Paul, Viscount Bayning, was born in 1616, paid the king 118,000 for the fine of his wardship, and for charges about the same, £185. He died at Bentley Hall, June 11, 1638, and was buried in a vault in this church. By his Lady Penelope, only daughter and heir of Sir Robert Naunton, Knight, Master of the Court of Wards and Liveries, and once Secretary of State (remarried afterwards to Philip, Earl of Pembrook), he had two daughters, Anne, and Penelope, born in November, after his decease. Anne, the eldest, was married to Aubrey de Vere, the twentieth and last Earl of Oxford, of that most noble and ancient family. Her large f0rtune was a reasonable and necessary supply and recruit to the estate of that family, which had been greatly impaired and almost ruined by the passionate extravagance of his an-


cestor, Edward, Earl of Oxford, in Queen Elizabeth's reign. But by this Lady, who died in September, 1659, he had no surviving issue. Penelope, the youngest daughter, was married to John Herbert, Esq., youngest son of Philip, Earl of Pembrook and Montgomery; remarried to John Wentworth, Esq. She died in 1657, without issue.

This estate became the property of the Earl of Oxford and his Lady (Newcourt, Vol. II, p. 52). They caused to be pulled down the stately and magnificent seat of Bentley Hall, which had been erected by Paul Bayning, Esq., in the reign of King James I, and sold the materials, wherewith many houses in Colchester and elsewhere are still adorned.

Phineas Banning came from England and settled in Dover, Delaware, where his son, John Banning, was born in 1740, and there died February 15, In 1. John Banning was a member of the Council of the State of Delaware from 1777 until his death; treasurer of Kent County; military treasurer; town commissioner; member of the Council of Safety, and member of the first Electoral College, casting Delaware's v0te for George Washington as president of the United States. In the Revolution he was one of the foremost patriots, "contributing liberally both in money and services to organizing and establishing the State government of Delaware, and is said to have been considered the 'banker of the State.' When the Continental Army was disbanded, and the soldiers had nothing but the depreciated script, it is said that he stood on the step of the old Academy of Dover and gave them hard money for their notes, thus trying to redeem his nation's credit." He married, in 1766, Mrs. Elizabeth (;Alford) Cassius, daughter of Philip and Charity Alford. She was a woman of great beauty; "indeed," a gentleman of note said "she was the most beautiful woman he had ever seen in Europe or America. . . . Sarah Banning, her daughter by her second husband, who married Hon. Henry Moore Ridgely, was highly educated and accomplished, and inherited much of her m0ther's beauty. When Mr. Ridgely was in the United States Senate they were


spoken of as the handsomest couple in Washingt0n society." Mrs. Banning married (third) Dr. William McKee, many pers0ns and families of prominence being represented among their descendants.

For examples of the sheer power 0f indomitable wills, fierce courage, and unconquerable persistence in the moulding of careers out 0f the untried resources of virgin fields we must turn to the Great West and Middle West. No other section of our country has given us such shining examples of work 0f strong men, true in coping with the almost overwhelming forces of nature and circumstance. The history of the Western Reserve is one of romance and achievement incomparable with that of any other part of the country. "Self-made, self-reliant, sturdy and rugged men have been its product, and it is to these men that the upbuilding and development of the West into the important factor in the world's work which it is today is due." To every man who has contributed a share toward the great task of bringing the West out 0f a vast wilderness, teeming with opportunity, yet offering untold resistance before it was harnessed to the uses of man, is due a deep gratitude and thankfulness, which can be n0 m0re adequately expressed than in preserving for later generations the story of his work and achievement.

Since the opening of the Western Reserve to settlers, the family of Banning has been prominent. The late David Banning, one of the prominent business men and financiers of the city of Cincinnati, Ohio, during the latter and middle decades of the nineteenth century, was a descendant in the third generation.

(I) Samuel Banning, of Lyme, Connecticut, in common with the traditions of other Bannings, is believed to have come from his native England t0 America about 1700, being one of the three brothers so often mentioned. He located in or near Lyme, Connecticut, upon his arrival in America, where, like John Banning, many of his descendants are t0 be found to this day, while not a few have scattered to New York State, Ohio,


California, and elsewhere. Among the descendants of this line a considerable number of those of most brilliant attainments can be found ; this includes medical, musical and scholarly lines, and has established a high average among them. He moved from Lyme to East Hartland, Connecticut ; was killed by lightning, and is buried in East Hartland. Children : I. Elizabeth. 2. Samuel, of whom further. 3. Abner. 4. David.

(II) Samuel Banning, son of Samuel Banning, was born about 1710, in Lyme, Connecticut. He married two or three times, having in all ten children. He moved to East Hartland, Connecticut, about 1765, where he died on the farm 0f his son David, about 1800, being buried at East Hartland, Connecticut. Children : 1. Samuel. 2. Abner, of whom further. 3. David. 4. Irene. 5. Daughter. 6. Daughter. 7. Daughter. 8. Rhoda. 9. Rebecca. 10 Daughter.

(III) Abner Banning, son of Samuel Banning, was born about 1755, in East Hartland, C0nnecticut. He was in the 18th Regiment, Connecticut Militia, from August 18, 1776, to September 14, 1776, in Captain Hutchan's c0mpany. He married Annah Sparrow, of East Haddam, Connecticut, in the First Church of Christ, April 2, 1777. (See Sparr0w VI.) She was born April 19, 1751, and lived in Connecticut. Children: I. Malinda. 2. Benjamin. 3. Ashel, 0f whom further. 4. Morgan. 5. Calvin. 6. Samuel. There were twenty families that left East Hartland, Connecticut, f0r Ohio ; they settled in Vernon and Hartf0rd, Trumbull County, Ohi0.

(IV) Ashel (Arbel) Banning, son of Abner and Annah (Sparrow) Banning, was born June 22, 1780, in East Hartland, Connecticut. He married (first) Amelia Wilcox. This marriage took place soon after coming to Ohio, and they settled in Vernon. He married (second) Dency Crosby, born April 22, 1791, who died February 25, 1868, in Gustavus, Ohio. They lived in Vernon, Ohio. He died May 7, 1873, in Gustavus, Ohio, the result of being struck on the head by falling timber. The Crosby arms are as follows :


Arms—Sable, a chevron ermine, between three rams passant argent.

Crest—A ram as in the arms.

Children of first wife: 1. Abner Wilcox. 2. Amelia. 3. Melinda. Children of second wife : 4. David, 0f whom further. 5. Jeremiah W., deceased. 6. Timothy, deceased. 7. Mary A., deceased, who became the wife of Benjamin H. Peabody. 8. Converse. 9. Stoddard, of Geneva, Ohio, now deceased. 0. Malinda, married Newton R0bens, and is now deceased.

(V) David Banning, son of Ashel and Dency (Crosby) Banning, was born in Vernon, Ohio, April II, 1819. He spent his childhood in the healthy atmosphere of his father's large farm, and received his education in the local district schools. He was a boy of studious tastes, a constant reader, and constant searcher after knowledge, and these characteristics remained with him during his long, life. After completing the decidedly inadequate course which the public school offered, he continued his education during his spare hours at home and at work. David Banning secured his first employment in a general store in his native town operated by Stoddard Stevens, and here he acted in the capacity of clerk for a few years. Leaving the employ 0f Stoddard Stevens, he spent a period in the employ of the Federal Government.

David Banning's connection with the city of Cincinnati, Ohio, dated from April, 1847, when the city gave but faint indications of the splendid future which was before it, and the great prop0rtions to which it would grow. He watched carefully the steady growth of its great industries and commercial enterprises, playing a quiet and effective part in the great work. His arrival in Cincinnati antedated the laying 0f the first railroad in that secti0n of the State. Shortly after his coming to the city he entered on his first business venture, forming a partnership with his brother, Jeremiah W. Banning. The two embarked in a commissi0n business, with their headquarters


located on Walnut Street, between front and Second streets. The business met with a high degree of success, and after a short period the partnership was dissolved, the two brothers thenceforth conducting their operations separately.

