A History



Formerly of the Editorial Staffs "New York World," the "Chicago

Times," the "Cincinnati Times-Star"; Author of Sev-

eral Historical and Biographical Works










To Mr. Keplinger belongs the credit of promoting to their present prosperous status in the Cincinnati business world the interests of The Peters Cartridge Company, of which he is the president, and which is one of the conspicuously prominent industries of this city. For a long period a leader in brick manufacturing activities, a business organizer, and a director in the plans of expanding industries, Mr. Keplinger is highly esteemed in this center of great business life and is regarded as an efficient and conservative executive. He is a son of Jacob Albert Keplinger, who was born in Ohio and died in Fort Wayne, aged seventy-two years, and Elizabeth (Carper) Keplinger, a native of Ohio who died in Fort Wayne, aged only thirty-two years.

Warren Edgar Keplinger was born April 2, 1871, in Fort Wayne, and attending school in Bucyrus, Ohio, he was graduated from the high school there in 1888. He began his business career as a clerk in his uncle's drug store in that city, where he continued for a year and a half, when he joined the clerical department of the general superintendent's office of the Toledo and Ohio Central Railroad at Bucyrus. Removing to Canton in 1892 he became associated with the Imperial Brick Company and later assisted in the formation of the firm of Higley, Keplinger & Company at Canton, organized for the purpose of selling the products of the various brick manufacturing plants of that city and Cleveland.

In 1902 Mr. Keplinger organized and became president of the Metropolitan Paving Brick Company, of Canton, Ohio. He continued with that concern as its president until 1904,



when he came to Cincinnati as vice-president of The Peters Cartridge Company, of which he became president in 191o. He is a member of the Board of Directors 0f the Fourth and Central Trust Company, and the Morris Plan Bank, being a vice-president of the latter institution.

Fraternally, Mr. Keplinger is a member of all the Masonic bodies, and is a member of Syrian Temple, Ancient Arabic Order Nobles of the Mystic Shrine. He was president of the Business Men's Club in 1917 and 1918, and served on the building committee of this club practically ever since its organization. He als0 served as a member of the sub-committee of the Building Committee of the Business Men's Club, who had in charge the building of the new magnificent home of this club. He is a member of the Queen City Club, Cincinnati Country Club, and the Maketewah Country Club. His religious fellowship is with the Walnut Hills Methodist Episcopal Church.

Warren Edgar Keplinger married, March 23, 1898, Ethel Peters, daughter of Orin E. Peters, one of the founders and first and only president previous to Mr. Keplinger, of The Peters Cartridge Company, who died in 1915 at the age of seventy-two years, and Margaret (Eckert) Peters, who resides in Cincinnati, both parents natives of Ohio. Mr. and Mrs. Keplinger have one daughter, Margaret Elizabeth Keplinger, who was born October 30, 1900, and who married William H. Hinsch; they have a son, Warren Keplinger Hinsch, born May I, 1924.


Men who follow the profession of law must acquire that nice correlation between mind and judgment, must have deep discernment and stability of purpose, and must be wise to the point of erudition in the many ramifications and intricacies of jurisprudence. With these prerequisites to a legal career, success is almost sure to follow. William Whipple Symmes is today one of the foremost members of Cincinnati's great legal


fraternity, and his success is due in large measure to his possession and practice of the above-named principles, to which he has added a strict professional code of ethics which includes those cardinal virtues of probity, industry, efficiency, integrity, enthusiasm, and absolute and unquestioned honesty of thought, purpose and deed. Mr. Symmes comes of distinguished ancestry, being a lineal descendant of one of the fine old Col0nial families of New England, and being a representative 0f the eighth generation to bear the honored name of Symmes in America. Going back still further we find that the family has been prominent in England since the early days of the Hereditary Surname Epoch (1250-1450 A. D.), when surnames or family names first came into general use. According to that peer of etymol0gists and orthographers, the late Charles Wareing Bardsley, Vicar of Ulverstone, and Honorary Canon of Carlisle Cathedral, whose monumental work, "A Dicti0nary of English and Welsh Surnames" is accepted by all genealogists as an authority par excellence, the surname Symmes falls into the largest of all five classes of surnames, i. e., "Baptismal Names," which derivation is also given by Lower's "Patronymica Britannica." This means that the surname "Symrnes" was formed from a fontal (given or christen) name, which in this case was Simon, one of the most popular of the early fontal appellations. A favorite contraction or nickname of Simon was "Sim," and, as was the custom in those early days, a "y" was used interchangeably with "i." Hence, we have Sim or Sym, and when the possessive "s" was added, meaning "son-of-Simon," we have Sims and Syms. Simms, Simmes, Symms and Symmes are but amplifications of the original Sims and Syms. Harrison's "Surnames of the United Kingdom" also gives the above explanation as the correct derivation of the surname Symmes. After the adoption of a second name (surnames or patronymics) between 1250 and 1450 A. D., the family of Symmes spread throughout the British Isles, different branches of the family spelling their name in one of the above-mentioned forms. The following


heraldic device (authority of Burke's "General Armory" and Vinton's "Symmes Memorial") was granted in 1592 to Edward Symmes of the Symmes family of Daventry, Northamptonshire, and is the coat-of-arms borne by the Symmes family in America :

Arms--Ermine, three increscents gules.

Crest—A head, in helmet or, plumed azure, the beaver up, the face proper.

(I) William Symmes, the first of this line of whom we have definite and authentic record, is said to have been "a truly religious man and a firm protestant in the reign of Bloody Queen Mary." He married (wife's name unknown) and to them was born a son, William, of whom forward.

(II) Rev. William Symmes, a son of William Symmes, was ordained to the ministry in the year 1588. Of him it is said : "He exercised his office faithfully at a time when it exposed him to great suffering." He married (wife's name unknown), and they were the parents of Rev. Zechariah Symmes, of whom forward.

(III) Rev. Zechariah Symmes, a son of Rev. William Symmes, was destined to become the American progenitor of his family in the New World. He was born on April 5, 1599, at Canterbury, England, and died at Charlestown, Massachusetts, in February, 1670-71, at the age of seventy-one years. He was educated at Emmanuel College, in the University of Cambridge, whence he was graduated in the year 1620. In the next year he was chosen lecturer at St. Anthony's (or Antholine's) in London. Due to his non-conformity he was frequently harassed by persecutions of the Bishop's Court, William Laud then being Bishop of London. Thus, he removed to Dunstable in Bedfordshire in 1625, where as rector he continued for eight years in his gospel labors. But his unswerving non-conformity to the Established Church brought him additional persecutions, and he decided to remove to Boston, Colony of Massachusetts. He arrived in Boston, Massachu-


setts Bay Colony, with his wife and their seven children, on September 18, 1634, in the ship "Griffin," together with William and Anne Hutchinson, with whom he subsequently became involved in a religious controversy. He was ordained in December, 1634, as colleague of the Rev. Thomas James of the Charlestown Church. Rev. Symmes at first took up the work of teacher, but upon the dismissal of Mr. James to Providence, Rhode Island, in 1637, became the pastor of the Charlestown Church, where he was constantly identified until his death in 1670-71. He was given three hundred acres of land by the town of Charlestown near Woburn, and an additional three hundred acres in the "Land of Nod," also near Woburn. At his death he was honorably interred at the expense of the town. His grave is marked by a tombstone, procured by the selectmen of the town and the deacons of the church in pursuance of a vote of the town, and bears the following epitaph : "A prophet lies beneath this stone; His words shall live though he be gone." The Rev. Zechariah Symmes was married about July, 1621, to Sarah (surname unknown), who died in 1676. Edward Johnson in his "Wonder-Working Providence," writes of Mrs. Symmes as follows :

Among all the godly women that came through perilous seas to war their warfare the wife of this zealous teacher, Mrs. Sarah Symmes, shall not be omitted. This virtuous woman, endued by Christ with grace fit for a wilderness condition, her courage exceeding her stature, with much cheerfulness did undergo all difficulties of those times of straits, her God through faith in Christ supplying all wants, with great industry nurturing up her young children in the fear of the Lord ; their number being ten both sons and daughters, a certain sign of the Lord's intent to people this wilderness.

The Rev. Zechariah and Sarah Symmes were the parents of the following children : T. A son, born about 1623, died early. 2. Sarah, born about 1625; married (first) Rev. Samuel Hough, and (second) Rev. John Brock. 3. William, of whom forward. 4. Mary, baptized April 16, 1628; married


Thomas Savage. 5. Elizabeth, baptized January 1, 1629-30; married Hezekiah Usher. 6. Huldah, baptized March 18, 1630-31; married William Davis. 7. Hannah, baptized August 22, 1632, died soon. 8. Rebecca, baptized February 12, 1633-34; married Humphrey Booth. 9. Ruth, born October 18, 1635; married Edward Willis. i0. Zechariah, Jr., born January 9, 1637; married (first) Susannah Graves, and (second) Mehitable Dalton. 11. Timothy, born May 7, 1640, died next year. 12. Deborah, born August 28, 1642; married Timothy Prout. 13. Timothy, 2d, born in 1643; married (first) Mary Nichols, and (second) Elizabeth Norton.

(IV) Captain William Symmes, third of the thirteen children of the Rev. Zechariah and Sarah Symmes, was baptized on January T0, 1626-27, and died on September 22, 1691. He received his military title from having been an officer in the train bands. He married (first) perhaps Sarah (surname unknown) ; and (second), about 1675, Mary (surname unknown), who was married again on July 30, 1695, to the Rev. Samuel Torrey. Captain William Symmes was the father of the following children (by first union) : I. Sarah, born in 1652; married Rev. Moses Fisher. (By second marriage) : 2. Mary, born in 1676. 3. William, born in 1678; married Ruth Couvers. 4. Timothy, of whom forward. 5. Elizabeth. 6. Zechariah, died unmarried. 7. Nathaniel.

(V) Timothy Symmes, fourth of the seven children of Captain William Symmes, was born about 1683, and died in 1765. He was married on July 31, 1710, to Elizabeth (Collamore) Rose, widow of Jeremiah Rose, and a daughter of Captain Anthony Collamore, of Scituate. They had issue as follows : 1. Hannah, born May 12, 1712. 2. Timothy, of whom forward. 3. Anthony, born September 22, 1716.

