and East of Main to the Third and west of Main to the Fourth. The electors were required to be white male inhabitants, freeholders or householders, who had resided therein one year. They were directed to meet on the first Monday of April of every year to elect trustees for each ward which should be three in number, until otherwise ordered by the Council. These trustees were directed to select from their number a mayor, recorder, clerk and treasurer, no two of whom should be selected from the same ward. These officers were to serve for two years. The remaining two trustees of each ward were directed to decide by lot as to which should serve for one year and which for two, and thereafter all trustees should serve for the term of two years. The Council was empowered to appoint a marshal, assessor, collector, town surveyor, clerks of the market and such officers as might be necessary. Other provisions gave the Council, which was constituted of the mayor, recorder and trustees, the right to hold real estate not to exceed five thousand dollars per annum in value. In addition to the rights given by the former act they were empowered to establish a night watch for the purpose of securing the town against fire, to purchase fire engines and to establish fire companies and also to appoint supervisors of the highway, to regulate the assize of bread and to establish wharves, but they were restricted from establishing any by-laws subjecting cattle, sheep or hogs not belonging to the inhabitants of the town to abuse or to be sold coming into the bounds of the corporation. The mayor was given the powers of a justice of the peace. Appeals could be taken from his decision to the Court of Common Pleas. The recorder was required to keep a record of the laws and ordinances and in the absence of the mayor to exercise his functions. The town marshal was to be the ministerial officer of the corporation with the powers of a constable. Imprisonment for the violation of by-laws or ordinances was forbidden except for non-payment of assessment and then it could not be continued longer than 24 hours if the person imprisoned should take the pauper oath. This act by its terms took effect on April 1, 1815.

The Council had no official place in which to assemble permanently, until April 19, 1815. From the date of the passage of the first ordinance, which passed March 5, 1802, was an ordinance for preventing swine from running at large in certain places, until 1815, the meetings were held in inns or private residences. Popular meeting places seem to have been the Columbian Inn, Yeatman's, McHenry's, Wingate's and the Green Tree.

The controversy with relation to the ownership of the town common has already been referred to. By the decree in chancery entered by the Supreme Court at the November term, 18o7, the use of the "Brick House" on the common or landing just south of the corner of Front and Main was reserved to Joel Williams until April, 1816. Mr. Henderson has pointed


out that although, in 1813 and 1814, meetings were held at the Columbian Inn, John Wingate's tavern and Stephen McFarland's tavern, at one dollar a night including fuel and candles, as early as April 4, 1814, the Council leased the "Brick House" to William C. Anderson for one year for $300. A year later Jonathan Pancoast and Francis Carr were appointed on a committee to examine and subsequently to repair the upper room in the Town House for use of a council chamber and on April 14, 1815, the first meeting of the Council was held in that room. Various entries in the minutes at later dates refer to the plastering of the council chamber, the building of a stairway on the exterior of the building and the purchase of andirons, etc., for the council house. It seems, therefore, that, except for short intervals while repairs were being made, the legislative part of the city government occupied the Town House on the Public Landing until it was ordered torn down in 1824, at which time it was sold at public auction to Peter Britt for $62. The council chamber was then removed to Francis Carr's brick building on the northwest corner of Third and Hammond streets. (Henderson's Cincinnati City Hall, pp. 5 and 6.)

According to the "Cincinnati Almanac," for 1839, the Council met during the years 1813 and 1814 at the Columbian Inn and during the next year and until April 14, 1817, at which time the Town House was occupied, at McHenry's.

The records of the Select Council are complete from the first meeting on March 5, 1802. There were recorded as present on this day: The recorder, Jacob Burnet ; the trustees—William Ramsey, David E. Wade, Charles Avery, John Reily, William Stanley, Samuel Dick and William Ruffin ; as well as the assessor, Joseph Prince ; the collector, Abraham Carey, and the town marshal, James Smith. The president, David Ziegler (spelled Zeigler in these records) was absent.

A provision for the market was made by ordinance of November 3, 1804, by which the market was directed to be held at the market house on every Wednesday and Saturday between six and ten A. M. from April 1st, to October 1st, between eight and twelve from October 1st to April 1st ; during these hours no meat, butter, eggs or vegetables could be sold out of the market house. The clerk of the market was directed to weigh and measure articles exposed for sale, to judge whether they were marketable or not and if not marketable to send them to the prisoners in the county jail. Stalls in the market were disposed of to the highest bidder for terms of six months.

The colored population seemed to be a source of constant annoyance and the first ordinance passed by Daniel Symmes as president and James Ewing, clerk, referred to them. It recited that many black and mulatto persons of idle lives and vicious habits were ordered to the town under pretext that they were free and thus imposed upon the public to the great


damage of the town and society in general and the injury of their masters in particular and required that all non-resident black or mulatto persons should have credentials in the shape of a written pass from their master or a certificate of freedom.

At the election held in 1805, the following officers were elected : James Findlay, president ; Aaron Goforth, recorder ; Ethan Stone, Nathaniel Reeder, Thomas Williams, Samuel Stitt, Griffin Yeatman, Nehemiah Hunt, and John Stall, trustees ; John Mahrad, assessor; Alexander King, marshal, and Thomas King, collector.

The first gambling ordinance, passed May I, 1807, had the singular title "An Ordinance which will put inn-keepers on their Guard." It recites that some of the inn-keepers had been suffering wrong persons, minors, apprentices and servants to carry on gambling in their dwellings and by furnishing spirituous liquors to an unreasonable excess and harboring them at unreasonable hours, which was regarded as "certainly very pernicious to the morals of our citizens, youths and servants." This ordinance forbade gambling within the dwellings of inn-keepers, or the furnishing of an unreasonable quantity of liquors, as well as any other kindred offense. No indication is given as to the quantity regarded as reasonable. Street commissioners were not provided for until March 9, 1809.

"The news of the battle of the 8th of January, 1815, at New Orleans, fought and won by Old Hickory, reached our village, and what a glorification our people had ! Some now present will remember the illumination, the grand procession that moved down Main Street with a bull manacled and appropriately decorated.

"Another month or more brought news of peace, made before the great battle of the 8th was fought; and then another grand illumination of our village. What a joyous time we boys had ! How we equipped ourselves with paper soldier-caps, with red belts and wooden swords, and marched under command of our brave captain as far as Western Row, now Central Avenue, where we reached the woods, and, for fear of Indians, returned to our mammas, reporting on the return march to old Major-General Gano, who, after putting us through a drill, gave each boy a fip to purchase ginger-bread, baked by a venerable member, formerly president of this association." ("Cincinnati Pioneer," No. III, p. 13.)

On February 24, 1815, after the consideration and passing of the ordinance regulating illumination, which appears among the ordinances as of date February 23, 1815, occurs the following entry : "Whereas information hath been received that preliminaries of Peace had been agreed upon between the United States of America and the Kingdom of Great Britain, therefore resolved by the Select Council of the town of Cincinnati that in commemoration of that joyous event a general illumination of the town be recommended to the citizens on Saturday evening, the 26th instant ;


lights to be extinguished at ten o'clock and that the president be authorized to cause the same to be proclaimed according to the ordinance in such case made and provided." The ordinance forbade illumination except by authority of the Select Council after notice by the town marshal.