Mr. Banning immediately 0rganized another business, which for a period of twenty-five years he continued to direct. From comparatively obscure beginnings, through the business talent and constructive policies of management of Mr. Banning, the business grew to large proportions, and occupied a position of importance among the largest enterprises of its kind in the city of Cincinnati. He was eminently fitted for business life, and the handling of large affairs, by reason 0f his ability to judge clearly and quickly the relative merits of any proposition brought before him, by his breadth of vision, and his persistence, once his decision to act had been taken. He was a business man of the self-made type, a man of broad tolerance and human understanding, a leader who was instinctively obeyed. He invited and received the confidence of his employees, many of whom he advised, and many of whom he aided toward independent business ventures. He easily inspired c0nfidence and support, first through the marked and well known honesty of his dealings, and second through the success of all his undertakings. David Banning was known throughout the city of Cincinnati and the larger commercial cities of Ohio as a man of the strictest integrity. Although not connected actively nor officially with the public life of the city of Cincinnati, Mr. Banning was, nevertheless, a factor of importance in the city's growth and development. He was looked to as 0ne of its foremost citizens, and accorded a place as such. He was connected in executive capacities with many of the large financial and commercial enterprises of the city, and was for thirty-two years a member of the board 0f directors of the F0urth National Bank of Cincinnati, his connections with that institution dating from its founding, in which he took an active interest.

Mr. Banning was a Republican in political affiliation, and kept well abreast of the times, though he took no active part


in the political life of the city. He was active, however, in social and fraternal interests. The name of his friends was legi0n, and his death, which occurred in Cincinnati, March 8, 1901, was the cause of deep-felt and widespread grief.

David Banning married, in Erie, Pennsylvania, April 28, 1847, Asenath C. Bradley (see Bradley VIII), born June 16, 1824, daughter of Dr. Moore Bird Bradley, of Waterford, Pennsylvania, one of the foremost physicians in the State. Mrs. Banning was a member of one of the old Colonial families of that region of the State of Pennsylvania; she died in Cincinnati, November 13, 1909. Children : 1. Charles, deceased. 2. Blanche, deceased. 3. Kate, who resides in Cincinnati. 4. Starr, deceased. 5. Harry, deceased. 6. William, twin of Harry, deceased.


Bradley is a local name found largely in Yorkshire, Gloucestership, Lincolnshire, Wiltshire, and Staffordshire. It is a local name, signifying the Broad-lea, from the old English brad and leah. Bradley is the name 0f parishes and towns in Berkshire, Cheshire, Derbyshire, Leicestershire, Linc0lnshire, Staffordshire, and Hampshire. The first mention in England of the name Bradley is in 1183 at the feast of St. Cuthbert in Lent, when the Lord Hugh, Bishop of Durham, caused to be described all the revenues of his Bishopric. The survey of Hugh Pudsey, called Bolton Duke, mentions in Wolsingham, Roger de Bradley, who held forty acres at Bradley. The family in England has been one of the first in importance for many centuries. In the Visitation of Yorkshire, 1563-64, there is mention of Isabel, daughter of Sir Francis Bradley, who married Arthur Normanton, of Yorkshire. John Bradley was bishop of Shaftsbury in 1539. Alexander Bradley resided in the see of Durham in 1578, and about the same time Cuthbertus Bradley was curate of Barbardi Castle.

Arms—Gules, a chevron argent between three boars' heads couped or.


In an account of the Pudsey family of Bolton, County York, is found the f0llowing note : "John de Podeshay was killed on Joucros' Moor in 1279. Walter de Bradelegh 0f Carleton, in Craven, was present."

Robert de Bradeleye was of County Cambridge in 1273. Brice de Bradeleghe was of County Somerset in 1273. William de Bradelegh was of County Devon temp. Henry III. Wilhelmus Brodelegh, of Yorkshire, in 1379; Agnes Bradeley, of Yorkshire, in 1379 ; Richard de Bradleghe, of County Somerset, 1 Edward III; Henry de Bradleye, County Somerset,

Edward III.

In Ravenser, County York, in 1297, was William de Bradeley, while John de Bradeley was of Staynelay (Stainley), County York, at the same time. Emma de Bradley was of Thornton, as was Roger de Bradley. In 1344 Robert Bradeley was living at Bolt0n, County Y0rk, England, where his name appears in the case of John de Pudesay against Richard de Shotelesworth. In 1394 John, Lord of Coven, granted his manor in Coven with all 0f his lands to John Bradley, 0f Penkrich, and William de Hyde, of Brewood, for which they are to pay him a rose at midsummer. John Bradley was of Labrone or Harmbeye, County Y0rk, in 1550; Thomas Bradley, of Wadyngton, County York, in 1555 ; and Richard Bradley and Ann, his wife, were of Bradford, County York, in 1569.

The following wills are found in County York, England : Edmund Bradeley, N0vember 9, 1471; John de Bradeley, of Esyngton, May 6, 1405; John Bradeley, of Gonthwate, Parish of Penyston, August I, 1491; Horme Bradeley, Rector of Rawmersh, April 24, 1483 ; Thomas Bradlay, buried at Wodkirk, August 3, 1509; William Bradlay, of York, December I, 1467; Patrick Bradley, of York, July 13, 1446; Joan Bradley, widow 0f Patrick Bradley, January 22, 1465 ; Roger Bradley, of York, January 21, 1436.

In the "Harleian Society Publications," volume twelve, containing the "Visitation of County Warwick," England, pages


354-55, are found the arms and pedigree of the family of Bradley, which has many grounds of probability of being that family from which the New Haven Bradleys are immediately descended.

The pedigree is as follows :

William Bradley, of Sheriff-Hutton, C0unty Y0rk, England.

William Bradley, of the city of Coventry, County Warwick, married Agnes Margate. Children : 1. Francis, married Francesca Watkins. 2. Thomas, married Maria Cotes. 3. William, of whom further.

William Bradley, son of William and Agnes (Margate) Bradley, was born in Coventry, England. He married Johanna Waddington. Children : 1. William, believed to be the American progenitor. 2. Anna. 3. Magdalen. 4. Elizabeth. 5. Letticia. 6. An infant, born September 1, 1619.

Pedigree of the Bradleys of Bradley, County Lancaster :

John Bradley, born about 1465, of Bradley, County Lancaster. He married Catherine Caterall. Children : 1. Thomas, of whom further. 2. Allan. 3. John.

Thomas Bradley, of Bradley, was born about 1490. He married Grace Sherborne, daughter 0f Hugh Sherborne. Children : 1. John, of whom further. 2. Hugh. 3. Thomas. 4. Anne. 5. Helene.

John Bradley, born about 1520, was living in 1567. He had a son, John, of whom further.

John Bradley settled at Bryning, County Lancaster. He had a son, John, of whom further.

John Bradley, of Bryning, gent., married and had a son James, of whom further.

James Bradley married Ellen Tildesley, and they had children : I. Edward, slain at the battle of Marston Moor. 2. Thomas. 3. John. 4. Richard. 5. Jane. 6. Anne. 7. Helen.

Dugdale's "Visitation of Yorkshire" names the Bradleys of Ackworth.

John Bradley, of the Bradleys of Berkshire, was in King


Henry VIII's army upon an English expedition to France. His sons were : 1. Richard. 2. Henry, of whom further. 3. Abel.

Henry Bradley, of Okehingham, County Berks, died in 1645. He married Barbara Lane. Children : I. John. 2. Thomas, of whom further.