(VI) Rev. Timothy Symmes, second of the three children of Timothy and Elizabeth (Collamore-Rose) Symmes, was born on May 27, 1714, and died on April 6, 1756. He was graduated from Harvard College in 1733; was a tireless promoter of evangelical religion; was active in the "Great Re-


vival" of 1741-42; and served in the ministry for twenty years. He was married (first), in 1740, to Mary Cleves, a daughter of Captain John Cleves, wealthy farmer of Aquabogue, Long Island. She died in 1746-47, and he was married (second), in 1752, to Eunice Cogswell, a daughter of Francis and Hannah Cogswell, of Ipswich, Massachusetts. The Rev. Timothy Symmes was the father of the following children (by first wife) : 1. John Cleve, born in 1742, was thrice married. 2. Timothy, Jr., of whom forward. 3. William, born in 1746, died in infancy. (By second union) : 4. Ebenezer, born in 1754. 5. William, born in 1756, married Mehitable Moulton.

(VII) Judge Timothy Symmes, one of the five children of the Rev. Timothy Symmes, and second of the three children by the latter's first marriage to Mary Cleves, was born on April 10, 1744, and died on February 20, 1797. He served with distinction in the Revolutionary War, and was Judge of the Court of Common Pleas for Sussex County, New Jersey. He was married (first), in 1765, to Abigail Tuthill, of Southold, Long Island, who died in 1776. He was married (second), in 1778 to Mercy Harlcer, a daughter of the Rev. Samuel Harlcer. Issue (by first wife) : 1. Celadon, born in 1770; married Phebe Randolph. 2. Daniel, born in 1772; married Elizabeth Oliver. 3. William, born in 1774; married Rebecca Randolph. (By second wife) : 4. John Cleves, of whom forward. 5. Timothy, died in childhood. 6. Mary, born in 1785. 7. Juliana, born in 1791. 8. Peyton Short, born in 1793 ; married Hannah B. Close. 9. Timothy, Jr., born in 1795; married Ruth Spurrier.

(VIII) Captain John Cleves Symmes, eldest of the six children born to Judge Timothy and Mercy (Harlcer) Symmes, was born November 5, 1779, and died May 29, 1829. In 1802 he entered the United States Army with an ensign's commission, and in 1812 was commissioned captain, in which capacity he served in the battle of Bridgewater 0r Lundy's Lane, on July 25, 1814. He left the army in 1816, and at the close of


the War of 1812 was widely known as the author of "A Theory of Concentric Spheres and Polar Voids," which theories he put forward in 1818. James McBride, of Hamilton, Ohio, wrote a book which he called "Symmes' Theory 0f Concentric Spheres, demonstrating that the Earth is hollow, habitable within and widely open ab0ut the Poles." On page 28 0f this book we read : "According to Captain Symmes the earth is comp0sed of at least five hollow concentric spheres with spaces between each and habitable as well upon the concave as the convex surface. Each of these spheres is widely open about the p0les." He was very eager to have his the0ry subjected to actual experiment, wishing to visit the North Pole with one hundred brave companions who would assist him in exploring the concave regions, but never succeeded in financing the trip. Captain John Cleves Symmes was married on December 25, 1808, to Mrs. Marianne Lockwood, the widow of Captain Benjamin Lockwood, who had died in that year. She had five daughters and one son by her former husband, who were all brought up by Captain Symmes and educated as his 0wn. Captain John Cleves and Marianne (Lockwood) Symmes were the parents of the following children : i. Louisiana, born February 5, 1810; married (first) James W. Taylor, and (second) Joel Baker. 2. Americus, of whom forward. 3. William Henry Harrison, born in May, 1813; married (first) Phebe A. Wayen, and (second) H. Bargen. 4. Elizabeth, born in 1814, died in 1821. 5. John Cleves, Jr., born in 1824; married Marie Lepourtz.

(IX) Americus Symmes, second of the five children of Captain John Cleves and Marianne (Lockwood) Symmes, was born in Bellefontaine, Missouri, on November 2, 1811, and died at Louisville, Kentucky, in 1897. His father died when he was little more than seventeen years old, leaving on his hands a large estate encumbered with debts and a widowed mother and three children besides himself to provide for. This responsible task was well performed and he became a successful and influential farmer. He was married (first), in 1832,


to Anna Milliken, who died on January 5, 1839. He was married (second), at Union, Boone County, Kentucky, in 1840, to Frances Scott, a daughter of Major Chasteen Scott, of Boone County, Kentucky. She died in 1885. Americus Symmes was the father of the following children (by first wife) : T. Anthony Lockwood, born in 1835; married Mary E. Culver. 2. James Tuthill, born in 1837, died in 1854. 3. Daniel Cleves, born in 1839. (By second wife) : 4. Florence, born in 1841. 5. Scott, born in 1843. 6. Americus, Jr., born in 1846. 7. William Whipple, of whom forward. 8. Henry, born in 1852. 9. Lilly, born in 1855, died in 1856. 10. Ida, born in 1858. 11. A daughter, born in 1861, died in 1867.

(X) William Whipple Symmes, so named for William Whipple, the signer of the Declaration of Independence from New Hampshire, to whom this genealogical and biographical review is dedicated, was born in the city of Hamilton, Ohio, on February 17, 1849, one of the eleven children of Americus Symmes, and the fourth of the eight offspring by the latter's second marriage to Frances Scott. He is a lineal descendant in the tenth generation from William Symmes, who flourished in England in the early part of the sixteenth century, and is a representative of the eighth generation to bear this honored patronymic in America. He received his early education in the public and high schools of Louisville, Kentucky, following which he matriculated at the University of Louisville, whence he was graduated as valedictorian of the class of 1869, receiving the degree of Bachelor of Arts. He took up the study of law in the offices and under the expert tutelage of Henry Pirtle and L. M. Dembitz, and was admitted to the bar of the State of Ohio in the year 1871. Since then and up to the present time (1926)--a period of almost six decades—he has carried on an increasingly successful law practice under his own name, in offices at No. 402 Second National Bank Building, Cincinnati, Ohio. Mr. Symmes holds the unique distinction of having been connected with more leading Supreme Court cases than any other man of his profession in Cincinnati and its


environs. Various legal journals have published contributions from Mr. Symmes' pen from time to time, and an article of his lately appeared in The Congressional Record, which, owing to its interest and importance, is herewith given inclusion in its entirety :



JANUARY 26, 1924.

(See Congressional Record, Vol. 65, pages 1530-33.)

Mr. Speaker, under the leave granted to me to extend my remarks in the RECORD, I include the following: PLAN TO ACHIEVE AND PRESERVE THE PEACE OF THE WORLD (to the American Peace Award created by Edward W. Bok, Educational Plan to achieve and preserve the peace of the world). PLAN—EDUCATIONAL. Establish in the United States by the National Government or private foundation an educational institute, graded on a plane higher than the most advanced university, where instruction may be given by suitable methods of the constructive form of all civilized governments, embracing the power and authority of the rulers or executives and the law-making bodies, with attending functions of each and limitations.

This to include political divisions of people and their origin in the various countries, with the purposes and aspirations of each, and the differences of opinion in regard to their administration of each government among its inhabitants. The curriculum to embrace commercial life and its resources, showing the sources of wealth and sustenance of people, as well as the necessity of foreign commercial relations. This would mean an intensive study of the world's commercialism. Full instruction on the duties and limitations of emissaries and power in office. The Method of instruction by the most approved form, either lectures, essays or readings, and final examination with diplomas to students covering their fitness for a prescribed field or fields. All students subject to rigid examination for qualifications. The whole to be an international melting pot for the concerns of the world spread in full view.

ARGUMENT—Broad information leads to improved results in-


ternationally on all matters under consideration, and from careful study I have concluded that treaties and agreements are inadequate to meet demands in the world's welfare. Education plays

the most important part in blazing the way to future content and international rest. Those of the broadest information have the advantage. The institute proposed would draw the best informed instructors from all nations and students of the best mental capacity. The course of Japan in recent years is a strong illustration of a present demand for wider range of knowledge on the part of emissaries. That nation sends her best youth to foreign universities and in time appoints them to needed embassies. Her students from American Universities are representatives now at Washington, where they meet the best of the world's diplomats. The recent Versailles Treaty demanded the broadest information and failed to receive it. Such an institute would attract students from every part of the world either by their individual volition or by direction

of their respective governments. These same governments would supply their foremost teachers, writers and orators as instructors in order that nothing would be lacking to present national affairs in correct clothing. Graduates would be called to service by their respective countries in mission fields, and in international conferences men would meet qualified for full understanding of the

matters in hand. In January of 1916 the plan was suggested to the Hon. W. H. Taft, now Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, at a time when he was active as President of the "LEAGUE TO ENFORCE PEACE." After a personal conference, he requested the plan on paper for more mature consideration, and when furnished his answer was as follows :

New Haven, Conn., Jan. 17, 1916.

My Dear Symmes :—I have your letter of January loth. I have no doubt that if we could have a university melting pot in which we could introduce the youth of all the nations/ who might by contact and conference acquire a common knowledge of the attitude of all nations, it would make for the peace of the world. I think that slowly such a result is being brought about. I don't think it practical now to attempt such a thing in the United States, for the reason that we have difficulty enough in securing any act of Congress in favor of the National University which Washington recommended loo years ago. The Rhodes Scholarships were founded on a theory akin to yours, and while nar-


rower in their scope they were intended to bring English and American minds into a better understanding of each other. I thank you for writing me, and I shall keep the idea you have in mind, and perhaps use it at some time in one of my numerous lucubrations. I was glad to see you in Cincinnati. With best wishes,

Sincerely yours,

Wm. H. TAFT.

Attention is directed to the second sentence of the above letter particularly, as it is an endorsement of the general idea of education. Later was sought an interview with Henry Ford, who appeared as something of a "pacifist star," but like all "stars" Henry was inaccessible owing to red tape and his assistance could not be secured. Canada and the United States furnish a splendid example of a fair appreciation of each other. No military or pugnacious protuberances ornament the invisible boundary between, and the citizens of each are untrammeled in commercial and social life, save as to tariffs and the like. All nations should be so related. The first of 1916 afforded no appropriate time for pushing the plan, but now having "enforced" peace with Germany, the Senate of the United States would approve the outline of the plan suggested, as it will be furthering the civil service regulations. I see little hope in treaties or combinations of nations which signify the application of force, which is always the herald of war. The plan submitted is but a general outline with working drawings to be supplied if the general idea is approved in whole or part. Trusting that the suggestion may be worthy of consideration, I remain,

Most sincerely yours,


August 2, 1923.