On March 1, 1815, Thomas Carr made application to the Select Council for use of the fire engine on behalf of an organized fire company of which he was captain. His application was granted. Nathan Oliver and others asked that Water Street be opened to Western Row and Western Row from Front Street to the river, which petition was granted. At the same meeting the polling places for the first election to take place under the new charter were selected as follows : In the First Ward at the house of Samuel McHenry ; in the Second Ward at the courthouse ; in the Third Ward at the house of John Wingate ; in the Fourth Ward at the house of Nathaniel Edson. This being the last meeting of the Select Council, it adjourned sine die.

First Carpet West of Alleghanies —The senior Longworth used to relate how all the townspeople came to see the first carpet ever laid and used west of the great mountains. Deacon Wade, who wore a wool hat during the week and a fur hat on Sundays, rejoiced in an ingrain carpet, window curtains and a fine set of rush-seated chairs in the parlor. "A traveller from New York was standing at his door one afternoon gazing on the beautiful sunset that filled the sky with purple, crimson and gold, and upon the beautiful river flowing by amid the hills clothed with the native forest in its fullest green. Turning to the Deacon he broke forth in a rhapsody of admiration on the grandeur of the view before him and said that at New York City we have no views to compare with this. 'Are you fond of beautiful parlors and furniture,' said the Deacon, and flung open the front door of his parlor and pointing to his red and yellow carpet, bright curtains and painted chairs, he said, 'Have you parlors in your city superior to this ?' " Mr. Longworth boarded with Deacon Wade at that time and paid the high board of two dollars a week. At that time he tells us that mutton sold in the market for ten cents a hind quarter and the butchers after ten o'clock cut off the tallow and threw the quarters at each other's heads. Corn was twelve cents a bushel.

Early Cincinnati Market Prices —The subjoined current prices were in operation in the month of May, 1804: Bacon per cwt., $18.75 ; beeswax per pound, 18 cents ; coffee, 5o cents ; cotton (clean), 15 cents ; corn per bushel, 75 cents ; flour per bbl., $10; gin per gallon, 75 cents ; iron per cwt. $10; lime per bushel, 75 cents ; pork per bbl., $14; potatoes per bushel, 5o cents ; rum per gallon, $2 ; sugar per cwt. $16 ; salt per bbl., $7; whiskey per gallon, $1.50.

In what was known as the "Journal of Travels in the U. S.," one page


devoted to Cincinnati, July, 1817, gives the following market quotations : Beef per pound, 6 1/4; pork, 6 1/4 cents ; mutton, 5 cents ; veal, 6 1/4 cents ; hams, 9 cents ; fresh venison, 2 cents ; butter, 1872 cents ; cheese, 12 1/2 cents ; fine wheat flour per cwt., $3 ; corn meal, 50 cents a bushel ; salt, $1 per bushel ; potatoes, 31 cents a bushel ; coals, 12 1/2 cents a bushel ; venison hams, 37 1/2 each ; turkeys and geese, 80 cents a pair ; pullets, $1 per dozen ; eggs, 9 cents a dozen ; milk, 25 cents a gallon ; honey, 50 cents a gallon ; whiskey, 50 cents a gallon ; peach brandy, $1 a gallon ; spruce beer, porter and mead, 12 1/2 cents a quart.

The same author wrote at about the same date that : "A cord of wood, $2.50. Preserved, or dried fruit, as apples, peaches, etc., about $1 per bushel. Vegetables dear. French and port wine, sugar, tea and coffee, dearer than in England. Woolen, cotton and European goods very dear. Cherries, raspberries, strawberries, peaches and apples, very reasonable. River fish of various sorts, plentiful and cheap. The general price of a barrel of flour (196 pounds) is $3.50 or $4; it has never been dearer than when we were here."

The German People—In an historical account given in a history of Cincinnati and Hamilton County, published in 1894, the German population of that date were discoursed upon as follows :

The Germans of Cincinnati early became identified with the manufactures, and down to the present time they have ranked among the highest engaged in fostering the great industries of the city. In the chapter on manufactures it is shown that their investments in the production of beer alone amount to many millions of dollars, and that some of their manufacturing plants rank among the largest and most costly in the United States. They are also engaged in other large industries, notably the manufacture of organs, pianos and other musical instruments. The manufacture of organs was commenced as early as 1831, when a factory was established by Mathias Schwab, from which have gone forth great numbers of excellent instruments. This plant is the oldest of its kind in this country, and it is still in existence.

About 1836 the first attempt to use machinery extensively in the fabrication of furniture was made by Friedrich Rammelsberg, a Hanoverian, by the introduction of Woodworth's planing machines. Some years later others became interested with Rammelsberg. His practical knowledge thus united to a moderate capital soon began to realize important results. Not only does the gigantic building which is still in existence under the name of the Mitchell Furniture Factory, employing more than 1,500 workmen—the largest furniture factory in the world—owe its existence to him, but the general successful rise of the furniture trade in Cincinnati, and in the West, is due to him. This active, progressive, and pioneer manufacturer died in 1863.


The wonderful success attained by Germans in the brewing business, together with the millions of dollars they have invested in this productive industry, will be found very fully described in the chapter on manufactures. In the founding of this line of business their achievements have been greater, almost, than those of their countrymen in any other American city, and when the amount of money invested and the products are considered, one is amazed at what has been accomplished. No class of people have contributed more in brains, sinews, labor and money, toward building up Cincinnati, and making it what it is today, than the Germans. And no class is entitled to greater credit. They are modest and retiring in their disposition, not given to brag or bluster, and make no boisterous claims of what they have accomplished, but are content to plod along in the paths of industry, and let their work tell the stranger what they have accomplished. To write the history of this German element of fully one hundred thousand people, from the beginning of Cincinnati up to the present time, would require a book as large as this volume. All we can do, therefore, is to point to a few of the early settlers, as has been done, and call attention to the fact that the illustrious example which they have set is worthy of emulation by the coming generations, because it demonstrates the fact that the humblest, most obscure and helpless, if they cultivate industry and economy, find it possible to rise to eminence and wealth, obtain political preference, and command the respect of their fellowmen.

Moravian Missionary —Rev. John Heckewelder, the Moravian missionary, who visited Cincinnati in 1792, thus describes it : "The military wish to govern, but the city insists on its rights under the Constitution, and, in consequence, frequent quarrels ensue." In corroboration of the story of the Gallipolis merchant, Le Ture, he says : "The city is overrun with merchants and overstocked with goods. More than thirty magazines, or warehouses, can be counted, so that one injures the price of the other. It is a town teeming with idlers, and according to the report of respectable persons, they are a people resembling those of Sodom. Yet they hope that this place, as well as the others on the north bank of the Ohio. will, perhaps, in time, or soon, be purged of this wicked class, for experience teaches that as soon as they are made subject to the law they leave for Kentucky, which lies just across the Ohio, and if they are stopped there they push on to the extreme boundary along the Clinch or Cumberland River, or even down as far as New Orleans."

Mr. Heckewelder found that three hundred and fifty-four lots had been purchased and used for building purposes, and that four acres outside of the town went with every town lot. The price of lots has risen from $4 and $8 to $30 and $60 each, and more than two hundred houses had been built, many of them two stories high and painted red. They rented for from $50 to $6o a year. Of Fort Washington he says its roof and pali-


sades on the front were painted red. He put the population at nine hundred, exclusive of two hundred soldiers.