Thomas Bradley, chaplain to Charles I, was rector of Ackworth. He was born in 1598. He matriculated at Exeter College, Oxford, in 1617; received his B. A., June 21, 1620; and his D. D., December 20, 1642. He was rector 0f Castle-ford in 1630, and of Ackworth in 1643. A great Royalist, he was expelled from his livings during the period of the Commonwealth, but they were returned at the Restoration. He married Frances, daughter of John, Lord Savile, of Pomfret. Children : 1. Thomas, a merchant in Virginia. 2. Savile. 3. Frances. 4. Barbara.

The Bradleys of Louth, Lincolnshire, trace to Robert Bradley, of Louth. The line continues through Thomas Bradley, of Louth, a merchant, who had the foll0wing children : 1. Nicholas. 2. Thomas, of whom further.

Thomas Bradley, of Louth, a merchant, was born in 1503. He married Alice Etton. They were the parents of a son, John, of whom further.

John Bradley, son of Thomas and Alice (Etton) Bradley, was one of the assistants of the town of Louth; he died in 1590. He married Frances Fairfax, and they had the following children : 1. John, of whom further. 2. Thomas, of whom further. 3. Anne. 4. Elizabeth. 5. Mary.

John Bradley, son of John and Frances (Fairfax) Bradley, an eminent physician and a graduate of Cambridge, married Anne Freeman. They were the parents of the following children : 1. Henry. 2. Thomas, born in 1583. 3. Frances, born in 1585. 4. Matthew, born in 1588.

Thomas Bradley, son of John and Frances (Fairfax) Bradley, of Louth, married Ann Chapman, sister and co-heir of Sir Peter Chapman, of London. They had the following children :



John, born in 1576. 2. Anne. 3. Elizabeth, born in 1584. 4. Audrey, born in 1590.

There are several distinct branches 0f the Bradley family in the United States, the founders of which came from England. The first Bradleys in the American Colonies are said to have come from the market town of Bingley, in the West Riding of Yorkshire. About the beginning of the seventeenth century William Bradley was born in Bingley. According to tradition handed down in different branches of the family, he was a friend of Cromwell, and the "History of Bingley, England," states that he was a major in the Parliamentary Army, and removed to New Haven, Connecticut. William Bradley resided for a time in Branford and Guilford, later removing to New Haven, where he took up his residence in what is now North Haven, and had large landed interests there. He was the first landowner in the village. Founders 0f other branches 0f the Bradleys are : Francis Bradley, ancestor of the Fairfield family; and Daniel Bradley, founder of the Haverhill, Massachusetts, Bradleys.

Burke's "Armory" gives fifteen coats-of-arms for the name Bradley. The arms of the Connecticut Bradleys and the descendants of William and Francis Bradley are previously given. The symbolic description of the arms foll0ws : The shield is red—red in heraldry denotes boldness, daring blood and fire—"a burning desire to spill bl0od for God and Country." Silver stands for purity, justice and peace. The chevron represents the rafters of a roof and was often given to ambassadors and eminent statesmen as a reward for the protection (as under a roof) they gave their king and country. The boar symbolizes a well-armed, undaunted and courageous warrior, who resists his enemies bravely and never thinks of flight, the same as the boar, who will fight to the bitter end. The Bradley arms are engraved on a silver tankard owned by the granddaughter 0f the first William Bradley, of New Haven. They are the same as the armorial bearings "Confirmed by the Dep-


uties of Camden . . . . to Francis Bradley of Coventry, grandson of William Bradley, County York, 'Her. Visitation.' "

(I) William Bradley, of New Haven, Connecticut, was born in England, about 1620. He settled in New Haven, and married there, February 18, 1645, Alice Pritchard, daughter of Roger Pritchard, of Springfield, Massachusetts. He died in 1690, and she in 1692. Children, with dates of baptism : 1. Joseph, January 4, 1646. 2. Isaac, 1647 ( ?). 3. Martha, October, 1648. 4. Abraham, of whom further. 5. Mary, April 30, 1653. 6. Benjamin, April 8, 1657. 7. Hester (or Esther), September 29, 1659. 8. Nathaniel, February 26, 1660-61. 9. Sarah, June 21, 1665.

(II) Abraham Bradley, son of William Bradley, was baptized October 24, 1650, and died October 19, 1718. He married, December 25, 1673, Hannah Thompson, born September 22, 1654, died at New Haven, October 26, 1718. Abraham Bradley was a deacon in the First (now called Center) Church of New Haven, Connecticut, and at one time Justice of the Peace. His will was dated December 5, 1716, and proved in the New Haven Probate Court, November 18, 1718. (Recorded Probate Records, liber 4, page 546.) It contained the following clause: "As a token of my love t0 ye first church 0f Christ in New Haven I give my silver cup, or the value of it, to be improved at ye Lord's table; yt is after my decease." Children, born at New Haven : 1. John, of whom further. 2. Daniel, born in 1679, died November 2, 1723. 3. Hannah, born November 8, 1682. 4. Lydia, born November 28, 1685. 5. Ebenezer, born September 9, 1689. 6. Abraham, born April 9, 1693. 7. Esther, born March 19, 1696.

(III) John Bradley, son of Deacon Abraham and Hannah (Thompson) Bradley, was born in New Haven, Connecticut, October 12, 1674. He married, September 22, 1698, Sarah Holt, daughter of Ebenezer Holt. Children : 1. Enos, of whom further. 2. John, born September 10, 1702. 3. Dorcas, born November 4, 1704. 4. Jason, born August t0, 1708. 5.


Jehiell, born September 19, 1710. 6. Phineas, born September 28, 1714.

(IV) Enos Bradley, son of John and Sarah (Holt) Bradley, was born December 28, 1701, and lived in New Haven, Connecticut. He married, December 2, 1721, Ellen Skidmore. (See Skidmore III.) Children : 1. Sibyl, born November 8, 1722. 2. Griffin, born November 9, 1724; married Mabel Thompson, sister of wife of Ariel. 3. Enos, born December 20, 1726. 4. Ariel, 0f whom further. 5. Ellen, born November 4, 1731. 6. Gamaliel, born February 19, 1734. 7. Oliver, born November 1, 1736.

(V) Ariel Bradley, son of Enos and Ellen (Skidmore) Bradley, was born in New Haven, Connecticut, March 8, 1729, and removed to New York State. He married, November 7, 1751, Amy Thompson. (See Thompson V.) Children : 1. Thaddeus, born June 8, 1752. 2. Anne, born June 10, 1754, died young. 3. James, of whom further. 4. Anne, born November 9, 1763.

(VI) Captain James Bradley, son of Ariel and Amy (Thompson) Bradley, was born June 17, 1756, and died about 1818, aged sixty-two years. The first settlers of Johnston T0wnship, Trumbull County, Ohio, were a family named Bradley. Captain James Bradley came from Salisbury, Connecticut, in 1802-03. The family stopped at Canfield, Johnston Township, for a short time, finally settling in the western part of the township. He married Asenath Bird. (See Bird VI.) Children : 1. Thaddeus. 2. Dr. Moore Bird, of whom further. 3. Dr. Ariel, born in 1793 ; married, in 1828, Laura Barstow.

(VII) Dr. Moore Bird Bradley, son of Captain James and Asenath (Bird) Bradley, was born in 1790. After laboring for a time on his father's farm, he turned his attention to the study of medicine, studying under Dr. Peter Allan. He practiced in Mansfield, Ohio, later rem0ving to Waterford, Erie County, Pennsylvania, where he attained a leading professional place and where his death occurred. In 1827 he was one of the


organizers of the first Protestant Episcopal church of Waterford, Pennsylvania, and one of its first officers. He married and had two children. Children : I. Asenath C., of whom further. 2. Darwin.