Politically, Mr. Symmes is a staunch Democrat. He holds membership in the Cincinnati Chamber of Commerce, and his religious affiliation is given to the Episcopal Church. Mr. Symmes has given much attention to the development of fruits and has produced four new varieties of yellow meat peaches, certified by the United States Agricultural Bureau at Washington, District of Columbia, as well as two new varieties of useful apples.

William Whipple Symmes was married at St. Paul, Minne-


sota, on October 20, 1896, to Mrs. Anna (Hurd) Hayward, the widow of Charles Hayward, and a daughter of Edward and Harriet (Duncan) Hurd, residents of Cincinnati, Ohio. Mrs. Harriet (Duncan) Hurd was a daughter of Dr. Alex Duncan, a former Congressman. Mrs. Anna (Hurd-Hayward) Symmes died on May 20, 1914. William Whipple Symmes survives her, and resides at N0. 512 Pr0spect Place, Cincinnati, Ohio.


The motive power by which a community progresses, resides mainly in its banks, and the engineers of that power, the bankers, determine largely whether that progress shall be steady and healthy or jerky and hazardous. Such in particular has been the function of William Stanhope Rowe, president of the First National Bank of Cincinnati, Ohio, and director of the Federal Reserve Bank of District No. 4, Cleveland, from 1914 to 1920, and executive in a number of the most solid and most prosperous enterprises of Cincinnati. The very genuine prosperity of that city is a well-established fact, and such a financier as Mr. Rowe has played no small part in accomplishing it.

William Stanhope Rowe was born in Cincinnati, son of Stanhope Sanderson and Frances Mary (Thomas) Rowe. His father also was a banker. The son graduated from the public grammar and high schools of his native city and began 0n his business career in the Second National Bank. From 1889 t0 1902 he was cashier of the First National, after some sixteen years of banking experience. In 1902 he was made president, a position he has now filled for twenty-four years. He is a director of the Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, Chicago and St. Louis Railway, of the Procter & Gamble Company, and of the Fox Paper Company, of Lockland, Ohio. For six years, from 1914 to 1920, he was a director of the Federal Reserve Bank of the Cleveland District, and for seven years a member of the Federal Advisory Council at Washington for the same district.


Mr. Rowe is a Republican in political affiliation, a str0ng supporter of worth while public measures. He is a member 0f the Dev0n Yacht Club, of Amagansett, New York, and of several Cincinnati clubs, including the Queen City, the Cincinnati Country, the Commercial, the Riding, and the Camargo. He is a communicant of the Protestant Episcopal Church.

On June 12, 1879, in Cincinnati, William Stanhope Rowe married Margaret A. Richardson, daughter 0f James Wallace and Margaret A. (Robinson) Richardson. Children : John J. ; Margaret (Rowe) Nichols ; Charlotte Frances Radway ; and William Wallace.


In the development of the Greater Cincinnati, both industrially and through its beautified scenic properties, there stands out at the very forefront of the able, progressive and public-spirited men who have made—and still continue to make—this splendid advance possible, Levi Addison Ault, president of the largest concern in the world manufacturing printing inks, and who presented to the municipality one of its principal assets, beautiful Ault Park, a tract of two hundred and five acres, which is highly prized by the people of the city. This park is but one of the splendid chain in the park system still in process of completion, and at the head of which Mr. Ault has been for nearly twenty years. It will be readily perceived, therefore, that Mr. Ault continues to contribute in a magnificent way to the industrial prestige and the physical attractions which are helping very materially to build the greater city for which the forward-looking people of the community are commendably ambitious. The park program, while it might appear to some less courageous souls of faulty vision to be too pretentious and bordering on extravagance, to those who have an eye t0 the continued prosperity of the city and its varied interests, and to the comfort and pleasure of her citizens, it is to become a thing of beauty and a joy forever. Incidentally, the commission of which Mr. Ault is the president is erecting to its mem-


ory a work more enduring than bronze, and they are confident that not only the present generation but posterity will h0nor them for their fine, civic service and unselfish devotion. As might be expected of one who has been accustomed to dealing in matters of large import in a big and generous way, Mr. Ault takes keen pleasure in beholding his bel0ved Cincinnati take on its new municipal garment, which has been cut in accordance with the accepted design and with due allowance for future growth. Certain it is that back of the great expansion movement now going on to fulfillment is a body of people who hail the men of Mr. Ault's type as among their most intelligent and far-sighted leaders. They perceive that a magic hand is shaping for them a city more beautiful in its scenic and architectural values and more commanding in its industrial, financial, commercial, and educational features than any of which they had dreamed. The genius that is executing this city-wide plan is the same that is energizing the executive head of one of Cincinnati's world-known manufactories and the guiding hand of the development of the open spaces where the people may be called back to a life of play and restored to communion with nature, all of which are effecting cures of many mental and physical afflictions and creating a desirable community spirit, heightening the morale of the entire body politic.

Levi Addison Ault is descended from a family which had its origin in "Ault," a town of Picardy, France. They were religious folk, deeply devout, and when the massacre of the Huguenots swept hundreds of the faithful from the earth, the Aults fled from those horrors to a refuge in Holland. In 1780 members of the family emigrated to Canada. On the maternal side, Mr. Ault traces his ancestors to early days of England, whence their descendants came to New England and were among the early colonial settlers. Mr. Ault was born at Mille Roches, Ontario, Canada, November 24, 1851, a son of Simon W. and Caroline (Brownell) Ault. His father, a man of initiative and excellent 0rganizing ability, was a manufacturer of woolen clothing. His energy and business acumen


were inherited in goodly measure by his son. He himself, h0wever, has ever been a loyal follower of the American flag since he came to live in the United States, differing somewhat in that respect from his early Connecticut maternal forebears, who, in 1776, at the outbreak of the Revolutionary War, fled to Canada that they might continue to live under the protection of the British flag.

Levi A. Ault was a pupil in the common schools of his native Mille Roches, and later in the grammar scho0l at Cornwall, Ontario. His school years at an end, he was employed for the ensuing three years in the railroad and lake transportation trade in Wisconsin. Coming to Cincinnati, in 1878, he engaged in the manufacture of printing inks, dry colors and varnishes, in association with F. B. Wiborg, under the style of Ault & Wiborg, in 1878. The partners labored assiduously to make their business a success, and they were gratified to perceive the volume of trade make steady and consistent increase. This growth has brought the establishment to the point where it is reputed to be the largest printing ink business in the world. The business was incorporated in 1891, and Mr. Ault was made president of the Ault & Wiborg Company. The products of this house are shipped to every civilized country of the globe, and the company maintains corporations in seven foreign countries. The home offices are in Cincinnati, where they have been located since the business was established.

Mr. Ault's deep interest in the matter of beautifying and improving the city led to his appointment in 1908 by the mayor of Cincinnati to the office of president of the commission charged with the development of the public park system. He has since held the office of president, administering its exacting but pleasure-giving duties with acknowledged ability. He will ever be remembered by the people for his service in that department of civic life and for his great gift of Ault Park.

Levi Addison Ault married, October 23, 1878, at Cincinnati, Ida May Holtzinger, a daughter of Henry E. and Angie Holtzinger. She was four years old when she was left mother-


less. To Mr. and Mrs. Ault was born one son, Lee Brownell Ault, who married Hildegarde von Steinwehr, and died in 1918, leaving three children.


If ever a complete history of the Fourth Estate is written, it must contain an appreciation of that fine and intellectual citizen of Cincinnati, Lewis Alexander Leonard, and the great service rendered to journalism by this pioneer newspaper edit0r and author, widely known throughout newspaperdom as one of the editors instrumental with the propriet0rs in the formation of the Associated Press, the largest news gathering and distributing agency in the world. Mr. Leonard's life of more than four score years was filled, for the most part, with service to some department 0f newspaper work, chiefly editorial, wherein he made a brilliant career; having also attained the status of an authority on the value of newspaper plants, and he often had been commissioned to appraise important newspapers in the larger cities of the country. His most recent work of considerable magnitude was the compilation of a "History of Cincinnati," into which he had put much thought and eff0rt from his vast fund of information on the growth and progress of the city and its immediate environs. As in all his work he took a commendable pride in the thoroughness of his preparation of the material for the history of the community where so many of his personal triumphs were achieved, and in his method of presentation of the facts thus collated.

Mr. Leonard was born on Poplar Island in Chesapeake Bay, opposite Baltimore, Maryland, July 10, 1845, the son of Nathaniel Leonard, a shipbuilder. He received a university education, and having elected the profession of law, engaged in practice in East Maryland for a time, and then went t0 Lafayette, Indiana, from which city he came to Cincinnati. The newspaper profession wooed him, and he left his law books, prior to 1875, to become editor of the old "Cincinnati



Star," and continued in that capacity until June, 188o, when the "Star" was consolidated with the "Times," and he was retained as editor of the "Times-Star" until 1882, when he was made manager, on the retirement of B. B. Stewart. He severed his connection with the "Times-Star" in 1884, when he was succeeded by C. H. Rembold, who has ever since been manager of the paper, Mr. Rembold having formerly been an understudy of Mr. Leonard back in the old days on the "Star."

Mr. Leonard was a young and efficient editor, filled with the zeal of the rising journalist, when the "Times-Star" consolidation was effected, and he had the proud distinction of being an associate of some of the leading men of the city, members of the stock company which owned the paper, among them M. D. Hanover, John Karr; Ge0rge B. Hollister, father of the late United States District Judge, Howard C. Hollister; William Summer, Alexander Clark, Henry B. Eckelmann, and H. C. Powers. At that time the late David Sint0n and Charles P. Taft owned the "Times," and took over the "Star." Into this enlarged sphere of Cincinnati journalism Mr. Leonard entered as a co-worker with one 0f the most powerful combinations known to the business in that city, at wh0se head was that forceful and aggressive figure, Charles P. Taft.

Mr. Leonard was one of Mr. Taft's right-hand men when the Associated Press was formed, and in that great achievement he lined up with the editors and proprietors who exercised their influence and threw their strength into effecting the then new organization. The area of news-gathering was very materially enlarged, and the member-newspapers were given a telegraphic service of a value and range that exceeded their fondest expectations. The Associated Press eventually replaced the Western Associated Press service on the cons0lidated "Times-Star," and thus became the exclusive distributor of telegraph news matter from the outside field through that medium.