The Cincinnati Directory of 1819, in speaking of this year, 1792, said : "Between forty and fifty emigrants came to Cincinnati this year (i. e., 1792). Several cabins, three or four houses, and a Presbyterian church were erected. The church stood near the site of the present brick church on Main Street, and was first occupied by the congregation of the Rev. James Kemper. It has since been removed into Vine Street, and is now (in 1819) owned and occupied by the Rev. William Burke." It adds that in 1792 "the citizens were compelled by law to take their loaded firearms with them when they attended church." It says furthermore : "The first school was established this year, consisting of about thirty scholars."

In 1805, according to a recognized authority, there were in Cincinnati fifty-three log cabins, one hundred and nine frame, six brick, and four stone houses. The professional men, mechanics, and tradesmen were : Nine attorneys, eight physicians, two printers, one book-binder, twenty-four merchants and grocers, fifteen joiners and cabinet-makers, eight blacksmiths, two coppersmiths, four hatters, two tinners, three tanners, seven boot and shoemakers, five saddlers, three silversmiths, seven tailors, five bakers, two brewers, three tobacconists, and twelve bricklayers.

Symmes' Address —Symmes, in a published address, issued in 1787, to his New Jersey neighbors, in which he tries to get up an interest in the Miami Purchase, says : "This land bordering on the Ohio is supposed to be equal to any part of the Federal territory in quality of soil and excellence of climate. It lies in latitude about thirty-eight degrees north, where the winters are moderate, and there are no extreme heats in summer. Its situation is such as to command the navigation of several fine rivers. Boats are frequently passing this land as they ply up and down the Ohio. There are no mountains in the tract, and, excepting a few small hills, the country is generally level and free from stones on the surface, but there are plenty of stone-quarries for building. It is said to be well watered with springs and rivulets, and several fine mill streams fall into the two Miamis Salt may be had in any quantity, by water, within a moderate distance, at the salt-works on the Licking River, which empties itself from the Kentucky side into the Ohio, between the two Miami Rivers. Provisions for the first emigrants may be had very cheap and good, by water, from the Pittsburgh, Wheeling, and Redstone settlements, or from the district of Kentucky which lies opposite this purchase, on the southeast side of the Ohio. The distance from Fort Pitt (Pittsburgh) is about five hundred miles down a gentle river, navigable for boats of one hundred tons to the Mississippi River, and down the Mississippi to the sea."


Earliest Steam Railroad in Cincinnati —The first railroad chartered was the Little Miami. This was in 1836, and the same year the Charleston and South Carolina received its charter, though its projectors never lived to see their ambition realized. The fact is an indication of the early interest Cincinnati business men entertained in affairs that are Southern. The Covington and Lexington and the Cincinnati and Indianapolis roads were the next to receive their charters. About this time the artificial channels of commerce were a canal up the Great Miami Valley completed to Piqua, the Whitewater Canal nearly finished, and not a railroad leading out of the city, though the Little Miami was approaching completion. A macadam road to Harrison, one to Goshen, one to Dayton by way of Lebanon and one to Batavia, were all that were then completed, though many others were nearly finished. The macadam road was at that date a new discovery, having been in use but a few years. In time and cost of travel, New York and Boston were about as distant as London, England, is at the present day.

From the 1819 Directory —The first newspaper printed in Cincinnati was the "Centinel of the Northwest Territory," by William Maxwell, the second postmaster of the settlement. The first number was issued in November, 1793. The paper was sold to Edward Freeman in 1796, and its name changed to "Freeman's Journal." It was moved to Chillicothe, where its name was changed to the "Chillicothe Gazette," under which title it is still published. The first marriage ceremony in Cincinnati was in 1790, by 'Squire William McMillan. The contracting parties were Daniel Shoemaker and Elsie Ross, Darius C. Orcutt and Sally McHenry. The question as to who was the first white child born in Cincinnati is in dispute. Some claim the distinction for William Moody, born March 17, 1790; others, among them Dr. Drake, for David Cummins, after whom the village of Cumminsville is named.

Cincinnati was the seat of government for the Northwest Territory from 1790 until 18431, in December of which year the Territorial Legislature passed an act for its removal to Chillicothe. The location of the principal military post of the territory, Fort Washington, together with the advantage of being the seat of government for eleven years, gave Cincinnati a very fair start.

In 1801 steps were taken by the citizens looking toward the incorporation of the village. An act was procured from the Legislature by which Cincinnati and Detroit were allowed to incorporate, being the two first municipalities in the Northwest Territory. Temporary officers were provided for Cincinnati in the act, and in 1802 the following village officers were elected : Maj. David Ziegler, president ; William Ramsey, Charles Avery, David E. Wade, John Reily, William Stanley, Samuel Dick and William Ruffin, trustees ; Jacob Burnet, recorder ; Joseph Prince, assessor.


Horace Greeley on Cincinnati in 1850 —In 1850 Horace Greeley visited Cincinnati and wrote :

"It requires no keenness of observation to perceive that Cincinnati is destined to become the focus and mart for the grandest circle of manufacturing thrift on this continent. Her delightful climate, her unequaled and ever-increasing facilities for cheap and rapid commercial intercourse with all parts of the country and the world, her enterprising and energetic population, her own elastic and exulting youth are all elements which insure her quick and electric progress to giant greatness. I doubt if there is another spot on earth where food, fuel, cotton, timber, iron can all be concentrated so cheaply—that is, at so moderate a cost of human labor in producing and bringing them together—as here. Such fatness of soil; such wealth of mineral treasure—coal, iron, salt, and the finest clays for all purposes of use—and all cropping out from the steep, facile banks of placid, though not sluggish, navigable rivers. How many Californias could equal, in permanent worth, this Valley of the Ohio?"

Was his stereotyped advice, "Go West, young man," based on these observations ? In this tribute he only recognized what Cincinnati people had recognized years before, and still recognize. As a manufacturing center there is no more happily located place on the round globe. In 1840 the manufacturers of Cincinnati employed about 11,000 workmen. This number grew in 186o to 30,000, in 1872 to 58,500, in 1883 to 90,500, and in 1894 the number was swelled to more than ioo,000. This growth has been steady until, in the language of a Cincinnati statistician, the city is now the largest pig-iron market in America.

In 1895 it had : The second largest boot and shoe market ; the second largest clothing and hosiery market ; Cincinnati, Covington and Newport paid one-sixth of the entire internal revenue of the government ; she had the largest lithographic industries of any city on earth ; the largest veneer mill in America ; the third largest hardwood lumber market ; the largest bar, office, and bank fixtures market ; the largest schoolbook publishing house in America ; the largest regalia and lodge costuming house in the world; the largest tobacco market on the continent ; more freight rode on the Ohio than on any other river of equal length in the world ; no other city in the world owned an entire railway ; made more iron safes than any city of the world, and all the rest of the United States together.

Pen Picture of Cincinnati Fifty Years Ago —Local historian, D. J. Kenny, wrote of the city in 1874 as follows :

The city owns property, real and personal, to the amount of over $168,000,000, and its whole debt is $17,000,000, of which $10,000,000, for the Southern Railroad, is to be only temporary. While the physical and commercial growth of Cincinnati has been so rapid and great, it has been accompanied by all the means and appliances of social, religious, and


intellectual life found in our American cities. One hundred and thirty-five churches of all Christian denominations afford full opportunity for religious worship and culture. For education, elementary and professional, there are, one university, one law school, six theological schools, six medical schools, three commercial seminaries, four colleges, three female colleges, one farmers' college, and many seminaries for both sexes, besides the great system of public schools, which are equal to any city in the country. The social literary elements of Cincinnati are such as are generally found in large cities—lectures, libraries, periodicals, and the society of a large number of educated and active-minded persons. The libraries are numerous and well stocked with tens of thousands of volumes, and are free, or nearly so, to the citizens.