(VIII) Asenath C. Bradley, daughter of Dr. Moore Bird Bradley, married David Banning. (See Banning V.)


The family of Thompson in Kent spelled the name Thomson, and the change to the present form was made in America.

Arms—Or, on a fesse dancettè azure three estoiles argent, on a canton of the second the sun in his splendour.

Crest—A cubit arm erect vested gules cuffed argent, holding in the hand five ears of wheat or.

Motto—In lumine lucem.

Thomas Thompson, of Sandwich, County Kent, merchant, had a son, Thomas. Thomas Thompson, of Sandwich, married a daughter of a Mansfield. Arms were granted to him in 1600. He had children : Henry, Anne, and Thomas.

Henry Thompson, named ab0ve, had sons, John, Anthony, and William. Thomas Thompson, named last in the paragraph above, also had sons, John, Anthony, and William. These names, found together in the Thompson family of County Kent, and the fact that three brothers, William, Anthony, and John, came from England to America, make it seem highly probable that the Thompsons of America descended from the family of Th0mpson (0r Thomson) of Kent, England. There has been much controversy on this matter, but extensive research has failed to settle the point, and almost all of those who have investigated the Thompson pedigree concede the probability of descent from the family of Kent.

The name Thompson stands twenty-first in a roll of common surnames, being rarer than Edwards, but more comm0n than White. Thomson or Thompson signifies a son of Thomas. Bardsley, in his "Surnames," gives : Eborard fil. Thome,


County Cambridge, 1273; Abraham fil. Thome, County Bedford, 20 Edward I, 1291; Richard fil. Thome, County York, 1291 ; Petrus Thome, son, County York, 1379; Johannes Th0masson, 0f County York, 1379.

There are large families of Thompson in both Ireland and Scotland. Baron Haversham, created bar0n in 1696, was a descendant of Maurice Thompson, of Cheston, County Herts. This baronetcy became extinct in 1745. A Thompson was Lord Mayor of London in 1737, and another in 1828. Richard Thompson was treasurer of St. Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin, in 1582. Baron Sydenham, Governor-General of Canada, was a descendant of the Thomps0ns of County Surrey.

(I) Anthony Thompson was born in England, and died in New Haven, Connecticut, in September, 1648. Three brothers, Anthony, John, and William Thompson, left England, with the party led by the Rev. John Davenport and Theophilus Eaton, in the "Hector," and arrived in Boston, Massachusetts, June 26, 1637. In April, 1638, they settled in the vicinity of what is now New Haven, Connecticut. On September 1, 1640, when the settlement was called New Haven, Anthony Thompson, with a family of four persons, was one of the list of first settlers. He was a member of the band of soldiers organized to protect the settlers from the Indians. He mentions his family and brothers, John and William, in his will of 1647. He married (first) in England. He married (second) Catherine, who married (sec0nd) Nicholas Camp. Children of first marriage : 1. John, of whom further. 2. Anthony, born December, 1634, died December 29, 1654. 3. Bridget, born in 1636; married the Rev. John Bowers. Children of second marriage : 4. Hannah, baptized June 8, 1645; married a Stanton. 5. Lydia, baptized July 24, 1647; married Isaac Crittenden. 6. Ebenezer, baptized October 15, 1648; married Deborah Dudley.

(II) John Thompson, son 0f Anthony Th0mps0n, was born in England in 1632, and died June 2, 1707. He was called "mariner" and is mentioned frequently in deeds, etc.,


owning land in New Haven. He married Anne Vicars, August 4, 1656. (See Vicars.) Children : 1. John, born May 12, 1657; married Rebecca Daniel. 2. Anne, married, in 1688, Caleb Chidsey. 3. Joseph, born April 4, 1664. 4. Child, born in September, 1667, died in infancy. 5. Samuel, of whom further. 6. Sarah, born January 16, 1672 ; married John Mix. 7. William, born January 17, 1674. 8. Mary, born May 16, 1675.

(III) Captain Samuel Thompson, son of John and Anne (Vicars) Thompson, was born in New Haven, Connecticut, May 12, 1669, and died March 26, 1749, being buried at Goshen, Connecticut. He lived in Westville, Connecticut, for a time, removing from there to Goshen, Connecticut. He was made captain of a company of soldiers. He married, November 14, 1695, Rebecca Bishop, daughter of Lieutenant-Governor James and Elizabeth (Tompkins) Bishop. She was born in New Haven, December T0, 1673, and died there April 5, 1734. Children : 1. Samuel, born December 2, 1696 ; married Esther Alling. 2. James, of whom further. 3. Amos, born May 3, 1702; married Sarah Alling. 4. Gideon, born December 25, 1704; married Lydia Punderson. 5. Rebecca, born February 23, 1708; married David Austin. 6. Judah, born June 10, 1711, died August I, 1712. 7. Judah, born October 5, 1713. 8. Enos, born August 18, 1717; married Sarah Hitchcock.

(IV) James Thompson, son of Captain Samuel and Rebecca (Bishop) Thompson, was born January 5, 1699, and died in 1737. He lived in Westville, Connecticut. His will was proved December 5, 1737. He married, May 30, 1723, Harriet Wilmot, daughter of Benjamin and Mary (Beecher) Wilmot. Children : 1. Mary, born February 16, 1724; married Jonah Baldwin. 2. James, born November 21, 1725, died in 1818. 3. Hannah, born about 1727; unmarried in 1754.

4. Mabel, baptized October 5, 1729; married Griffin Bradley.

5. Amy, of whom further. 6. Hezekiah, born about 1735;



married Rebecca Judson. 7. Rachel, baptized October 2, 1737 ; probably died young.

(V) Amy Thompson, daughter of James and Harriet (Wilmot) Thompson, was baptized April 2, 1732. She married (Woodbridge church rec0rd), N0vember 7, 1751, Ariel Bradley. (See Bradley V.) In 1753 Ariel Bradley and his wife deeded land from the estate of "our father, James Thompson, deceased."


Vicary, Vicery, Vicarey, Vicars, Vicors, Vicaris, Vicaridge, Vickerage, Vickeridge are forms of one name and, with many others of the same origin but of various spellings, mean of the vicarage, or office of the vicar, or at the vicars. They are official or sometimes local names, and are found very early in England.

Arms—Sable, on a chief dancette or, two cinquefoils gules, a border engrailed ermine.

Peter atte Vicars in 1379 was of County York ; in 1574 Stephen Vyccarye married Margaret Johnson in London ; in 1585 John Vicary, of County Devon, was registered at Oxford College ; in 1574 John Vicarish married Margery Gerard ; in 1665 John Halton married Alice Vicaridge at Canterbury ; in 1614 Margaret Vicares married William Collins in London ; Joan Viccaries married John Wells at London in 1617.

In the "Visitation of Worcester," in 1634, were the families of Robert Vicaris, of Astley, and Robert Vickers, of Bewdley. Descendants of these families were found in Astley and Bewdley in 1682, when the second visitation of that county was made. John Vicaridge, of "Natton," married, in 1603, Mary Sheldon, daughter of William Sheldon. They had a s0n, John, who was baptized in 1607.

Richard Vicaredg, son of Francis Vicaredg, was baptized in Over Ardey, County Worcester, July 30, 1653. Walter Vicaris, son of William Vicaris and Joyce, his wife, was baptized September 13, 1640, at Doddenham, County Worcester,


England. Anne Vicaridge, daughter of Richard Vicaridge and his wife, Anne, was baptized March 20, 1603, at Knight-wick, County Worcester, England. Many 0thers of the name are to be found in the parish registers of County Worcester. There are also Hopkins and Wakeman families (the Vicars family intermarried with these families) in C0unty Worcester.