On leaving Cincinnati, in 1884, he became an editor of a Detroit (Michigan) newspaper, which he served with his ac-


customed ability, until he was called to Philadelphia and later to New York. He performed an excellent service, for which he received the commendation of the owners, when he made expert appraisal of a number of leading newspaper plants in Chicago and New York City, including the "World." He also was the receiver of the original Benjamin Franklin "Saturday Evening Post," and in that capacity sold that publication to the Curtis interests. His latest newspaper connection was as editor of the "Albany (New York) Times," where he labored for a number of years in his old-time form, until that affliction, so common to journalists, failing eyesight, compelled him to retire from his beloved work, and return with Mrs. Leonard to Cincinnati. Here he devoted himself to literary work and kindred efforts, in which he was very happily engaged when stricken with his fatal illness. He was the author of a number of books, among them "The Life of Alphonso Taft," father of Charles P. Taft. But a comparatively short time previous to his passing he had been deeply interested in the campaign for a new Public Library for Cincinnati, and in this connection he recalled to the memory of friends that he had bid in at public auction the present main Public Library Building, on Vine Street, more than fifty years before. The building had been erected for a theater, and was known as the Truman B. Handy Theater, and Mr. Leonard said that he represented the Cincinnati Commissioner of Public Schools in bidding for the property, his bid being a figure that was considered very cheap at that time.

Through the practice of his pr0fession over so long a period, Mr. Leonard had made an exceedingly valued acquaintance of wide range. These associations were of great value to him in his work as an editorial writer, and from these sources he drew from time to time information that was both timely and often of an exclusive nature. He had the pleasure of the personal acquaintance of every President from Franklin Pierce to Calvin Coolidge. His political activities, during his more vigorous years, were akin to his editorial w0rk, and in the


handling of publicity matters he was prominently attached to a number of Democratic National Conventions, where his ability as a writer and collaborator was demonstrated time and again.

Mr. Leonard's death occurred November 12, 1926, at his home in Cincinnati under circumstances that were tragically sad. Only the week before his wife had been stricken with apoplectic shock, and it was as the result of extreme anxiety 0ver her condition that he himself was laid low, and in his weakened state he failed to rally. Thus passed 0ne of the old school of journalists who had survived the transition into the modern methods of the making of a newspaper, he having himself been one of those who had helped to bring about that epochal change.


The steadily increasing value and the expanding interests of the Cincinnati Bar had no more competent representative than Judge Robert S. Marx, formerly judge of the Superior Court, who throughout his career has familiarized himself with the history and particularly with the present-day conditions and status of legal affairs of both city and State. And while his service to his profession and to his city in this regard is of utmost importance, Judge Marx, as a veteran of the World War and captain of his company on the field of action, performed a still more remarkable service for his country and the Allied armies, on an occasion of heroic leadership, for which he received due recognition in the Distinguished Service Cross, awarded by the Adjutant-General of the United States Army.

Judge Marx is a son of William S. Marx, who was born in Millersburg, Ohio, and died March 2, 1915, in Cincinnati, aged fifty-five years, prominent citizen, and president of the Cincinnati Board of Public Service ; he married Rose L. Lowenstein, wh0 was born in Cincinnati, and now resides there. They had but one son, Robert S. Marx, whose grandfather came from Germany directly to Cincinnati.

Judge Robert S. Marx was born January 28, 1889, in Cin-


cinnati, and graduating at the Avondale public schools in 1902, and at the Walnut Hill High School in 1906, he matriculated at the Cincinnati Law School, where he graduated with his Bachelor of Laws degree in the class of 1909. Admitted to the bar in 1910, he established his offices in Cincinnati as a general practitioner, and in 'gig he was elected judge of the Superior Court, which office he filled with dignity until December 1, 1925, when he resigned to enter into partnership for the general practice of law with Aaron Sapiro, who has achieved a national reputation as the legal genius responsible for the success of cooperative marketing. Their offices are situated in the Straus Building, Chicago, Illinois. Judge Marx, however, has retained an office at No. gig. Provident Bank Building, Cincinnati. Judge Marx is also secretary and a member of the board of directors of the Cincinnati (Ohio) Oil and Mining Company.

Just prior to the World War, Judge Marx was in Belgium, and with the declaration of hostilities, he returned to the United States, and was at once instrumental in organizing military training camps, and was chairman of the enrollment committee of the first Officers' Training Camp at Fort Benjamin Harrison, Indianapolis. He enlisted in this camp, May II, 1917, and being commissioned a second lieutenant, was assigned as a War Department bayonet instructor, and instructor in physical training in the 90th Division, at Camp Travis, San Antonio, Texas. He later graduated from the Infantry School of Arms, at Fort Sill, Oklahoma, and then returned to the 90th Division as the officer in charge of the Grenade School, afterwards receiving promotion as captain of Company L, 357th Infantry, in that division. This company he took overseas, and to the front. Further promoted to regimental operating officer, Judge Marx served in that capacity through the battle of St. Mihiel, and the Meuse-Argonne Offensive, and for seventy-five continuous days he was under fire. On November 10, 1918, he volunteered to take command of the 3d Battalion of the 357th Infantry, which was held up


by the enemy, and reorganizing this battalion under fire of machine guns and shells, he led the advance which resulted in the capture of Baalon, one of the utmost points reached by the American Army. During this heroic feat, he was very seriously wounded and was in French and American hospitals for more than six months.

On April 10, 1923, Hon. Robert C. Davis, Adjutant-General of the United States Army, forwarded to Captain Robert S. Marx, through the Commanding General of the 5th Corps Area, Fort Hayes, Columbus, Ohio, the Distinguished Service Cross, "for extraordinary heroism in action in front of Baalon, France, November 10, 1918," when, as designated, "his brave example greatly inspired his men." We give herewith copy verbatim of this citation :

Robert S. Marx, Captain, Company L, 357th Infantry, Ninetieth Division.

For extraordinary heroism in action in front of Baalon, France, November 1o, 1918. Having been sent to make a reconnaissance and, if found necessary, to take command of the Third Battalion, 357th Infantry, the advance of which had just been checked with severe losses, he displayed the highest quality of courage and leadership in the face of a murderous artillery and machine gun fire by immediately reorganizing the battalion and, after a personal reconnaissance, directing the assault line which resulted in the taking of the enemy position. During the attack, Captain Marx was severely wounded. His brave example greatly inspired his men.

Mustered out of service May 27, 1919, he now holds the positi0n of major in the Judge Advocate Section of the Officers' Reserve Corps, an imp0rtant military position. Judge Marx is one of the founders and the first national commander of the Disabled American Veterans of the World War. He was a member of the National Rehabilitation Committee of the American Legion, and he is a member of the board of directors of the Trounstene Foundation; Community Service; former president of the City Club, of Cincinnati, and a member of the


American, the Ohio State, and the Cincinnati Bar Associations. He also holds prominent membership in the American Legi0n; the Disabled American Veterans ; Forty Hommes et Eight Chevaux; the Business Men's Club ; the Losantiville Country Club ; and the Chamber of Commerce.

Judge Marx has played on the Walnut Hills, the University of Cincinnati, and the Cincinnati Gym f0otball teams ; has held the amateur wrestling championship a number of years. He plays tennis, rows, and swims. He attends the Rockdale Avenue Temple, Cincinnati.


The business career of J. Charles McCullough can find no more fitting symbol than the very medium through which he has arrived at his present prominent position in the world of practical affairs—the seed. Indeed, it may be likened to the proverbial mustard seed, for his first wage of fifty cents a day for twelve hours' labor, gave no vision of the immense plant where he sits in the president's office—the founder and builder of the seed company that bears his name, and which ranks among the very first seed houses in the world.

Mr. McCullough was born on September 7, 1853, in the family homestead at Pleasant Ridge, Hamilton County, Ohio. This old homestead he has kept and improved, and here his son, H. Trimble McCullough (a sketch of whom follows), and his grandson, J. Charles McCullough, 2d, are now living, while Mr. McCullough's own home is about five hundred yards distant on another part of the old McCullough place. He started his school days at the Chickering Institute, the same year that the "John Morgan Raid" spread terror throughout the neighborhood. One day, as the result of a school boy's prank, the principal sent him home with a n0te to his father. Next morning, he rode to the city with his father as usual. When they reached his father's place of business—the original J. M. McCullough Seed Store, No. 200 Main Street, and No. 3 East Fifth Street, now occupied by


Pickering Hardware Company—his father said very firmly : "Now s0n, you are either going back to Chickerings and behave yourself, or you are going to get right out of this buggy and start to work in the seed business." The boy quickly decided, and answered : "I am ready to start work right now," and start he did, that very hour, on the morning of April 15, 1867. His father did not make an easy path for him. From early morning till dark, and often late in the evening, he worked hard, receiving what was then considered a big wage—fifty cents a day. He kept at it, however, and in the course of a few years, had accumulated quite a sum of m0ney. Hoping to swell these savings into a fortune, he took all he had to Calif0rnia and invested in real estate, but the bottom dropped out of the market, and he lost everything. But J. Charles McCullough does not know how to quit under adverse circumstances. He returned to Cincinnati, and with undaunted courage, set about to make a success. He gave long hours and undivided attenti0n to his business with the result that soon he was able to f0und the present firm of the J. Charles McCullough Seed Company, of which he is the president, with a new plant thoroughly equipped in the most up-to-date manner, with a capital of $800,000.00.

Besides his home in Cincinnati, Mr. McCullough has a winter home on the North Lake Trail in Palm Beach, Florida, where he indulges his hobby of growing cocoanut trees. Both there, and at home in the north, he enjoys the out-of-door life, and the cultivation and preservation of seeds, trees, and flowers.


Since his school days were finished, H. Trimble McCullough has been c0nnected with the great seed company founded by his father, which is located in Cincinnati. For three generations the name of McCullough has been connected with this industry, the present establishment being not only one of


the largest, but one of the finest in the world in the seed growing business.

Mr. McCullough was born in Cincinnati, on October 29, 1883, son of J. Charles and Mattie McCullough. Educated in the public and high schools of the city, he finished his studies in 1905, and became associated with his father in business. For fourteen years, from 1905 to 1919, he was located in California, giving his attention there to seed growing, studying especially development and production. Then he returned to headquarters in Cincinnati, and has been the active head of the J. Charles McCullough Seed Company since that date, holding the executive offices of vice-president and general manager.