Cincinnati is, in general, well built, and is the compactest city in the United States. It is, however, undergoing a transformation which will probably result in rendering it a beautiful and magnificent city. After a decade of quiet observation, during which it surveyed its own progress, as it were, and which earned for it the sobriquet of "Conservative Cincinnati" and "the solid city," it is just now, in 1875, again marching forth with the same wonderful strides that marked its early career. Improvement on improvement crowds the way, and every street and square is being more and more beautified and embellished. The new building material, besides brick, used in the structures which supplant the old ones, is a gray sandstone of even hue, and without glare or gloom, presenting a neat and pleasant aspect. These new structures are rapidly rising. The city is gradually ascending, by the means of inclined planes, operated by steam power, the hills from whose tops handsome villas already look down on the bright panorama below. Soon the amphitheatre on the plain will be filled almost exclusively with business, the hills and the country far behind them filled with splendid edifices, and the whole be more than ever most properly called by its early name, the Queen City of the West.



The Charter of 1819 —Cincinnati's life as a "City" began with its first charter in 1819 when, by an act of the General Assembly, it was vested with the power of a Council, composed of president, recorder and nine trustees. The council was empowered to make such ordinances and laws as they deemed proper for the safety, cleanliness, convenience and good government of the city and to impose and collect reasonable fines for breaches of the ordinances. Especially were they empowered to secure the city against injuries from fire, to establish a night watch, to purchase fire engines, establish fire companies, keep the streets and commons open and in repair and free from nuisances. The council also had power to establish public markets, to fix the price of bread, to establish wharves, to regulate the landing of rafts and other water craft, and to prevent any destruction from animals running at large. They were also given the right to license taverns and other public houses ; to levy taxes on dogs and hogs. The tax on real property was limited to one per cent of its value, save in the matter of street improvements, which might be higher by a vote of the people.

The judicial power was vested in a city court which, consisting of the mayor and three aldermen, was appointed by the council from among the citizens. This court held sessions once in every two months and had original jurisdiction over all crimes and misdemeanors committed within the city, the punishment of which did not involve confinement in the penitentiary, as well as appellate jurisdiction from the decisions of the mayor (who was ex-officio a justice of the peace) and concurrent jurisdiction with the court of common pleas in all civil causes where the defendant resided within the corporation and the title to real property was not involved.

The marshal was the ministerial officer of the court, which also was empowered to appoint a clerk and prosecutor. The mayor was forbidden from exercising any legislative functions and the recorder from exercising any judicial functions. In other respects the act, with proper substitutions, repeated the terms of the act of 1815. It provided for the same boundaries as those of the town and gave to the settlement the name of "The City of Cincinnati."

This act was passed February 5, 1819, and by virtue of a curative act passed three days later, took effect on March 1, of the same year. (17 0. L. L. 175-202.)

This, the original charter of the city, continued in force until March 1, 1827. During that time the city had but one mayor, Isaac G. Burnet.


The first aldermen were David E. Wade, William Burke and Francis Carr, and the City Council consisted of Samuel W. Davies, Jacob Wheeler and David Wade from the First Ward ; Oliver Lovell, John Tuttle and Richard L. Coleman from the Second Ward ; John Armstrong, Nicholas Long-worth and Jesse Hunt from the Third Ward, and Peter A. Sprigman, William Oliver and Isaac Hough from the Fourth Ward. Of these, Hunt was president ; Oliver, recorder; Wheeler, treasurer and Coleman, clerk.

The successive presiding officers of the Council during this time were : Jesse Hunt (1819-20), William Oliver (1821), Samuel Perry (1822-23), Calvin Fletcher (1824-25), and Lewis Howell (1826-28). The council met in the brick Town House on the common until 1824, at which time quarters were rented in Francis Carr's brick building at the northwest corner of Third and Hammond streets. Here were the city offices, including the mayor's office, until 1828. (Henderson's Council, p. 33; City Hall, p. 6.) Previous to that time the mayor's office had been at Mayor Burnet's private office on Water Street between Walnut and Vine, although he also, as indicated by the directory of 1819, had an office in the City Hall.

The First City Mayor —The mayor, Isaac G. Burnet, a son of Dr. William Burnet and brother of Jacob Burnet, was born in New Jersey, July 7, 1784. He moved to Cincinnati about the year 1804 where he studied law with his brother. In 1807 he married the daughter of Capt. George Gordon and moved to Dayton where for a time he practiced law. Nine years later he returned to Cincinnati and entered into partnership with Nicholas Longworth. He for a time edited "Liberty Hall," retiring at the end of 1822. In 1819 he was elected the first mayor of the city of Cincinnati and reelected until the spring of 1831, when he declined to be a candidate. During a part of his term, in addition to the ordinary executive duties, he, with certain aldermen, constituted the City Court and he was obliged to act in his judicial capacity in most of the minor litigations of the community. In 1833 he was appointed clerk of the Supreme Court of Hamilton County and held this office until the adoption of the constitution in 1851. He died March 1, 1856.

Mayor Burnet was for many years a cripple as a result of which he was obliged to use crutches. Although physically weak, he was possessed of great force of character, and did not hesitate to display the firmness required by the duties of his position. It was his presence of mind and great courage that saved the city from serious riots on more than one occasion.

By an act passed February 25, 1820 (18 0. L. L. 96), it was made unlawful for the Council to emit or authorize any notes or bills of credit and the members were made personally responsible for any notes so issued. Certain alterations were made in the jurisdiction of the City Court.


Another act providing for the election of members of the City Council and the appointment of treasurer and clerk and prescribing the duties of the marshal in certain cases providing for the selection of grand and petit jurors was passed January 29, 1821. (19 0. L. 1o6.)

An act of December 27, 1824 (23 0. L. L. 14), divided the city and township into four election districts corresponding to the four wards and made provision for the holding of elections.

By an act of January 31, 1826, all previous acts of incorporation were repealed and a new scheme of government was devised to be submitted to the voters on the 1st of March of that year. (24 0. L. 25.) The voters however, rejected the charter, whereupon it was passed by the Legislature of the following year and as such constituted the second charter of the city.

The writer of the "Americans As They Are," who was in Cincinnati in 1827, describes the voting on a matter of public interest : "During my stay, on the twenty-fifth of October, a, question of some importance for the inhabitants of Cincinnati was to be decided. It was concerning a stricter police and its necessary regulations. The City Council, with the wealthier class of inhabitants, had been for some time, previous to the decision, engaged in preparing and gaining over the multitude. I went to the Court House in company with Mr. Brama, a wholesale merchant, and several gentlemen, to hear the speeches delivered on both sides, and the result of the motion. It was four o'clock when we arrived, and about 600 persons were assembled in and outside of the Court House. The noise, however, was such that it was impossible to hear more than detached periods. At eight o'clock, when almost dark, they had gone through the business, and the poll was about to commence. The party for abridging public liberty was ordered to go out on the left—those who insisted on the preservation of the present order of things, were to draw off to the right. On arriving before the court house, they ranged themselves into two separate ranks, each of which was counted by the presiding judge. There was a majority of seventy-two votes in favor of the party which upheld the present system, and the question was therefore decided in favor of popular liberty. I found here, as well as everywhere else, that the freedom of a community is nowhere more exposed to encroachments than in large towns, where dissipation and occupations of every kind are likely to engross the attention of the people, who leave the magistrates to do what they please. The City Council were on the point of obtaining the majority, had it not been for the farmers whom the market-day had drawn to town. These, of course, did not fail to open the eyes of the honest burghers, and the question was accordingly negatived."