Robert Vicaris married Anne Sterry (they were both of Doddenham, County Worcester), June 29, 1678. In 1608 Robert Vicaris was of Tibberton, County Worcester, and in 1613 Robert and William Vicaris were taxed at Tibberton. On November 12, 1636, mention is found of Robert Vicaris, of Bewdley, Gentleman. (Bewdley was in the parish of Ribs-ford.) In 1607 Walter Vicaris was of Omberseley (near Bewdley) in County Worcester.

Collateral Vicars families include the following :

Edward Vickers, of Wakefield, Y0rkshire, married Mary Rawson, daughter 0f Thomas Rawson, of Wardsend, near Sheffield, and had children : Thomas, John, William, and Anne. Thomas Vickers married Elizabeth Broadbent, daughter of Joseph Broadbent, of Aston, and had children : William, Sarah, Elizabeth, all living in the seventeenth century. William Vickers, son of Edward Vickers, was of Southall Green, Eccles-field, Yorkshire. He married Elizabeth Turbell, daughter of James Turbell, of Southall, and had children : John, Thomas, Edward, Elizabeth, and Mary. John Vickers, of Doncaster, attorney, was buried April 21, 1668. He married Mary Rasine, daughter of George Rasine, and had children : John, George, and Catherine.

Thomas Vicars was of Scrawsby before 1585. His daughter, Alice, married Thomas Bosville, of Warmsworth, County York. Joane Vicars married George Metham, of Cadeby, County York, about 1550. Mary Vicars, of Brodsworth, married George Holgate, 0f Stapleton, about 1600.

At Exeter, in the twelfth year of Henry I (1228), Walter de Wynemaneston and his wife, Alice, remitted and quitclaimed a tract of land in C0unty Devon to Robert le Vicare


and his heirs. The will of John Vicary is recorded in County Devon in 1547; that 0f Robert Vicary in County Devon in 1592; of William in 1596; of Roger in 1603; of John in 1608; of Emott in 1619; and Benedict in 1624. The arms of this family were granted in 1558. The principal seat 0f the Devon Vicars or Vicareys was at Dunkeswell, County Devon. They are of the same parent family as are the Vicars of County Worcester.

William Vicaris (or Vicars), of Bewdley, England, is mentioned in the will of William Hopkins, in 1647. Walter Vicars is called "cousin" in this will. Walter Vicars may have come t0 America, but there is no record of him in the New Haven Colony. The son-in-law of William Hopkins, John Wakeman, did come, however, and later on came "the cousin of his wife's," Anne Vicars.

Anne Vicars, daughter of Walter Vicars, of Bewdley, County Worcester, England, was born about 1634. She is also mentioned as a "daughter of Walter" in the will of William Hopkins. She came to America probably when between sixteen and eighteen years of age, and was engaged to marry John Roberts. He went back to England from America and was not heard 0f again. Before leaving he gave his property in America to "his espoused wife Anne Vicars." He left the property in the hands of John Wakeman, to be given to her if he did not return. She married, August 4, 1656, John Thompson. (See Thompson II.)


Arms—Argent, on a chevron engrailed gules between three lions rampant sable as many fleurs-de-lis or.

Names of animals have at all ages and among nearly all nations been applied as sobriquets to individuals and these, in modern times, have acquired the force of surnames and thus been handed down hereditarily. Bird, a nickname, is from the Middle English bird or brid, perhaps given to the original bearer because of his singing propensities.


The Bird family in England is very ancient and widely distributed. They are or have been numerous in the counties 0f Chester, Cumberland, Derby, Essex, Hereford, Oxf0rd, Shropshire, Warwick, Yorke. The ancestry of the Birds of Penrith, County Cumberland, is traced to the year 1295. Father William Bird, a Benedictine monk, was a candidate for the degree of Bachelor of Divinity at Oxf0rd in 1504. Wood thinks his church was at Bath, and that he died there May 22, 1525. His arms are curiously carved in stone in this old church. There have been many famous men of this surname in every generation of England since the earliest records. David le Brid was of County Oxford in 1273. John le Brid was of the same county in that year. Stefan Brid was 0f County Suffolk in 1273. Geoffrey Byrd was of County Salop in 1273. Henry le Brid was of County Somerset, I Edward III (1327).

The Bird pedigree is found in an old pedigree in vellum in the custody of Mr. James Bird, of Brogham. Henry Bird, of County Cumberland, England, married Joan Beauchamp, daughter of Thomas Beauchamp, of Little Croglin, County Cumberland. Their son, William Bird, of Little Croglin, County Cumberland, married Joan Tindall, daughter and coheir of John Tindall, of Northumberland County. Their son, William Bird, of Pireth, County Cumberland, was living in 1295. He married Emma Gospatrick, daughter of Gospatrick, Knight, of Cumberland. Their son, Adam Bird, of Pireth, married Joane Threlkeld, daughter of William Threlkeld, of Yanworth, County Westmoreland. Their son, William Bird, of Pireth, married the daughter of Thomas Martindale, and had a son, Roger Bird, of Pireth. He married Jane Crakenthorpe, daughter of John Crakenthorpe, of New Bigging, County Westmoreland. They had three children, James, John, and Hugh.

The Birds of Worcester derive from the old family 0f Cumberland. They bear arms similar to the arms of the Birds of County Cumberland. Henry Bird, of Bradf0rton, near Eve-sham, County Worcester, was originally of the Bird family of


Lincolnshire. He married and was the father of William Bird, born early in the sixteenth century, who married Mary Rutter. From him descend the Birds of Gloucester and the family that continued in Worcester.

Among the collateral branches of the Bird family are the Birds of Gloucestershire, England, who descend fr0m the Cumberland family. William Bird, of Bradford, County Worcester, married Mary Rutter, the daughter of Michael Rutter. Their son, William Bird, of Evesham, C0unty W0rcester, married Anne Cox, daughter of Robert Cox, of Castleton, County Worcester. Their son, Peter Bird, of Wootton-under-Edge, County Gloucester, was born about 1570. He married Mary Foster, daughter of Humphrey Foster, of County Gloucester. They were the parents of Mary, Anne, Susan, Anthony, Gyles, Richard, and William.

The Birds of Cheshire trace to Randoll Bird, of Yowley, Cheshire, who married Anne Merbury, daughter of Thomas Merbury, of Merbury. Their son, Richard Bird, 0f Y0wley, married the daughter of a Davenport, and had a son, Richard Bird, of Yowley, who married the daughter of a Hocknell, of Duddon. Their son, John Bird, of Yowley, married Anne Delves, daughter of John Delves, of Delves Hall, and had John, Thomas, and Richard.

John Bird, son of John and Anne (Delves) Bird, lived at Yowley. His brother, Thomas Bird, established a branch of the family at Crew, Cheshire, and his youngest brother, Richard Bird, was also of Cheshire. All of these sons of John and Anne (Delves) Bird were living about 1500.

Another family of Birds in Cheshire was represented in 1580 in the city of Chester by William Bird, Alderman and Justice of the Peace. Of him it is recorded "In the which servyce (he) demeaned hym selfe in sutche wise that bothe of her Majesties Counscell in England and Irelande reported hym to bee a verey good subjecte, a wyse man and a readye further (er) of her Majesties services." He was the son of another William Bird, wh0 was Mayor of Chester in 1557,


whose wife was Jane Norley, daughter of Raffe Norley, of Eccleston, Cheshire. William (2) Bird married three times and had children as follows : John, b0rn about 1640, Richard, Jane, Alice, Thomas, and Ellen.