Politically, Mr. McCullough supports the Republican party. He is a Mason, holding his membership in Blue Lodge, of Monrovia, California, and Royal Arch Chapter, of Lompoc, California. He also belongs to the Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks. He is a member of the Chamber of Commerce, the Business Men's Club, the Rotary Club, and several country clubs.

In 1921, H. Trimble McCullough married Anne J. Heaton, of Chattanooga, Tennessee. T0 Mr. and Mrs. McCullough a son was born on January 3, 1923, to whom they gave the name of J. Charles McCullough, 2d. The family are members of the Presbyterian Church.


On April 25, 1884, Cecil Huggins Gamble was born in Cincinnati, son of David Berry and Mary (Huggins) Gamble. His family was one of the best known in that city. In fact, before he was born, the name was known around the globe. For Procter and Gamble had put upon the market an honest and superior article and had been am0ng the pioneers in modern methods of advertising, which spread a knowledge of this fact before the eyes of the world. To maintain the traditions and to be a worthy descendant of those who have been labelled as "a big success," making for one's self one's own place in


the sun requires at least as much native ability and untiring industry as was necessary for the 0riginal successful member of the family. Cecil Huggins Gamble, then, is not merely the son of his father, nor has he because of his name just slipped into the many positions 0f responsibility and trust which he occupies today. He has arrived as a result of his own endeavor.

He received his early education at the Avondale Public School, and then was sent away to the Lawrenceville School, Lawrenceville, New Jersey, to prepare for c0llege, graduating in 1901. He at once entered Princeton University and received his Bachelor of Arts degree with the class of 1905. In 1906, he entered the employ of the Procter and Gamble Company, but not to sit at an office desk. He went to the Ivorydale factory as a laborer, and w0rked in practically every department in practically every capacity—workman, clerk, and assistant foreman, until he had mastered every detail of the great concern where Ivory Soap is made. Then he went into the main office of the company, where he devoted himself first t0 the advertising department and then to the sales department, gaining by personal experience and c0ntact with the retail market a knowledge of the distribution as well as of the production problems of the business. He worked for a time as retail salesman and then as district field manager, and on January 12, 1915, he came to the office of secretary of the company, which he filled until March 19, 1918. When a boy, Mr. Gamble met with an accident which destroyed one eye, and so when America entered the war, he could n0t be accepted for active military duty. But in 1917, he became a member of the executive staff of the Southeastern Department of the Army Young Men's Christian Association, and was stationed in Atlanta. When the war closed, he was assistant to the District Chief of the Cincinnati Division, Army Ordnance. The armistice bringing to an end his country's need of his services, he returned home and became president 0f the Cincinnati Time Recorder Company, at the same time taking the direction and


management of other financial interests of his family. He is also a director of the Procter and Gamble Company, the Globe Wernicke Company, of Cincinnati, and the Dayton and Western Railroad, and vice-president and a director of the Gager Lime and Manufacturing Company, of Chattanooga, Tennessee. Not less well known is Mr. Gamble as one of the Queen City's leaders in its civic, philanthropic, and religious activities. His connection with the Young Men's Christian Association is not confined to his work with them during the war years. For many years he has been a member of the Board of Directors of the Cincinnati Young Men's Christian Association; from May 2, 1923, until his election as its president in May, 1925, he was its treasurer. In October, 1925, he accepted his election as a member-at-large of the National Council of that organization. Another movement in which he has been much interested and for which he has worked earnestly is the Cincinnati Community Chest. Practically from its inception, he has heartily backed it, twice being elected to the board of directors as a representative of the district team chairmen. He is a member of the board of trustees or directors of the Children's Home of Cincinnati, the Elizabeth Gamble Deaconess Home Association, and the Spring Grove Cemetery Association, and serves on the advisory committee of the Young Women's Christian Association of Cincinnati. In the Avondale Presbyterian Church, of which he is a member, Mr. Gamble is an elder and superintendent of the Bible School. In the wider religious life of the city, he evidences his interest by filling a place on the executive committee of the Federation of Churches.

When Mr. Gamble was a student at Princeton, he was on the gymnastic team. His love for out-of-door exercise and sport has not left him. He especially enjoys riding a good horse, and sailing. His summer home is at Harbor Point, and here he sails his "R" class sloop, the "Goblin," on the waters of Lake Michigan, and is active in promoting the sport 0f sailboat racing among the young people of that summer corn-


munity. His clubs are the University (six years a member of the Board of Governors, three years vice-president and active head of the club), Cincinnati Country, Commonwealth, and the Riding.

Cecil Huggins Gamble married Marguerite Louise Gibbs, of Cincinnati, in November, 1908. Mr. and Mrs. Gamble have six children : Mary Corinne, Elizabeth Louise, David Gibbs, Edwin Cecil, Margaret, James Neare. They are the fifth generation of the American branch of the family, which was founded by Mr. Gamble's great-grandfather, George Gamble, who emigrated from Ireland and settled in Cincinnati in 1819.


Author of the "History of Cincinnati Politics" in this work, Oliver Gilbert Bailey is a Cincinnati lawyer who takes an active interest in civic affairs and has had a part in making the political history of Cincinnati. Mr. Bailey was born March 20, 1877, at Lincoln, Nebraska, where his father, Gilbert E. Bailey, was then professor of geology in the University of Nebraska.

Gilbert Ellis Bailey, scientist, writer and educator, was born at Pekin, Illinois, April 26, 1852. Uniting the mind of a scholar with a magnificent physique and a love of adventure, he was as much at home in the field as in academic halls. As State Geologist of Wyoming in the colorful period of "The Virginian," he was well acquainted with the originals of many 0f the characters depicted by Owen Wister. As correspondent for the "Chicago Inter Ocean," he visited and described the proposed route of the Nicaragua Canal and during the Sioux uprising in 1890 was under fire at Wounded Knee, the last battle between Indians and American soldiers. His last years were again devoted to teaching geology as the head of that department in the University of Southern California at Los Angeles, where he died December 6, 1924.

His father, Gilbert Stephen Bailey, D. D., was for many years a Baptist minister, serving in Illinois, Michigan, Iowa


and California, and was the author of several books of a religious character. During his pastorate at Springfield, Illinois, Dr. Bailey served as chaplain of the Illinois Legislature and was a neighbor and friend of Abraham Lincoln at the time of his election to the presidency.

Oliver G. Bailey, because of the death of his mother, Mat-tie (Cobb) Bailey, spent his boyhood at the home of her parents, Mr. and Mrs. Oliver Perry Cobb, of Aurora, Indiana, where he graduated from high school and, after attending De Pauw University, entered the Cincinnati Law School and received his degree in 1898, graduating with honors. On admission to the bar he was ass0ciated with the firm of Cobb and Howard, in whose office he had studied and worked during his law course, Mr. Orris P. Cobb being his uncle, and in 1901 the firm name became Cobb, Howard & Bailey, and so continues. Mr. Bailey enjoys the esteem of his brethren of the bar and is frequently called into consultation by them.

He has always been active in civic affairs both in his home city of Norwood and in Cincinnati, where his professional interests are. He was city solicitor of Norwood from 1903 until 1905, was recording secretary of the Cincinnati bar for two terms and has served on important committees of the Cincinnati Club, Cincinnati Chamber of Commerce and other organizations. A Republican by inheritance, Mr. Bailey associated himself with those independent Republicans who would

not acquiesce in the domination of their party by George B. Cox. He was a director of the Roosevelt Republican Club, and independent Republican organization, and became a charter member of the non-partisan City Club, which for many years was the center of opposition to the Cox organization. When the Bull Moose campaign divided the Republican party, Mr. Bailey followed the leadership of Woodr0w Wilson and from that time gave his allegiance to the Democratic party. He was the candidate of that party for Judge of the Common Pleas Court in 1918.

Mr. Bailey married in Aurora, Indiana, September 16,


1903, Leah Evelyn Hurlbert, of that city, daughter of Lewis Gordon Hurlbert, who died in 1913 at San Diego, California, and of Frances (Kennedy) Hurlbert, who resides in San Diego. The children of Mr. and Mrs. Bailey are : Lura Frances, born June 26, 1904, who is the author of the "History of the Cincinnati Conservatory 0f Music," in this work ; Leah Winifred, born March 30, 1908, now a student at Ohio Wesleyan University, and Eloise Hurlbert, born August 31, 1913, and now in the Norwood High School.


An attorney of Cincinnati since 1881, one-time assistant city solicitor, Albert Dewitt Shockley is perhaps best known to the citizens of Cincinnati because of the many years of service which he has given to the educational development of the city. A public-spirited man, and interested in every movement for better and broader civic life, the educational opportunities which Cincinnati offers to its children and young people have seemed to him of paramount importance.

Albert Dewitt Shockley was born 0n September 6, 1860, in Cincinnati, son of Dewitt Clinton and Laura (Kessler) Shockley. His mother, a native of Frederick, Maryland, was the daughter of a State Senator, prominent in his day, and his father was a Civil War veteran, captain of the 83d Ohio Volunteers. Mr. Shockley was educated in the public and high schools of his native city, and studied for his profession at the Cincinnati Law School, class of 1881, from which institution he received the degree of Bachelor of Laws. At once admitted to the bar, he has carried on a general law practice under his own name and now has his offices in the Wiggins Block. Several times Mr. Shockley, who is a Republican, has been president of the Board of Education, and for over thirty years has been a member of the Union Board of High Schools. During his incumbency of office as president of the Board of Education he laid the cornerstones of two of Cincinnati's high schools,


the Hughes High School, and the Woodward High School. In addition to his law work, he has taken a great interest in music, and from the age of sixteen, has played the pipe organ.

In 1884, Albert D. Shockley married Clara Louise Rammelsberg, daughter of Frederick and Sarah (Lape) Rammelsberg, of Cincinnati. To Mr. and Mrs. Shockley f0ur children were born : Albert Dewitt, Jr., Clara Louise (deceased), Elizabeth Kessler, and Dor0thy May (deceased). The family are members of the Westwood Presbyterian Church.