The Second Charter-1827 —January 26, 1827, the second act incorporating the city of Cincinnati as a city was passed, repealing all other acts.


By this the limits of the corporation were as follows : Beginning on the Ohio River, at the east corner of fractional section No. 12, and running west with the township line of Cincinnati, to Mill Creek, thence down said creek with its meanderings to the Ohio River, thence eastwardly up said river with the southern boundary of the State of Ohio to the place of beginning.

Provision was made for the election of a city marshal, treasurer and three city aldermen for terms of two years, and for the establishment of the City Court, having original concurrent jurisdiction with the Court of Common Pleas of crimes, misdemeanors and offenses, the punishment of which was not capital punishment in the penitentiary when committed within the city, and of civil cases where both parties were residents of the city, and appellate jurisdiction of all judgments of the mayor. This court was composed of the mayor and the three aldermen, and was empowered to appoint its own clerk and the public prosecutor for the city.

The mayor was to be elected biennially by the people. In addition to the ordinary executive duties of such an officer in his judicial capacity it had exclusive original jurisdiction of violations of the ordinances and such other jurisdiction as was given to justices of the peace ; the right of appeal to the Court of Common Pleas, and to the City Court was of course reserved. The trustees were to be elected three from each ward and must have been residents of the city three years and free-holders or householders for one year. They constituted the City Council and selected from their number a president and a recorder. They were given the control and full custody of the city property with the power to purchase and sell, except in the case of the Public Landing, which could not be sold without a vote of the majority of the citizens. They were given authority to pass ordinances to secure the city against fire, thieves, robbery, burglars and persons violating the public peace, and also to establish a board of health, a city watch under the general superintendence of the city marshal, to establish fire companies and to regulate the erection of wooden buildings, to license taverns, ale houses and the like, to abate nuisances and appropriate lands for streets, alleys, market places, etc., and to appoint supervisors of the highways and regulate cattle running at large, license public shows, auctions and vehicles and inspect articles of produce or manufacture. The limit of the tax levy in any one year was one-fifth of one per-cent of the aggregate value of the taxable property of the city. Each and every white male inhabitant above the age of 21 years having the qualification of an elector for members of the General Assembly, who had resided in the city for one year prior to the election, was entitled to vote under this act. This was the first act which gave manhood suffrage to the people without restriction as to property qualifications. There was no referendum clause in this charter and the act took effect by the terms named on March 1, 1827.



Under the provision of this charter, Isaac G. Burnet was again elected mayor and served four years (two terms) until Elisha Hotchkiss, who had been repeatedly a candidate for the office of mayor, finally succeeded in attaining to the position in the election of 1831. Mr. Hotchkiss was an Englishman by birth and a lawyer by profession and was regarded as a genial kind-hearted man of fine personal appearance. He served but one term, being succeeded in 1833 by the well-known citizen Samuel W. Davies, whose service lasted ten years. In the city's first quarter century there were but three mayors.

Davies, it will be remembered, was the last president of the Council under the charter of 1802. The presiding officers of the Council up to the end of Cincinnati's first half century were Daniel Stone, who succeeded Lewis Howell in 1829, succeeded in turn by E. S. Haines (1831), Nathaniel G. Pendleton (1832-33), E. S. Haines (1834-35), and George W. Neff (1836-38).

On June 18, 1828, the city offices, with the exception of those of the mayor and marshal, were moved from Carr's Building to a new City Building erected on the north side of Fourth Street between Main and Walnut, on a lot owned by the First Presbyterian Society. Here they remained for eighteen years. The office of the mayor remained in Carr's Building for more than ten years longer.

In accordance with the authority given by the charter, the Council on March 7, 1827, passed an ordinance dividing the Second Ward by an east and west line beginning at Main Street and running through Sixth Street westwardly to the corporation line. The part north of Sixth Street and west of Main Street became the Fifth Ward and the part of the old Second Ward south of Sixth Street remained the Second Ward. Two weeks later, on March 21, 1827, an alteration was made in the boundaries of the First and Third wards by which that part of the First Ward lying south of Symmes Street and of the range of hills east of Deer Creek bridge was attached to the Third Ward. As a result, the east and west dividing line between the First and Third wards began on Main Street at the intersection of Third and ran eastwardly along the center of Third to Ludlow Street, thence eastwardly along the center of Symmes Street to High Street and along the center of High Street eastwardly to a point on the street bearing north 16 degrees east from the center of the cupola of David Kilgour's house near the reservoir and by said line north 19 degrees east to the northern boundary of the city. The part north of this line composed the First Ward, and that south, the Third. What would have happened if David Kilgour's cupola had been destroyed can only be left to conjecture ; fortunately no such disaster happened during the time this cupola was called upon to serve this important purpose. This division of wards continued until 1839.

On February 12, 1829, was passed another act (27 0. L. 33), which


authorized the City Council to provide for the support of the common schools and for such purpose to divide the city into ten school districts (two for each ward), to purchase suitable lots and erect a school house in each district and for that purpose to levy a tax of one mill on a dollar. Black or mulatto persons were not permitted to attend these schools but all taxes assessed on their property were expended alone for the education of black and mulattoes. The voters were directed to elect from each ward a trustee and visitor of the common schools who were to have general superintendence of the common schools of the city and who were in turn to select six persons as examiners and inspectors who should examine and inspect the schools. Other provisions of the act abolished the City Court and transferred its business to the Court of Common Pleas. (See Act of January 3, 1828.)

The City Charter of 1834 —On March 1, 1834, was passed "an act to incorporate and establish the city of Cincinnati, and for revising and repealing all laws and parts of laws heretofore enacted on that subject." The government was vested in a mayor, and a board of trustees consisting of three members of each ward to be denominated as the City Council. The mayor was to be elected by the people every two years and trustees every three years, the latter from the freeholders or householders. The Council was given the usual powers with very much the same limitations as those contained in former acts. One limitation, however, provided that no person confined at hard labor in the city prison should be fed on bread and water only, nor fined and kept on bread and water only, nor should any person be punished by confinement to hard labor or kept on bread and water only, for any offense not evil in itself. Other officers provided for were marshal and treasurer. The election of constables for Cincinnati township, in the county of Hamilton, was abandoned as the township and city were coextensive and the selection of these officers and justices of the peace was left to be provided for by the City Council. The act also incorporated the school law passed a few years before. The mayor in his judicial capacity had exclusive original' jurisdiction in cases of violations of ordinances and the criminal jurisdiction of a justice of the peace. The Council selected from their own body a president and a recorder, and a city clerk was also provided for.

This act, superseding as it did, the charter of 1827, although amended frequently, remained the fundamental law of the city, until the adoption of the new State constitution in 1851.