The Birds of Yorkshire descend from George Hurd (or Bird), of New Castle, merchant, and at one time Mayor of New Castle. He married Ellinor Harbottle, daughter of Sir Ralph Harbottle, and had a son, Anthony. Anthony Bird married Elizabeth Hilton, daughter and co-heir of Hugh Hilton, of Slingsby. Their children were : George, Mark, Hugh, Henry, Isabel, Anne, Alice, Eleanor, and Elizabeth ; they were all born before 1600.


(I) Thomas Bird died about 1660. He was of Hartford, Connecticut, in 1644. He married and had children : I. Joseph. 2. James, of whom further. 3. Hannah, married John North. 4. Hannah, married a Scott.

(II) James Bird, son of Thomas Bird, died in 1708. He married Lydia Steele. Children : I. Thomas, of whom further. 2. Hannah, married Nathaniel Morgan. 3. Rebecca, married Samuel Lamb. 4. Lydia, married Peletiah Morgan. 5. Mehitable, married Simon Newell. 6. Elizabeth, married Ebenezer Alvord. 7. Daughter.

(III) Thomas Bird, son of James and Lydia (Steele) Bird, died in 1725. He lived in that part of Farmington, Connecticut, afterwards called Northington, now Avon. He was a member of the church in 1691. He married, July 3, 1693, Mary Woodford. Children : 1. Mary. 2. John, born in 1695. 3. Joseph, of whom further. 4. Jonathan, born December 28, 1699. 5. Jonathan. 6. Jonathan. 7. Jonathan. 8. Jonathan.

(IV) Joseph Bird, son of Thomas and Mary (Woodford) Bird, was born December 27, 1696, died in 1754. He lived in Avon, removed t0 Litchfield, Connecticut, in 1718-19, and to Salisbury, Connecticut, in 1748. He was chosen nine times to the General Court or State Legislature, and at his


death he was Justice of the Quorum. He married (first), in 1721, Dorcas Norton, daughter of John and Ruth (Moore) Norton. She died in 1750-51. He married (second), in 1752, Mrs. Eldredge. Children : 1. James. 2. Mary. 3. Thomas. 4. Moore, of whom further. 5. Isaac. 6. Ruth. 7. Joseph. 8. Nathaniel. 9. Amos.

(V) Moore Bird, son of Joseph and Dorcas (Norton) Bird, was born in 1729, and died in Salisbury, Connecticut, September 3, 1756. He married, in Salisbury, Connecticut, November 9, 1751, Rebeckah Skinner. Children : 1. Asenath, of whom further. 2. Electa, born June I, 1754. 3. Nathaniel, born March 25, 1756, died in infancy.

(VI) Asenath Bird, daughter of Moore and Rebeckah (Skinner) Bird, was born December 5, 1752. She married Captain James Bradley. (See Bradley VI.)


Skidmore as a surname is derived from Norman-French "Escu d'amour," from which came the original family of Escudamour, or Scudamore. During the days 0f the early barons in England the family was noted for its excellent horsemanship and the superior breed of horses they possessed. Thomas Skidmore, the American founder, descended from a Norman ancestor, one of the captains who came to England with William the Conqueror. The home of the English family was mostly in Herefordshire.

Skidmore Arms—Gules, three stirrups, leathers and buckles or. Crest—A unicorn's head erased sable, platee.

Scudamore Arms—Gules, three stirrups, leathered and buckled


Crest—Out of a ducal coronet or a lion's gamb sable, armed gules.

(I) Thomas Skidmore, a descendant of Sir Thomas Scud-amore, of Holme Lacy, Herefordshire, England, was born about 1600. About 1635 he was 0f Westerly, County Glou-


cester, England, and he sailed to America in the latter part of 1635. In 1636 he was of Cambridge, Massachusetts, and in 164o he sent to England for his wife and family. In 1648 he owned a home lot in New London, Connecticut, in 1650 had land in Stratford, Connecticut, and from there he moved to Fairfield, Connecticut, and in 1672 to Huntington, Long Island. He became town clerk of Huntington, representative to the General Assembly in 1673, and served in King Philip's War in 1676. He married (first), in England, Ellen He married (second) Mrs. Joanna Baldwin, widow of Daniel Baldwin. He married (third) Mrs. Sarah Treadwell, widow of Edward Treadwell. Children of first marriage : 1. Thomas, of whom further. 2. Dorothy, married Hugh Griffin. 3. Jedidah, married Edward Higbee. 4. John. 5. Grace, married John Goulding. 6. Joseph.

(II) Thomas Skidmore, son of Thomas and Ellen Skidmore, was born in England about 1625, and died in Huntington, Long Island, at an advanced age. He owned land in Huntington and in many of the adjoining settlements, also in Connecticut. He married Ellen, surname unknown. Children : 1. Thomas, of whom further. 2. Susanna. 3. Ellen.

(III) Thomas Skidmore, son of Thomas and Ellen Skidmore, removed to Connecticut, and lived on land owned by his father. He was, from all data available, father of Ellen Skidmore, born in 1701-04, who married Enos Bradley, of New Haven. (See Bradley IV.)


Through the line of Sparrow as traced hereafter, the families of this record have a connection with that courageous, God-fearing band of Pilgrims whose names surround the story of the passage and landing of the gallant little "Mayflower." A line 0f honor in its own right, the relationship that thus follows is one lending additional distincti0n to a proud family history.

Arms—Argent, three roses gules, a chief of the

last. Crest—A yew tree proper.


(I) Richard Sparrow died in Eastham, Massachusetts, January 8, 1660. He came to America in 1632, settling at Plymouth, and removed to Eastham in 1653. He married Pandora, and among their children was Jonathan, of whom further.

(II) Captain Jonathan Sparrow, son of Richard and Pandora Sparrow, was of Eastham, Massachusetts. He was captain of a train band, served in early Indian wars, and was Representative to the General Court in 1668 and for eighteen years following. He married (first), October 26, 1654, Rebecca Bangs, daughter of Edward Bangs. He married (second) Hannah (Prince) Mayo, daughter of Governor 'Thomas Prince, a leading figure in Plymouth, and granddaughter of William Brewster, mentioned below. He married (third), in 1698, Sarah (Lewis) Cobb. Children 0f first marriage : 1. Rebecca, married Thomas Freeman. 2. John, 0f whom further. 3. Priscilla, married Edward Gray. 4. Lydia, married (first) William Freeman, and (second) Jonathan Higgins. 5. Elizabeth, married Captain Samuel Freeman. 6. Jonathan. Children of second marriage : 7. Richard, married Mercy Cobb. 8. Patience, married Joseph Paine.

Of the children of Jonathan Sparr0w of his first marriage were Priscilla, who married Edward Gray, who was a grandson of James Chilton, of the "Mayfl0wer," whose death took place 0n board that vessel ; and Lydia, who married Jonathan Higgins, the grandson of Thomas Rogers, of the "Mayflower." Thomas Rogers was a native of England, and a member of the Leyden congregation. He was accompanied on the "Mayflower's" voyage by his son, Joseph, who became a resident of Duxbury, and afterwards lived in Eastham, Massachusetts, on Cape Cod. He was, in 1647, appointed lieutenant of the military company at Nawsett. The father, Thomas Rogers, died in the first sickness in 1621, and Joseph received his allotment of lands in the division at Plymouth in 1623. Thomas Rogers' other sons, John, William and Noah, afterwards emigrated from England to the Plymouth Colony and settled at Duxbury, Massachusetts.


William Brewster, who was justly named the "Patriarch of the Plymouth Colony," was the moral, religi0us, and spiritual leader of the Colony, and until his death its trusted guide. His early environments were of wealth and prosperity, therefore he was not brought up to arduous labors. The surname is derived from Brewer, Brewster, Brewister, meaning a brewer of malt liquors, and appears among the old families in the reign of Edward III as ranking among "the English landed gentry." The Suffolk branch of the family, through Robert Brewster, of Mutford, became established in the fifteenth century at Castle Hedingham, located in Essex, and marriage relations were formed with several knighted families. It is from this branch that Elder Brewster was descended, his coat-ofarms being identical with the Suffolk family.