The career of William Glenn belongs to the early days of the development of Cincinnati emerging from a frontier town into a great and opulent city. He was born March 13, 1800, in Guilford County, North Carolina, of Scotch ancestry. The first representative of the family in America came to North Carolina before the Revolution, and fought in that war with conspicuous valor. The father of William Glenn died when he was quite young. The boy with his mother and sister came to Ohio, and settled on a farm near Lebanon in Warren County. They moved from there to a wooded tract of land in Dearborn County, Indiana, north 0f the present town of Aurora. There they built a log cabin, and William Glenn, as a boy of sixteen, proceeded to split rails for fences and to plant crops. His alert mind, however, craved an education, and he looked forward to a larger field for the exercise of his ambition and his abilities. When the day's toil was ended the evening found him beside a blazing fire of hickory, poring over a volume from his own scant library, or borrowed from that of a distant neighbor, for books were treasures in that new country. The hardy pioneer so earnestly occupied in conquering the forest to provide a home for his family did not regard them as necessities and encumbered himself with few. A love for the systematic study of the language was manifested early in his literary pursuits, and he soon had gained a reputation for scholarship in that direction. He became noted for his


proficiency in grammar, and for several years during the winter months he gave less0ns and lectured upon that subject. Cincinnati, Covington, Newport, and other places were chosen for his efforts, and many poor young men gratefully availed themselves of his instructions. His lectures were favorably menti0ned in the "Cincinnati Gazette," under the editorship of the distinguished Charles Hammond. It was far from his thoughts at the time that in the years to come the c0lumns of that paper would be open to the brilliant contributions of one of his own sons, while that son and himself w0uld be among its principal owners.

At the age of twenty-five, finding that the exposures and labors of frontier life were undermining his health, he took the small capital he had acquired by his lectures, and engaged in business. His first venture was in Wilmington ; afterward in Dillsboro, and finally in Aurora, Indiana. For about eleven years he continued along these lines with a fair measure of success. He made frequent trips to New Orleans in that period, traveling on steamboats and flatboats, carrying cargoes of produce for sale, and acquiring a reputation as a river trader of superior keenness and ability. At the time it was apparent that a steam packet between Cincinnati and Rising Sun, Indiana, was needed. He promptly sold his business and bought the steamboat "Fashion" to engage in the river trade. He succeeded so well he was induced to extend his trips to Madison, Indiana. Thus he was the pioneer in what became an important packet trade. Subsequently he commanded the "William R. McKee" of the same line, and during his four years of river life, he became a successful and was a popular and capable commander. He had moved his family to Cincinnati, and relinquished his packet interests to engage in business in this city. In this he established a business house which was long regarded as the leading establishment of its kind in the West. The modest beginning with limited means was at the northwest corner of lower Market and Sycamore streets. Five years of marked success there induced Mr. Glenn to erect a


larger building at the northwest corner of Second and Walnut streets, where ten more years of prosperity followed and the firm had attained a place and a name equal to the best in the country. Solid and extensive stores on Vine Street were erected, and the house was the acknowledged leader in the grocery trade, doing a business of millions of dollars annually, with a trade extending for hundreds of miles in every direction. They had reason for feeling a sense of pride and satisfaction, in view of the reputation, confidence and credit, which by their prudence, energy and honorable dealing, they had built up in the commercial world. Four years after the house was established, Mr. Glenn admitted two of his sons, Joseph and James M., to partnership, and the firm name became William Glenn & Sons. A few years later, Joseph Glenn withdrew and became directly interested in the ownership and management of the "Cincinnati Gazette," a relation which continued until his death in 1874. Upon the withdrawal of Joseph Glenn, Richard Dymond (see following sketch), Mr. Glenn's son-in-law, became a member of the firm. A younger son, Omer T. Glenn, was admitted subsequently, but withdrew in 1886.

During Mr. Glenn's mercantile life he took an active interest in all that related to the prosperity of the city. Seeing the great advantage that Cincinnati could derive from direct communication with the South, he became one of the earliest advocates of a southern railroad. He was one of the foremost in striving to raise a bonus fund of a million dollars to offer any company that would build such a line, and headed the list of subscriptions with a large sum. Although the effort failed it was a seed sown which soon produced a general demand for a direct connection with the vast and growing South, and it culminated in the building of the Cincinnati and Southern Railway. He was of the company leasing this road after its completion, and was one of its active directors, continuing to serve until its transfer to the Erlanger syndicate. Mr. Glenn felt



amply repaid for his long-continued efforts in behalf of the triumphant consummation of this great work so creditable to the energy and enterprise of Cincinnati. He was also connected with the Ohio and Mississippi Railroad in its beginning, being a director at the time that line reached no farther than Seymour, Indiana, and lacked the money and credit alike to go beyond. He, however, continued to urge its extension to Vincennes, where it would meet the West Branch and thus form a through line opening up the rich valley of the Wabash, and the fertile plains of Illinois to the trade of Cincinnati. Finally, as its president, he concluded the contract with the syndicate which soon thereafter added the necessary link, thus uniting Cincinnati with St. Louis and the Far West. He was also a director of the Marietta and Cincinnati Railroad during its earlier days, and he never for a moment wavered in his belief that it would eventually prove a most valuable connection for Cincinnati. His faith was fully justified by the final consolidation of this line with the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad. Mr. Glenn was 0ne of the first to perceive the benefits that would follow from the national banking law ; and, in connection with Louis Worthington and 0thers, organized the First National Bank 0f Cincinnati. The perfection of the organization was due largely to the efforts 0f Mr. Worthington and himself. He served as a director of this noted bank for many years, until impaired health and a desire for foreign travel caused him to resign. He was likewise a director in the Union Central Life Insurance Company, and president of the Hammond Building Company. For years he was a leading stockholder and director in the Cincinnati "Gazette" Company; and was 0ne of the principal owners 0f the "Commercial Gazette." He was the oldest living member of the Chamber of Commerce at the time of his death. He was elected an hon0rary member several years before he died.

William Glenn was married on April 17, 1825, in Dearborn County, Indiana, to Alice Miller, by the Rev. James H. Jones. They celebrated the fiftieth anniversary of their wedding on


April 17, 1875. Their hospitable home was crowded by th0se who came to offer their warmest congratulations, and the 0ccasion was long and pleasantly remembered. Both Mr. and Mrs. Glenn were earnest, consistent Christians. They were members of Saint Paul's Methodist Episcopal Church, and gave freely for the upbuilding of that denominati0n, its churches and its missions. Also to the cause of temperance. Mr. Glenn was president of the board of trustees of Saint Paul's Meth0dist Episcopal Church, and contributed more than $60,000 towards its support. He was a delegate to the Law and Order Convention held at Columbus in March, 1882. He was fond 0f books and travel, and up to a week of his death he attended to his business regularly, alth0ugh eighty-eight years old. He died July 17, 1887. His daughter, Mrs. Richard Dymond, survives, living in the Broadway Apartments, Cincinnati, Ohio.


A veteran captain of business in Cincinnati, and one of the city's most honored and beloved citizens was Richard Dymond, born in England, August 9, 1831, the son 0f Richard A. Dymond, a merchant of that place. He was brought to America when one year of age, and settled in Zanesville, Ohio, where he attended the public schools, and came to Cincinnati in 1850, taking a course in Bartlett's Business College. He began his active career as bookkeeper in the big wholesale grocery house of William Glenn & Sons, rising rapidly until he became one 0f the firm. For years after the death of William Glenn (a sketch of whom precedes), the founder, he managed the vast Glenn estate, and was an active director of several important banks, insurance c0mpanies and other businesses. His outstanding work, however, was for the Methodist Book Concern. During his active life he was a member of St. Paul's Methodist Episcopal Church, with its magnificent Gothic building in down-town Cincinnati. For more than a quarter of a century he gave his time without stint to the great publishing interests of the church, holding frequent conferences with its


agents and his fellow committeemen, many of which wore along till midnight. As chairman 0f the Local Book Committee he was able to perform a great service to the church. He was elected to this office by the General Conference of 1884, succeeding Edward Sargent, and continued to serve the church in that capacity for a quarter of a century. The duties of the Local Book Committee are like those performed by the executive committee in a board of directors of a corporation, and in a business so extended and varied as that of the Methodist Book Concern they are, indeed, multifarious, but Mr. Dymond was no novice in such affairs. They included the duties of an immediate advisory board to the Publishing Agents, who are elected and charged by the General Conference with administrative authority over the manufacturing and sales departments, and the general business of the Book Concern. At the time Mr. Dymond entered upon this work, his relations to the business world were numerous and important, and so continued to be through his entire life, as appeared from the rosters of banks, insurance companies, trust and savings companies, and of many organizations locally engaged in works of charity, philanthropy, commerce and education, in the important committees of which his name frequently appeared. Yet he rarely took part in the debates of the committee. He would preside even until midnight never for a moment losing interest. He reached his conclusions by impulsive intuition; controversy seemed to jar his sensitive spirit and he was accustomed to resort to the milder methods of persuasion. This gentleness of spirit was combined with a rare moral courage and a fixity of purpose of adamant quality. He knew no master but conscience, and recognized no authority superior to moral conviction. He was a member of the b0ard of trustees of Ohio Wesleyan University at Delaware, Ohio, and served as chairman of its finance committee for many years. Bishop Mo0re paid a tribute at the time of his death on June 22, 1911, when he said :


Of his eighty noble years I have known the last forty. Coming to this city a stranger, and scanning its Methodism, I found great-hearted heroes—Glenn, De Camp, Ebersole, Laws, Patterson, Holtzinger, Cochnower, Simpkinson, Comegys, Sargent, Stobridge, Perkins, Wiltsee, Hall, Cooper, Davis, Reamy, and others of like kingly character—and in a younger group, Richard Dymond, prominent as a genial, inspired and trusted leader. He was the active member of the Board of Trustees of the Cincinnati Wesleyan College, in which capacity I met him every week from 1875 to 1880. When the Father called to Himself the precious daughter, educated, accomplished, and prepared to adorn any path in life, leaving the home void and hearts lacerated ; when the stricken parents felt grief too deep for utterance—the light of Brother Dymond's Christian faith dispelled the gloom and he rose to the sublime trust—"What I do thou knowest not now ; but thou shalt understand hereafter."—"The Lord gave and the Lord hath taken away ; blessed be the name of the Lord." During my eleven years on the "Western Christian Advocate" he was a member of the Local Book Committee, a close and valued adviser and friend. And since then General Committee duties and the fellowship of passing years have thrown his character into the clearest and most searching light.

John A. Patten, of Chattanooga, chairman of the Book Committee telegraphed this appreciative expression :

I have never known a truer man. His services to the Church were of great value. The Book Concern has had years of his discriminating labor, for which thousands of dollars could not make adequate recompense. In his high ideals, correct methods and devoted life he will long be an example to those who knew him.