By an act passed March 19, 1838, provision was made for the addition of a tract north of Liberty Street to the corporate limits of the city. This tract had the following legalized limits : "Beginning at Mill Creek where the section line crosses the same about one mile north of the present north boundary line of the city of Cincinnati ; running thence east parallel with the said north boundary line of Cincinnati to the west boundary


line of Fulton township in said county ; thence southwardly along said west boundary line of Fulton township to the south boundary line of Cincinnati to Mill Creek with its meanderings to the place of beginning." This constituted the Eighth Ward of the city. The annexation was passed by a vote of both the city and the district annexed.

The City Court —This was made up of the mayor and three aldermen and was presided over by some distinguished men. Isaac G. Burnet was mayor during the life of the court. The first three aldermen were David E. Wade, William Burke and Francis Carr, all men of rare and excellent ability.

The Cincinnati Public Parks —As late as 1904 this city only owned six public parks, of which Garfield Park was the oldest. It contains one acre and was given originally by John H. Piatt and Benjamin Piatt for market purposes. It was too far out and was never much used for market uses, but in 1843 it became a park, but not formally dedicated for a park until 1868 Its chief attractions at this day are the splendid statues of President James A. Garfield and that of President William Henry Harrison (by Louis T. Robisso). It has been graded nicely and paved in cement, with a double row of seats running its entire length. It is really the widening of a portion of Eighth Street and extends from Elm to Vine streets.

Lincoln Park is a ten acre tract on the west side of Freeman, between Kenner and Hopkins. It was purchased from the township in 1829 by J. D. and Sarah Bella Garrard for $2,000. Later it was exchanged for other lots on Twelfth and Elm streets, owned by the city. The ground on Elm Street was used for the Cincinnati Orphan Asylum. It was again bought by the city in 1859 for $150,000 and it was owned by the city and used for exposition purposes until 1876, when it was turned over to the Music Hall Association and Music Hall erected on its site. The building on the Lincoln Park property, which had been used as an asylum, was retained as a pest house, until 1857, when the people near it rebelled and caused it to be removed, after which the spot became the public park known as Lincoln.

Washington Park is on the site of the old burying grounds. The Presbyterian cemetery was removed from Fourth Street, near the old First Church, and extended along Twelfth between Race and Elm streets. It was finally bought by the city in 1858 for $85,000. The Episcopal burying ground, extending up towards Fourteenth, between Race and Elm, was purchased about the same date for $38,000. In 1863 the land of the Protestant German congregation on Elm Street, was bought for $15,050. These several tracts amount to five and three-fourths acres and cost the city $138,050. Here one sees the statues of Civil War generals, Hooker and Robert L. McCook.


In 1866 Louis H. Hopkins presented one acre on Mt. Auburn for a park. It is still known as Hopkins Park.

The finest parks the city possesses, in many ways, are Burnet Woods and Eden Park, both of rare natural topography, and they have been adorned by the landscape gardener into real beauty spots. Eden Park now has two hundred and fourteen and a fraction acres, the same having been acquired by the city from various individuals. The first purchase was back in 1859 from J. S. G. Burt, for $14,000. In 1869 the principal tracts were leased from Nicholas Longworth and others at $45,000 per year. In 1880-81 this land was bought outright by the city. The old property had been called the "Garden of Eden," so that name was given to the park. The last purchase of property was in 1893. The total amount paid for all the park up to 1912 had cost the city $1,693,427.81. The park contains the city's greenhouses, the reservoir, the band stand and the Museum and Art Academy.

Burnet Woods park contains one hundred and sixty-three acres. It was leased in 1872, purchased in 1881, costing $746,855. Burnet Woods contains the buildings of the Cincinnati University, and the band-stand. The man-made improvements are not extensive in this park but nature has performed her work well, having its charming dells, its wonderfully handsome native forest trees, etc. For a full century Cincinnati had been making history, but not park history, while all other cities in the country had been making such provisions for present and future. Finally, in 1894, the Ohio Legislature, urged on by a few citizens, passed a law authorizing the issuing of city bonds amounting to some millions of dollars for park purposes. The issue was put before the voters, but defeated. In 1900 the question of greater parks was brought to the people and voted down. After the Longworth Act became effective, the city council authorized the issue of $500,000 in bonds, and later other issues were made. Up to 1904 the bonds which had been issued during 1902-1904, aggregated $75,000. This sum went toward improving, or rather repairing the old park improvements, etc. In 1904 the parks were Garfield, Hopkins, Washington, Lincoln, Burnet Woods, and Eden Park. All told, these parks contained three hundred and ninety-five acres. Julius Fleischmann should ever be credited with doing more than anyone else toward furnishing the city an incentive for making the present park system.

The board of public service, in 1906, appointed a commission to draw plans for the city and appropriated $15,000 to cover such expenses. The work of creating such a plan was left to George E. Kessler, a park architect and landscape expert who laid out the World's Fair grounds at St. Louis, as well as the parks in Kansas City. The above named commission submitted the plans worked out by Mr. Kessler, to the council and to the board of public service. The report of the commission was approved by the two bodies. Later there was organized a Greater


Park League for the purpose of educating the people up to the modern public park idea. This league did much, including getting through the legislature a bill authorizing the establishment of a park commission, and the people backed its design. The mayor then appointed the commission which commenced its work in 1908. It consists of three members who serve without pay for a term of three years, one member being chosen each year. They have control of all the city parks, past, present, and to be ; they expend the money appropriated by the council. It required two years to secure a board of park commissioners, and two years more to secure the $1,000,000 bond issue.

In December, 19o8, after the first board organized, they found themselves the masters of six parks, two play-grounds, and nineteen pieces of unimproved park property. The following will show the tracts added to the old original six parks of Cincinnati, together with the acreage and





Burnet and Reading Road.

Vine and Hilister

East End

Auburn Place

McKinley Park




Owl's Nest

Wilson Common

Woodward Park

Hunt Street Athletic Grounds

Madison Park


Gilbert Ave. Ext. of Eden

Sinton Park

Hubbard Tract






















































During the years 1908-09 the following tracts have been added to the public parks of Cincinnati : Mt. Echo Park, 1908-09, 46.28 acres, cost $61,170; Hanna Playground, one acre, a gift ; Nursery, 23.29; Westwood Commons, 24 acres ; Rochelle and Falke, .25 acres ; Young and Ringgold, 2 acres ; cost about $25,000; Wulsin Tract .95, a gift ; Wellington Place .37, a gift ; Warsaw and Woodlawn, 1.56; Mayfield and Carson 2.05 ; St. Clair and Jefferson .5o; Hyde Park Fountain .25; Burnet and Reading 7 acres. This new parking aggregates about 212 acres, which added to the old, means a little in excess of 600 acres.

The latest park extension is the important gift of L. A. Ault, of what may be called the Red Bank Park, but someday will probably be called Ault Park. This contains one hundred and fifty acres and was a dozen years ago valued at $100,000. Cincinnati accepted it in July, 1911, conditioned that a road be always kept open into it and that it should ever remain a public park. Of the handsome natural timber tracts about the city, none can compare to this for a beautiful landscape.


Among improvements in Sinton Park may be named "Sinton Shelter," a commodious building erected by Mrs. Charles P. Taft, at a cost of $10,000. It easily accommodates 1,800 people daily, and is provided with reading rooms and baths.