His father, William Brewster, was appointed in 1575-76 receiver of Scrooby, and bailiff of the Manor House there, belonging to the Archbishop Sandys, of the Diocese of Y0rk. He had a life tenure of both these offices. Between 1583 and 1588 he was made postmaster, and became known as the "Post of Scrooby"; he was master of the court mails, accessible only to those connected with the court. The office of postmaster in those days was filled by persons of high social station, and was a position of much consequence, as it involved the supplying of relay of horses and the entertainment of travelers. The Scrooby Manor was a residence of importance ; royalty had often been entertained there, and Cardinal Wolsey was its inmate for several weeks after his downfall. The paternal Brewster died at Scrooby in 1590. The birth, marriage, and death records of the parish of Scrooby are intact only since 1595, and there is no authentic testimony of the date of birth, or the birthplace of Elder Brewster. In accordance with an affidavit made by him at Leyden on June 25, 1609, in which he declares himself as being forty-two years of age, the date of his birth must have been in the last half of 1566 or the first half of 1567. That Scrooby was his birthplace is a matter of question, as there is no evidence that his father was a resident


of that parish prior to his appointment as receiver. Young Brewster's education followed the lines given to the sons of the nobility and gentry. He matriculated, December 3, 1580, at Peterhouse, which was the oldest of the fourteen colleges, which afterward became the University of Cambridge, but he did not remain long enough at that institution to receive his degree. We find him after leaving Peterhouse in the service of William Davidson, Queen Elizabeth's Secretary 0f State ; he accompanied him in August, 1585, to the Court of The Netherlands on a dipl0matic mission. The downfall of William Davidson occurred in 1587, and William Brewster, leaving court circles, returned to Scrooby. At the time of his father's death he administered his estate, and succeeded him as postmaster. For his services he received the munificent salary of twenty pence a day, which was increased in July, 1603, to two shillings. He resided at the Manor House, and was held in high esteem among the people, associating with the gentlemen of the surrounding country, and was prominent in promoting and furthering religion. Of a serious and religious mind, the forms and customs of the Established Church became abhorrent to him, and he became interested and active in the cause of the dissenters. Always loyal to the home g0vernment, he reluctantly accepted the fact that his conscientious scruples required his separation from the Established Church. He helped to form a dissenting society which met at his residence, thus forming the nucleus which constituted the Plymouth Pilgrims. The meetings were interrupted by persecutions, continuance of which caused a number of the Separatists (by which they became known), to agitate in 1607 an emigration to Holland. William Brewster being under the band of the church, became a member of a party which unsuccessfully tried to sail from Bost0n to Lincolnshire, England, and was arrested and imprisoned. He was in possession of considerable property at this time, a large part of which was spent to regain his liberty and in assisting the poorer members of the party to escape to Holland. His release from imprisonment having


been obtained, a successful attempt at emigration was made and Holland was reached. After a short stay at Amsterdam he proceeded to Leyden, where the Rev. Mr. Robinson had established a church of which he was made ruling elder. He now found himself deprived of most of his wealth, and not fitted, like the other Pilgrims, to unaccustomed hardships and hard labor. His means had been spent in providing for his family, also by the treachery of a ship captain on his voyage to Leyden, who appropriated to himself most 0f his worldly possessions, including valuable and choice books. He was not, however, disheartened ; his collegiate education became available in this his hour of need. He established at Leyden a school ; his knowledge of Latin brought him many students, both Danes and Germans, who desired to acquire education in the English language. This, supplemented by his cheerfulness and contentment, enabled him to bear the burden of straitened finances, and the hardships incidental to emigration were overcome. He could not look for any financial assistance from his children, who had been bred to refinement and culture and were not fitted for toilsome and laborious duties. He was materially benefited financially by the establishing of a printing office ; religious books were printed that were contrabanded by the English Government, and the operation was closely watched by the English Ambassador, Sir Dudley Carleton. Elder Brewster was sent to England in 1619 to arrange for the emigration of the Pilgrims to America. The English Ambassador forwarded information of his departure for England, and recommended that he be apprehended and examined. His efforts were futile, and Elder Brewster returned to Leyden without being molested.

At the time of the departure of the Pilgrims for their future home in a new land, on account of his popularity, he was chosen their spiritual guide. He embarked on the "Mayflower" with his wife, whose maiden name was Mary Love, and the two youngest members of his family, Wrestling and Love, sons, the latter being an infant in arms. On the arrival


of the voyagers on the bleak coast of Massachusetts, the famous Covenant establishing the Pilgrim Republic was drafted, and William Brewster is credited as being its author. For the first nine years of the Plymouth settlement he supplied the vacant pulpit, preaching impressive sermons ; though often urged, he never administered the sacrament. Elder Brewster died at Plymouth, Massachusetts, April 16, 1644. His wife's death had preceded his, she passing way April 17, 1627. The late years of his life were spent in Duxbury, Massachusetts, with his son, Love, who was apparently the wealthiest man in that town, and was engaged in the cultivation of the paternal acres and establishing a family home. Jonathan, his eldest son, was living at the time of his father's death. He remained at Leyden at the time 0f the first emigration of the Pilgrims, but joined his father soon afterward at Plymouth. He removed to Connecticut, and died at Brewster's Neck, in that province.

(III) J0hn Sparrow, son of Captain Jonathan and Rebecca (Bangs) Sparrow, was born in Eastham, Massachusetts, November 2, 1656, and died there, his will being proved March 19, 1734-35. He lived at Eastham, and served in the early Indian wars. He married, December 5, 1683, Apphia Tracy, daughter of John and Mary (Prence) Tracy. Mary (Prence) Tracy was the daughter 0f Governor Thomas Prence by his second wife, Mary (Collier) Prence. (His first wife was the daughter of William Brewster.) Children : I. Rebecca, born December 23, 1684. 2. John, born August 24, 1687, died young. 3. Elizabeth, born January 19, 1689. 4. Stephen, of whom further.

(IV) Stephen Sparrow, son of John and Apphia (Tracy) Sparrow, was born September 6, 1694, and died in East Haddam, Connecticut, September 9, 1785. He lived at Eastham, Massachusetts, and removed with his sons to East Haddam, Connecticut, and served in the expedition to Louisburg in 1745. He married, at Eastham, Massachusetts, N0vember 7, 1717, Annah Mulford, daughter 0f Thomas, Jr., and Mary (Bas-


sett) Mulford. She was born July 28, 1691, and died at East Haddam, Connecticut, June 26, 1772. Children : t. John, of whom further. 2. Thomas, born February 5, 1720-21. 3. Stephen, born March 18, 1723 ; married, in 1746, Apphia Pepper. 4. Elizabeth, twin of Stephen. 5. Nathaniel, born in 1725, died at East Haddam, Connecticut, in 1804. 6. Richard, born July 16, 1727 ; married (second), in 1763, Deborah Howland ; he died before 1790, and his widow remained in East Haddam. 7. Joshua, born May 28, 1730. 8. Apphia, born July 18, 1731; married Abner Beebe. 9. James, born October 22, 1735.

(V) John Sparrow, son of Stephen and Annah (Mulford) Sparrow, was born in Eastham, Massachusetts, July 6, 1719, and died in East Haddam, Connecticut, July 25, 1764, aged forty-five years. He removed from Eastham, Massachusetts, to East Haddam, Connecticut, before 1749. He married Elizabeth, who was born in 1723, and died in East Haddam, October 11, 1774, in her fifty-second year. Children : 1. Mary, born December 14, 1749. 2. Annah, of whom further. 3. Elizabeth, born December 13, 1753. 4. John, born February 22, 1756. 5. Apphia, born May 2, 1758. 6. Stephen, born November 8, 1760. 7. Benjamin, born N0vember 9, 1762.