In 1855, Mr. Dymond married Elizabeth Glenn, daughter of William Glenn, now living in Cincinnati. They were the parents of two children, one of whom died in infancy. The other, Clara, attained maturity and became a talented musician. She died February 22, 1894. Mrs. Dymond lives in the Broadway Apartments, Fourth Street and Broadway, Cincinnati.



One of the old-time physicians of Cincinnati, with a great name as an educator and exemplar and who gave unsparing aid to the afflicted in the great cholera epidemic, and in the Civil War, Dr. George Mendenhall is affectionately remembered by many of its citizens. He was born May 5, 1814, at Sharon, Pennsylvania. He was the son of Aaron and Lydia (Ricardson) Mendenhall. The immigrant ancestor came 0ver with William Penn, and the family can trace its line back to 1247, when Sir Ralph de Mildhall, Wilts County, England, was its representative. Dr. George Mendenhall's immediate ancestry was Quaker. He attended the village school until he was fourteen. Owing to the death of his father he was obliged to go to work at that time to take care of himself. He obtained employment in a country store, studied at night and prepared himself to enter the University of Pennsylvania. At nineteen years he made a trip across the Allegheny Mountains on horseback through snow and sleet to Philadelphia. There he was 0bliged to sell his horse to provide his immediate expenses. He was graduated from the University of Pennsylvania in the class of 1835 with high honors. His diligence and scholarly attainments had won him the attention and esteem of the faculty, and a tempting position was offered him in Cleveland. There he passed two years. The climate did not prove good for his health, and he moved to Cincinnati in 1844. He soon became one of the physicians on the staff of the Cincinnati Dispensary, and afterwards a lecturer in the Miami School of Medicine. In 1852 he was one of the organizers of the Miami Medical College, where he took the chair of obstetrics, and diseases of women and children. In 1857 when the Miami school was merged with the Medical College of Ohio, he was appointed to a similar chair. In 1865 upon the restoration of the Miami Medical College, he was invited t0 resume his old chair, and he continued to fill it until his death on June 4, 1874. In 1869, he was elected president 0f the


American Medical Association. In 1872 he was elected t0 the Fellowship of the Royal Obstetrical Society 0f Lond0n. In 1850-52, he was associate editor 0f the "Western Journal." During the great cholera epidemic of 1849 he labored courageously and untiringly at the bedside of the sufferers, while during the Civil War he rendered valuable service to the Sanitary Commission, and to hospitals. He also, in the days preceding the war, w0rking in connecti0n with Levi by means 0f the underground railway, helped many a colored man to freedom on the other side of the Canadian border. Mrs. Mendenhall was the inaugurator of the great Western Sanitary Fair in December, 1863, a bazaar which attained a place in history as one of the important events in the history of Cincinnati, and the relief measures of the Civil War. Sister Anthony, who was Dr. Mendenhall's assistant and first nurse in Cincinnati in the Civil War period, was one of a group of Sisters of Charity who worked in the interest of the highest and purest f0rm 0f humanity during that conflict. Sister Anthony is a memorable and noble figure to the soldiers of both armies. Her name possessed a magic spell of wonderful power to them, for she was the incarnation of angelic goodness which seemed to have its inspiration fr0m 0n high.

Dr. Mendenhall was married, October 5, 1838, to Elizabeth Shoemaker Maule, whose family goes back to Sir Arnold Maule, of France, who lived in 996 Anzio Domini, and to Sir Patrick Maule, Earl of Pammure, Baron Brechin, and Navarre of England. Dr. and Mrs. Mendenhall were the parents of seven children, among them : 1. Charles Mendenhall, since dead. 2. Emma, who married Larz Anderson, now deceased, whose biography follows. The widow resides at No. 2461 Grandin Road. In 1920 she gave in memory of her father, George Mendenhall, M. D., a scholarship for the Obstetrical Chair in the Medical School of the University 0f Cincinnati. 3. Lawrence Mendenhall, deceased (q. v.).



The Anderson family, so long and conspicuously represented in Cincinnati by Larz Anderson, is one of the most distinguished in America. Larz Anderson, born June 9, 1845, was the son of Larz and Catherine (Longworth) Anderson, his mother having been a daughter of Nicholas Longworth. His grandfather, Colonel Richard Clough Anderson, was aide-de-camp to General Lafayette, and acted as commander of a regiment of Virginia soldiers during the war of the Revolution. At the close of hostilities he came to Cincinnati as surveyor general of the military lands in Ohio and Kentucky. Another distinguished member of the family was General Robert Anderson, who commanded Fort Sumter in Charlestown harbor at the outbreak of the Civil War. Larz Anderson was one of nine sons. He studied law in the law school of Harvard University, and received the degree of Bachelor of Laws upon his graduation. Already he had prepared himself thoroughly for a business career. He was vice-president of the Union Savings Bank and Trust Company ; executor and trustee of the large Anderson estate, and trustee of the Nicholas Longworth estate; a director and organizer of the Citizens' Mortgage Loan Company, and a director of the Citizens' National Bank. He was a director and founder of the Fresh Air Society and Convalescent Home. For several years he served as a vestryman and junior warden of Christ Church. For fully twenty-five years he was superintendent of its Sunday School. He was one of the foremost churchmen in Ohio ; and at the time of his death he was a trustee in the diocese 0f Southern Ohio. He was one of the corporators of the Episcopal Hospital for Children at Mount Auburn ; a trustee of the sinking fund and a director of Spring Grove Cemetery, where he lies buried. At one time he was president of the Commercial Club. He was a member of the Queen City Club, the Country Club, the Grandin Road Golf Club, the Riding Club, and other social organizations. He was noted for his public spirit and liberality. The beautiful Venetian well head of the sixteenth


century which adorns Eden Park was one of his many gifts to the city he loved. His purse was ever open to the appeal of charity and his gifts reached huge amounts.

Mr. Anderson was married to Emma Mendenhall, daughter of Dr. George Mendenhall (a sketch of whom precedes), and they were the parents of three sons : 1. George Mendenhall Anderson, was a member of the firm of Elzner & Anderson, architects. They designed the Baldwin Piano Building, and the Swedenborgian Church, and received the Paris Medal in recognition of their artistic skill. 2. Richard Clough Anderson, was secretary and treasurer of the Standard Plastic Relief Company, an author and naturalist. 3. Robert Anderson, was vice-president of the Ferro-Concrete Construction Company.

The beautiful Anderson home at No. 2461 Grandin Road is filled with treasures gathered from many lands, where Mr. Anderson passed many happy hours. There are rare paintings of exquisite beauty. An entire room is devoted to a priceless collection of the portraits of Indian chiefs, with autographs from the brush of H. F. Farny. The life of Mr. Anderson added lustre to the name he bore. He loved his home and family above all else. Honorable in business, loyal in citizenship, charitable in thought, kindly in action, true to every trust confided to his care, his life expressed and exemplified the highest type of Christian manhood. He died June 26, 1902. In 1920, Mrs. Larz Anderson, his widow, gave to the city of Cincinnati, a beautiful plot of ground 0verlooking the Ohio River, adjoining the Anderson estate, and known as "Hill and Hollow." It is called the Anderson Memorial Park.


The best traditions of the Old South with its chivalry and its aristocracy, its devotion to the ragged and immortal armies who fought for the Confederacy, and its ability to give as loyal support to the restored Union, and join in the march forward of the hosts of business of civilization are typified


today by many scions of the proud families of Kentucky and Virginia wh0 have f0und themselves in the new conditions and the new environment. Among the outstanding examples of these men and these high qualities of mind and heart is Polk Laffoon, .0f Cincinnati. He was born February 6, 1877, in Madis0nville, Kentucky. The name he bears has been handed down from father to son, and Polk Laffo0n, Sr., his father, was likewise a lawyer of high attainments, and a native of Madisonville, Kentucky, where he practiced his profession and passed the larger part of his life. There was an interval in the Civil War days when he donned the grey uniform of the Confederacy, and saw the exhausting battles which reached a culmination at Fort Donelson on the Cumberland River, February 16, 1862. He was fighting with the 8th Infantry, and was taken prisoner, at the time the fort surrendered, was exchanged at Vicksburg in September, 1862, and was a member of Morgan's command during the remainder of the war. He was again captured at Cheshire, Ohio, in the raid into that State, and confined in the Pennsylvania Penitentiary as a prisoner of war. On the return of peace he taught school for two years; was admitted to the bar in 1867, and practiced independently until he was elected attorney of Hopkins County. He was elected to the Kentucky Legislature where he served two terms and was elected as a Democrat to the Forty-ninth and Fiftieth Congresses (March 4, 1885-March 3, 1889). He married Hattie Parker, who died in 1892. He survived her until October 22, 1906.

Polk Laffoon, the son, was educated in the public and high schools of Madisonville. After completing his school course and serving in Cuba during the Spanish-American War, he entered the banking business with John G. Morton, a private banker, and continued in the service of the bank for six years. He next became secretary of the Tax Commission of the State of Kentucky, an office he continued to hold for eight years. In 1908 he became associated with the Cincinnati, Newport & Covington Railway Company, as its secretary and treasurer.


Since 1918 he has been vice-president of this company. In 1918 he became associated with the Union Gas and Electric Company as secretary and treasurer. Since 1919 he has been vice-president of the company, while he retains the vice-presidency of the Cincinnati, Newport & Covington Railway Company. He is vice-president and a director of the Liberty National Bank ; a director of the Security Branch of the Uni0n Trust Company ; secretary of the Columbia Gas and Electric Company; vice-president of the Union Light, Heat & Power Company, the Columbia Power Company, the Columbia Industrial Company, the Columbia Gas Supply Company, the Dayton Gas Company, the Maytown Natural Gas Company, the Cincinnati Gas and Transportation Company, and active in the management of other large corporations. In the Spanish-American War Mr. Laffoon enlisted in the 3d Kentucky Volunteers, and received an honorable discharge while he held the rank of sergeant. He is a member of the Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks ; a member of the Masonic fraternity, including all the York Rite bodies, and the Knights Templar. He was at one time a member of the board of governors of the Queen City Club to which he belongs. He is a member of the Cincinnati Business Men's Club, and of the Industrial Club ; the Covington (Kentucky) and Fort Mitchell Country Club; the Twin Oaks Country Club, and the Cincinnati Chamber of Commerce. He is a member of the Kentucky State Racing Commission. His recreations he finds in the big out-of-doors which he loves, and he is a fancier of thoroughbred horses and bird dogs.