Cincinnati House of Refuge —This institution was opened October 8, 1850, is situated four miles northwest from the Cincinnati postoffice, on the east side of Colerain. Its grounds include almost ten acres, one-half of which is enclosed by a stone wall. The original structure was of rough blue limestone, trimmed with white Dayton stone. It, at first, contained 112 sleeping rooms for boys, 72 single sleeping rooms for girls, with plunge bath and shower bath, dressing rooms, sewing rooms, school rooms, laboratories, hospital and offices. There was also a kindergarten ward, one for the girls and one for the boys. Also training school, printing offices, power-house, laundry, etc. The building accommodates 450 inmates and was heated by steam and later lighted by electricity.

While others wrought faithfully and well in the establishing of this humane institution, no one did more than Mr. and Mrs. Alphonso Taft and their co-worker, Mrs. Bullock, to bring about the good which has, with the passing of the years, come by reason of the House of Refuge. In the address delivered by Judge Taft, October 7, 1850, when the institution was opened to the public, he outlined the aims and objects of the home, and these words and sentiments cannot be put to better use than to here quote in the annals of the city, to be read by oncoming generations. The address is only given in part in this connection, but sufficient to show the ground the speaker desired to cover. Mr. Taft said :

"Our object, in the establishment of this institution, is to follow the youth who has broken away from the usual restraints of society and, instead of leaving him to an unrestrained course of crime, or consigning him to the company of those who are degraded beyond hope of reform, to constrain him to forsake his depraved habits, and be taught that which is useful and good. Of such are they who are to find here a school in this House of Refuge. Hitherto, our city has made no other provision for these unfortunate children than the common schools and the common jail. In the former, their influence has contaminated others, and has done much to injure the otherwise excellent character of our free schools. In the latter, their own ruin has been completed by associating with the worst of criminals. The consequence has been that in the midst of our city has been sustained at public cost an expensive institution, where these youthful delinquents who, from different causes, have been drawn away from the advantages of schools and churches, are taught the very science and mysteries of crime, from its lowest to its highest branches, an institution whose professors are the most expert housebreakers and thieves, whose lectures consist of glowing tales of successful villainy ; and where crime, with all its fascinations, is ingeniously expounded to the


young and curious learners. They become charmed with the heroism of daring and undetected felonies, and when discharged, whether it be in twenty days, or in six months, go forth with bolder and more lawless designs than they had ever before conceived. Such an institution is the County Jail to the hapless youth who, whether guilty or innocent of offenses, great or small, are once confined in it.

"Aware of the degrading influence of this county institution, courts have spared many children guilty of minor offenses. It has been judged better to defer the mischievous consequences of permitting them to go at large, than to consign them to certain infamy by confinement with old and irreclaimable rogues."

For many years Judge Taft could be seen every Sunday afternoon in his "one-horse shay" driving to the House of Refuge, where he met and talked with the children. Little faces clustered about the windows and little feet pattered across the green as he drove up. His visit was always an event of interest and pleasure, as well as of profit to the little folks. No father could have a more cordial welcome from his own family than the Judge always received.

Later the system was changed and since then the aims and objects of the founders of the institution were virtually thwarted and in place of it the class of boys and girls who were sent there, now go to the "Community" place and by degrees the old buildings at the House of Refuge are being torn away and it is said that ere long the entire tract of land where stood the Refuge and other later institutions will all be devoted to other purposes.

City Water Works —The pioneers of Cincinnati drank from a spring on the hillside, below the present line of Third Street, and did their washing in the near-by waters of the Ohio River. It was not long, however, as the population increased, people were forced for health and convenience's sake, to sink wells. But for a number of years there were many of the settlers who "toted" water from the river by hoop and buckets. The summer of 1802 was so dry that many springs dried up and one of the difficulties felt was the closing, for a time, of "Deacon Wade's Tanyard," which could not be operated without considerable water. Finally, a local genius devised a plan which worked well. What might be styled a "stone-boat" was made and water was dragged by oxen from the river to the tanyard. Pioneer James McMahan is credited with suggesting and carrying out this plan.

In 1806, William Gibson supplied many of the 1,700 population of Cincinnati with what water was needed, by rigging a cask upon wheels and carting water from the river, or other places, when possible to secure it. This water was sold about the village and the plan served well its purpose for a time. Coming on down to 1816-17, Jesse Reeder built a tank on the river bank near Ludlow Street and there, by means of ele-


vators, propelled by a horse power, lifted the water into the said tank, and then sold it to the numerous water-carts.

In 1816 the Town Council of Cincinnati granted the "Cincinnati Woolen Manufacturing Company the exclusive right of laying water-pipes in the streets, lanes and alleys, for the purpose of supplying the citizens with water." The only stipulation was that the company should before July 4th, 1819, have the pipes laid, and water conveyed to points lying south of Third Street, then styled the "bottom," also to that other part of the town called the "Hill," so that it "may be delivered three feet above the first floor of James Ferguson's kitchen, in the said town, on or before July 2, 1823." In 1818 the Woolen Manufacturing Company sold all their rights in the water business, by consent of the town council, to S. W. Davies ; and the Legislature granted said Davies and his associates an Act of Incorporation by the name of the "Cincinnati Water Company," limiting their capital to the amount of $75,000. A reservoir thirty by forty feet and six feet deep, with bottoms and sides planked, was constructed on the hill side. Two frame buildings were there erected on the bank, one on the north and the other on the south of Front Street. A lifting pump was installed and water was lifted from the Ohio River into tanks in the building on the north of Fourth Street. From that tank the water was pumped up the hill into a suitable reservoir. The pipes, pumps and machinery were all made of wood, and worked by horsepower.

Cist's history of Cincinnati gives this on the turning-on of the first water from this system, July 3, 1821: "In 1820, there being at the time no improvements between Broadway and the reservoir, the wooden pipes leading into the town were laid along the hill side, through Martin Baum's orchard, down to Deer Creek ; on the west side of the creek, through the Baum and Longworth's gardens, and other lots to Broadway ; thence along Fifth Street to Sycamore, and down Sycamore to Lower Market. Here the first fire-plug—a wooden pen stock—was placed, and from it the first water lifted by machinery from the Ohio River, and passed through pipes for the use of the citizens, flowed freely to the delight of all."

In 1824 Mr. Davies purchased an engine and steam boiler belonging to the old steamboat "Vista," and when rebuilt and placed in the Front Street building, served as a propelling force to lift water with a four-foot stroke, up the hill a distance of four hundred feet, through a five-inch pipe of iron and another wooden pipe 35o feet long.

In 1827, Davies sold his interests in the water plant to Messrs. Ware, Foote, Greene and others, when in accordance with the act of their incorporation, a company organization took place. At this time there were near 17,000 feet of wooden pipe, 530 hydrants, and less than $5,000 income. The plant was materially enlarged and improved from time to time, as


demanded by the growth of the city. At that day the reservoirs held 1,200,000 gallons of water. Anthony Harkness was at the head of sundry useful improvements as the years went by. In 1833 he installed new engines and pumps. In 1839 the water works were purchased of the company by the city of Cincinnati. In 1844 the City Council contracted with Yeatman & Shields for new engines and pumps, which were installed in 1846. During the same year the water system was placed by an act of the Legislature, in charge of three trustees, to be elected by the people.. The report of the new engine and pumps made to the city by the engineer shows that it was a plant capable of easily throwing its 1,750,000 gallons of water into the reservoir in twelve hours time. Six years later, the same authority placed the pumping capacity, with its newer facilities, at 5,000,000 gallons per twelve hours time. The cost of the water works just described, including the $300,000 paid the old water company, amounted to $796,000. The income was then counted at $72,500. The number of miles of pipe was then forty-five, and number of hydrants 5,700.