(VI) Annah Sparrow, daughter of John and Elizabeth Sparrow, was born April 19, 1751. She married, April 2, 1777, Abner Banning. (See Banning III.)


Affectionately and reverentially admired and respected by the people throughout Cincinnati, Dr. Sam Allen, as he was known to an entire community, was a man of irreproachable character and of the highest integrity. He was courageous to a fault and unbending in his stern application of the principles of righteousness. No person could really know him with0ut admiring him, and to be his friend was an honor. At his death an editorial in the Cincinnati "Journal of Medicine"


declared that the Grim Reaper had selected a "shining mark," and it added :

Whether his life be weighed in the balance as a father, a friend, a citizen, or a physician, it will not be found wanting. He inherited a good mind. He trained it well, and then applied it first to the study and then to the practice of the healing art. He spent some years in general practice, then chose his specialty, qualified himself for its practice, and devoted the rest of his life to giving the best service of which he was capable to every patient seeking his aid, regardless of nationality, creed, social position or the size of the fee to be obtained. He was immune to the epidemic of commercialism that has spread through the profession during the last two decades. He did not feel that his duty as a citizen had been done when he went to the polls and deposited his ballot for less objectionable of two boss-selected sets of candidates. On the contrary he took an active interest in civic affairs, not for personal aggrandizement, but to serve the citizens of Cincinnati. As health officer he exhibited a broad knowledge of preventive medicine and showed much courage and zeal in performing the duties of his office. In his contact with the fellow members of his profession he observed to a nicety the Golden Rule which is the quintessence of ethics. As a consultant he was a tower of strength. His kindly disposition was made more attractive by a keen sense of humor. His application of the Dooley dialogue and philosophy to the fads and fetiches of medicine were excruciatingly funny. His thrusts were so keen that though they cut they never left a troublesome sore or scar. Yes, Dr. Sam Allen will be missed on all occasions but at no time more than when the profession has gathered round the festal board.

Dr. Samuel Ellsworth Allen, son of Samuel Badger and Bertha (Nye) Allen, was born in Cincinnati, Ohio, August 26, 1864, and descended from old New England stock. His father became a resident of Cincinnati in 1821. The youth of the son was passed in the village of Glendale. He received his preliminary education in the public schools, including the Hughes High School in Cincinnati, at which he was graduated in 1882. Unlike most medical students of his day, he took a


thorough pre-medical course at Columbia University, afterwards spending a year at the Sheffield Scientific School at Yale University. He was graduated from the Miami Medical College in 1888 with the degree M. D., after which he served his internship at the 0ld Cincinnati Hospital. Meanwhile he married and with Mrs. Allen went abr0ad and devoted himself to special studies in oto-laryngology and bacteriology in the leading universities and hospitals of Europe. He thus became one of the pioneers in these fields in Cincinnati, and shortly after his return published a treatise on the mastoid operation. He was appointed to the faculty of the Miami Medical College as professor, and for many years was on the staff of the Cincinnati Hospital, where he came in contact with and inspired the younger generation of otologists. At the time 0f his death he was on the staffs of the Christ and the Jewish h0spitals. Although Dr. Allen practiced in a special field he always took a broad view of his relationship to medicine in general, and was particularly interested in public health. During 1912-14 he was health officer of the city, and as such made a courageous fight to provide the children of the community with a pure supply of milk. In this contest he had not only to arouse public opinion but he had to 0vercome great 0bstacles on the part of the producers. As a result of his labors the children 0f Cincinnati have ever since been supplied with pure milk, and he was thus instrumental in the saving of thousands 0f lives.

Dr. Allen was also interested in public reform and was a thorough student of government and always rallied to the cause of those who wished to better s0cial and political conditions. He was past president of the Cincinnati Academy of Medicine, and a member 0f the American Medical Association and the Ohio State Medical Society.

Dr. Samuel Ellsworth Allen married, in 1890, Harriet Herron Collins, daughter of Isaac Clint0n and Emily Hopkins (Ruth) Collins. Her father, a native of L0wville, New Y0rk, served on the bench of Cincinnati during 1870-78, and was an



original member of the Literary Club of Cincinnati. Harriet, a sister of Judge Collins, married John W. Herron, and their daughter, Helen, became the wife of Howard Taft, of Cincinnati. The children of Dr. Samuel Ellsworth and Harriet Herron (Collins) Allen, both born in Cincinnati, are : Ruth Collins; and Margaret, who married Edward Smith Parsons.

While Dr. Allen was greatly admired for his strength of character he also was endeared to all who came in contact with him because of his lovable nature. His relationship with his patients was always pers0nal and he always endeav0red not only to restore their health but to encourage them in their lives. Among his professional brethren Dr. Allen was admired not alone for his remarkable ability and clear insight, but was beloved because of his square dealings, his love of truth, his cheerful nature and appreciation of wit and humor. He was the life of many a medical gathering and with keen satire, free from malice, he exposed the foibles and failings of his confreres. He was a wise physician and friend, a beloved and highly esteemed comrade, a patriotic citizen, a bel0ved husband and father. In an oration at his funeral services at the Church of the Advent, Dr. David Wolfstein, a fellow physician and life long friend, and for many years his office partner, said : ". . . . He was simplicity and genuineness itself and so there were easily revealed the governing motives of his actions, the strength and reality of his nature, the aspirations of his genius. A physician of rare attainments, of broad general culture and perfected special skill, it fell to his lot to bring alleviation of suffering and restoration of health to countless afflicted ones in this community. This was his professional contribution and naturally constituted the larger part of his labors, but it did not by any means measure the whole sum of his activities. Not only as a colleague, but also as a valiant champion of civic and social progress his name is inscribed on the Scroll of H0nor of this commonwealth." Neither envy nor hatred, suspicion nor jealousy, fear nor superstition, narrowness nor intolerance could ever find lodging in his heart or


mind. Too just to have prejudice, too wise to pass judgment, neither caste nor creed, high place nor low station were ever factors in his computation of life's values. He was truth personified and honesty incarnate. As with all those choice characters who with the light of wisdom, see the littleness of our earthly achievement and view the frailties of their fell0w creatures with pity and understanding, he had that abiding faith in humanity and that deep humility and modesty which are the prime attributes of true nobility. He died in Cincinnati, January 14, 1925.


No history of Greater Cincinnati would be complete without a record of the man who has perhaps done more than any other one person to unify the city and stimulate progress, Bayard L. Kilgour, president of the Cincinnati Suburban Telephone Company, Cncinnati, Ohio.

Mr. Kilgour was born in Cincinnati, December 12, 1869, son of John and Mary (McIntosh) Kilgour. His father, who was a native of Cincinnati, was president of the Cincinnati Street Railway Company until his death, after serving during the Civil War, a member of Morgan's Band. His mother, deceased, was born in Atlanta, Georgia. The son attended the Cincinnati public grammar and high schools, and completed his education at Cheltingham Academy in Philadelphia. His first position in business was with the Thompson Houston Company, 0f Lynn, Massachusetts, with whom he remained for three and a half years. He then moved to Cincinnati, where he was associated with the Cincinnati Street Railway for a number of years until it was absorbed by the Cincinnati Traction Company. In 1898 he was employed as consulting engineer by the Cincinnati Suburban Telephone Company, and in 1913 was elected president. He is a director of the Citizen's National Bank, also. His hobby is farming, and he indulges this taste on his own fine property. He is a communicant of the Episcopal Church. His