Mr. Laffoon was married in 1914 to Emily Woodall, a native of Covington, Kentucky. They are the parents of Emily Brent and of Polk Laffoon, Jr. The family are members of the Established Church. Mr. Laffoon is an executive of unusual ability, a man whose poise of mind is never ruffled, who rises to each emergency and handles it with skill and vigor, a man beloved by his associates, and a natural leader and chief. His business address is the Union Gas and Electric Company, Cincinnati, Ohio.



No history of Cincinnati and its environs would be complete without an extended mention of the life and labors of Judge William Worthington, than whom no greater man ever was identified with the great legal fraternity of the "Queen City." Judge Worthington preeminently deserves but so little needs the words of praise and homage found at the beginning of so many men's biographies, for the light of his memory still shines forth strongly in the hearts 0f the citizenry of Cincinnati. Suffice it to say that this city has never known his peer in the matter of juridical erudition and forensic ability, which characteristics, together with his engaging yet dominant personality, endeared him to old and to young alike and brought him a noteworthy success in his chosen field of endeavour.

Judge William Worthington, lawyer and jurist, was born in Cincinnati, Ohio, August 3, 1847. He was descended from John Worthington, who came to Anne Arundel County, Maryland, prior to the year 1675, and wh0, besides being Captain of the Hundred, was Associate Judge in the County and a member of the Legislature. William Worthington was descended from the American progenitor as follows :

(I) Captain John Worthington, born in England ; married Sarah Howard.

(II) John Worthington, born in Anne Arundel County, Maryland ; married Helen Hammond.

(III) Judge Samuel Worthington, born in Anne Arundel County ; married Mary Tolley.

(IV) James Tolley Worthington, born in Baltimore County, Maryland ; married Margaret P. Stade.

(V) Vachel Worthington, born in Lincoln County, Kentucky, became a noted lawyer of Cincinnati. He married Julia Wiggins as his second wife, and they were the parents of Judge William Worthington, who represented the sixth generation of his family in America. Julia (Wiggins) Worthington was a daughter of Samuel Wiggins, a leading financier in the early days of Cincinnati. Through both the Worthing-


ton and Wiggins ancestry, Judge Worthington was of English descent, and he reflected in his career at the bar and on the bench the high ideals of the English barrister and jurist.

(VI) Judge William Worthington was born in the Worthington family residence at the southwest corner of Seventh and Elm streets, Cincinnati, Ohio, where the Queen City Club now stands. His early education was acquired in the Hulin Private School, following which he attended Brooks' Classical School, where, under the tutelage of Dr. Soule, he prepared for college. Thus, at the age of fourteen years, he was ready for Harvard, but, owing to his youth, did not enter for another year. He was graduated cum laude from Harvard, among the leaders of the class of 1867. He was a member of the Phi Beta Kappa and Zeta Psi fraternities, and in the year 1870 was given the degree of Master of Arts.

Immediately after his graduation from Harvard, he began to read law with his father, with the result that, as Vachel Worthington's pupil, he was admitted to the bar practically without examination. For a combined period of one hundred years, Vachel Worthington and his distinguished son practiced law in Cincinnati, and it is to be doubted whether any lawyers, in the daily clash 0f important interests, ever took surer aim in defending the rights of their clients or dealt more fairly with their opponents. Upon his father's death, he formed a partnership with Drausin Wulsin, which lasted until his appointment, five years later, as Judge of the Superior Court of Cincinnati, where his associates were Judge Judson Harmon and Judge Manning F. Force. This notable court has possibly never been adorned by a finer judicial mind than that of Judge Worthington. Members of the bar pay tribute to his searching and accurate knowledge of jurisprudence and declare that it was impossible to take him by surprise in any branch of legal learning. At the end of his term, he resumed the practice of the law, continuing it until his death with signal success. In the year 1904 he formed a partnership with Ed-


ward W. Strong; and later John L. Stettinius and John B. Hollister were admitted to the firm.

Judge Worthington was one of the trustees appointed to take charge of the rebuilding of the Hamilton County Court House in the years fr0m 1884 to 1886. He was a director of, and general counsel for, the Little Miami Railr0ad Company and many other important corporations. His interest in the varied life of his native city was manifested by his directorship in the Rookwood Pottery Company, and his trusteeships of the Cincinnati Museum Association, under whose auspices the Cincinnati Art Museum is maintained, and 0f the Music Hall Association, which has furnished a meeting-place for so many enterprises of public merit, including the May Musical Festivals. He was also a trustee of the University of Cincinnati, the Spring Grove Cemetery Association, the Colored Industrial School, and other benevolent institutions.

Among the enterprises in which Judge Worthington was most interested was the Cincinnati C0llege, which maintained the Cincinnati Law School, the oldest law school west of the Alleghenies. Trustee for many years, and finally president of the board, it was his effort, in conjunction with that of others, that made the Cincinnati Law School a department of the University of Cincinnati—a result that had long been the aim of members of the legal profession in the city. His interest in his calling was further manifested by his membership in the American Bar Association and in the Cincinnati and Ohio State Bar associations. Judge W0rthington's religious connection was with the Episcopal Church. His social contacts are suggested by his active membership in the Queen City Club, the University Club, the Business Men's Club, the Cincinnati Golf Club, the Cincinnati Country Club, the Commercial Club, and the Cincinnati Whist Club.

There could be no better illustration of Judge Worthington's place in the public confidence than the fact that, while deeply engrossed in private practice, he was approached by persons wh0, kn0wing his great abilities, s0ught to make him


a candidate by petition for delegate to the Ohio State Constitutional Convention in 1912, a body that would apparently be controlled by Radicals. Judge Worthington, always a public-spirited citizen, permitted his name to be used. The petition nominating him was signed by three thousand 0f his fellow Ohioans within forty-eight hours, and he was elected—the only candidate in Hamliton County who broke the Radical slate. How much the public owes to Judge Worthington for that service can never be estimated, but at his death Senator Simeon D. F'ess, who had known him in the Convention, said :

Judge William Worthington, of Cincinnati, was the clearest thinker I have ever known. His death recalls what remains to me the most unusual and outstanding event of the Constitutional Convention. The fight on the initiative and referendum amendment had been waged in committee for three weeks or more. The best legal minds had devoted themselves to preparing an amendment that would be error-proof. They did not care to risk the chance of having it amended on the floor. They wanted it adopted just as drafted. When they had the amendment in what seemed to them perfect form, they submitted it to the convention. Mr. Worthington took the floor in his quiet way, and pointed out that the amendment as prepared was impossible, absolutely unworkable, and that it would have to be changed in fourteen particulars. The errors he pointed out he made so apparent that every one of the fourteen changes suggested was approved, substantially without opposition. It was about as fine an example of clear thinking as I know of, and demonstrated the confidence of the Convention in Judge Worthington's judgment.

The ideals of Judge Worthingt0n, as shown in his long and able service at the Cincinnati Bar, were epitomized for the young lawyers upon whom he was conferring the degree of Bachelor of Laws at the Cincinnati Law School in the year 1913. Unwritten, and probably unrecorded save in the memory of those who heard him, his remarks upon that occasion have been recalled to the following effect :

It may be that to some of you the thought has occurred to-


night that your studies have been finished. Believe me, this is not so. Your studies have just begun. In the years you have spent in Law School, you have doubtless done much hard work. But in practice you will work harder still. For the Law is a jealous master. You will work all day and sometimes you will work all night. It will not be easy. But to those who persist, the law has its rewards. And if you will be faithful to it, you will live a useful and honorable life.

You become, as members of the legal profession, "servants in the law"—Servientes ad Legem or "sergeants at law"—as is the familiar title of the English courts. You are, by virtue of your rights to practice, officers of the Courts. As such, you owe them all due allegiance. You must not criticize judicial decisions as you go about the streets. For our whole civilization is built upon the respect that is shown for the administration of justice. Therefore, you may not publicly criticize the judgments of the Courts, whatever you may privately think.

However, as attorneys, you will in representing your client, in the presentation of his cause, in the assertion of his rights, act with courage. Indeed, a fearless bar is quite as essential to the successful administration of justice as is a capable judiciary. Remember that you are to inquire with all care into your client's cause. You must cross-examine him before your opponent has a chance to do so. If a man seeks a remedy, keep him out of court if you can. It is better for him so. Those of us who are older realize the more that the courts are a last resort.

Above all, never further an unjust cause. You may be called upon to defend suits wrongly brought; that is a very different thing. But never bring a claim against another unjustly, no matter what pressure may be brought to bear.

Judge Worthington's decisions upon the bench were incisive in thought and clear in expression. As was said of another, but which applies equally to Judge Worthington : "He would shorten a straight line to come at his object." Nevertheless, the contentions of a defeated litigant were disposed of convincingly. His published opinions impress one with their intellectual force, their grasp of details and their deep learn-


ing. Brilliant and versatile in their reasoning, they seem their own authority ; but discriminating citations of the opinions of high courts in this country and in England ground them in established rule as well as in logic.

Together with his work in the convention and upon the bench, his most conspicuous official services, those who knew him best relate incidents of unheralded devotion to the public good that characterize the private citizen who in crises, regardless of his own fortunes, is a benefactor and preserver of those who are unaware of their need or danger.

Judge William Worthington was married in Cincinnati, Ohio, on October J0, 1872, to Susan Ellmaker Carpenter, a daughter of Dr. Isaac Bates Carpenter, and granddaughter of Captain Joseph Carpenter, founder of the "Western Spy," the first newspaper published west of the Alleghenies. Mrs. Worthington died on February 5, 1922, and Judge Worthington did not long survive her. On New Year's Day, 1923, he died, mourned by an entire community that he had served so ably and for so long a time. He is survived by his daughters : Julia; Helen, a physician, practicing in London, England ; Louisa Skinner, the novelist ; and Elizabeth, the wife of Achilles Henry Pugh, Jr.

Many editorial appreciations of the life and labors of Judge Worthington appeared after his death, one of which—expressive of the universal esteem in which he was held by his fellows in all walks of life—said, in part :

Judge William Worthington, who died on New Year's Day (1923), was one of the most distinguished Cincinnatians of his generation. He showed his outstanding ability as a lawyer during a career of more than half a century of active practice. But he had more than legal ability, he had ideals and loyalty to principle which backed up his knowledge of the law and gave him a commanding position at the local bar.

Judge Worthington's professional life was controlled and actuated by the strictest of ethical codes, among whose many