In 1860 plans for a twenty-four million gallon pumping engine were submitted by George Shield and finally a contract was let for building the new plant. This was the great Shield engine which finally started on November 15, 1865, and for more than twenty years gave invaluable service to the water department of Cincinnati. In 1864 a water supply commission was appointed by the Council, which included the mayor, the city civil engineer, the trustees of the water work department and various members of the Council who were to report concerning pure water supply in the vicinity of Cincinnati. In 1865 further research was made by J. P. Kirkwood, who in his plans included one for pumping from the Ohio River. This required a new site which was selected at Pendleton. This also meant new reservoirs and in January, 1866, the Garden of Eden was purchased for reservoir and park purposes. In 1868 steps were taken for the building of reservoirs to supply the suburban regions of Mt. Auburn and Walnut Hills. Two boiler-iron tanks were constructed at the junction of Vine Street and Auburn Avenue and pumping works located in the valley below at the corner of Hunt and Effluent streets. The Mt. Auburn service commenced September 1, 1869. Work had been started on the Garden of Eden Reservoir in January, 1866. The site chosen was a deep and rapidly descending ravine, bounded on three sides by hills and embracing thirteen acres. A large retaining wall was made and a fill of eighty-four feet in depth was made at the southwestern end. The upper basin was completed in 1872, but water was not put into it until all engine and pumping machinery were completed in October, 1874, when the new Scowden engine No. 7 was first used. The lower basin was completed in 1878 and a forty-six inch pipe laid from the old to the Garden of Eden Reservoir.


A glance at the reports show that the city used, in 1902, 15,707,056,236 gallons of water, equal to a daily consumption of forty-four million gallons of water. The total mileage of water-pipes in use in the city was then 440. Reservoir capacity, 110,000,000 gallons. The total receipts from the water works system at that date were $854,384, while the total disbursements were $879,002.82.

What was then referred to as the "New Water Works" had its inception in the act of April 24, 1896, and in the appointing by the Governor as Water Works Commissioners for the City of Cincinnati : Maurice J. Freiberg, Charles M. Holloway, Leopold Markbreit, Dr. Thomas W. Graydon, and August Hermann. The purpose of the commission was to provide for a new water supply for the city, and they were empowered to make surveys, prepare plans, acquire real estate and personal property by purchase and to construct water works at a cost not to exceed $6,500,000. The board organized by electing August Hermann as president, but transacted little business until such time as certain suits filed for the purpose of testing the validity of the act should be determined, and during this time they refused to accept compensation. The law was sustained by the Supreme Court, in February, 1897, and thereupon a consulting commission of five engineers was appointed, which commenced a low service pumping station at Markley farm, settled reservoirs and thus tested the purification process of the waters from the river. Gustave Bouscaren was chosen chief engineer. It was finally decided to place the ninety million gallon pumping station at California, Ohio, and that no high level reservoirs should be built, and that the high service pumping station should be built on the west side of the Miami River. The plans also covered an intake pier in the channel of the river, near the Kentucky bank, opposite California, tunnel beneath the river at that point, a low service station for pumping, a double line of force mains, a system of subsiding reservoirs, a system adjacent thereto for filtration purposes. European and American filtering systems were thoroughly investigated. Through condemnation process, property was obtained at California at a cost of $143,000. After many tests, in January, 1900, the mechanical system of filteration was adopted by the board. It was discovered that the cost of the new water works was going to be in excess of what it was at first believed, so it was necessary to issue two million dollars' worth more water bonds. The total first cost of these various water plant properties in realty and for construction was in round numbers ten million dollars ($10,000,000). The above account of Cincinnati's Water Works brings the history down to 1903.

The above works were not finished until 1908, when the city possessed one of the world's most perfect water systems, by which the clearest, purest water flowed forth from the tens of thousands of faucets for the first time in the city's history.


The present-day standing of the Cincinnati Water Works Department may be summed up as follows:

Water Supply —The water is taken from the Ohio River, on the Kentucky side, opposite the former village of California, into an intake pier, through the intake tunnel to the river pumping station on the Ohio side of the river. Here the water is elevated to the large settling basins, from where it flows to the coagulating basins, receiving en route the proper quantities of lime and iron and driving the water turbines for the generation of electrical current. Leaving these basins it flows to and through filters and is collected in clear water reservoirs before its long trip to the city through the gravity tunnel to the main pumping station on Eastern Avenue. Here all water is again pumped and distributed through the mains and services to the consumers.

The general statistics show that in 1924 the city had a population of 413,000; the new water works were constructed in 1897 to 1902 ; these works are owned by the city of Cincinnati; the water source is from the Ohio River ; the mode of supply is by pumping from river, sedimentation, coagulation, filtration, sterilizing and pumping to distribution system, with storage tanks and immense reservoirs. The new works were turned over to the city July I, 1909. In 1915 a new 7,000,000 gallon pumping engine was installed. In 1920 the first battery of new boilers at River Station was put in operation. In 1924 all new boilers in operation at Main Station, new coal-handling equipment installed and placed in operation at River Station.

In 1924 the total water consumption was almost eighteen billion (18,000,000,000) gallons. Average daily consumption was 48,980,000 gallons. Consumption per day per capita, 116 gallons. The number of miles of mains is 790,265; service branches, 73 miles ; number of service meters in use in 1924 was 70,930; number of hydraulic elevators used, 252. Total outstanding water bonds, almost fifteen million dollars. Total amount received for water used $2,2o3,000.

The citizens voted five times on the question of municipal ownership of the water works. In 1824 the vote stood 295 to 25 against the purchase; in 1832 it stood 717 to 303 against it ; in 1836 it was lost by 300 votes ; in 1838 the proposition carried by a vote of 1,573 to 311.

Bonded Indebtedness —During the year 1925 the city increased its indebtedness by $1,662,876. This brought the total debt at the close of the year to $97,682,740, plus assessment bonds amounting to $1,108,000. The auditor's books show :

Water works bonds, $14,965,230; Cincinnati Southern Railway construction bonds (terminal and betterment), $6,900,000; other general bonds, $60,885,000. The annual rental of the Southern Railway is far in excess of the amount necessary for sinking fund and interest charges on


the Southern Railway terminal and betterment bonds are paid by the lessee company.

The general bonds include $8,370,774 serial bonds, which are paid, principal and interest, as they mature from specific levies for that purpose; hence there is no sinking fund required for these bonds.

The sinking fund and interest charges on water works bonds are paid from the earnings of the Water Works Department.

The present tax levy per $1,000 assessed valuation is $21.16, while in 1910 it was $29.94.

In 1925 the total assets of the city was $199,519,554, as against $99,007,715 in liabilities. The total assets over liabilities is $100,511,883. This amounts to $234.21 per capita. The total value of all lands owned by the city is $13,896,554. The recent official report shows lands held by various departments as follows :

Music Hall

Various Libraries

Police Department

Fire Department


House of Refuge

General Hospital

Tuberculosis Sanatorium

City Infirmary










Director of Public Service.

Street Cleaning Department

Department of Public Property

Water Works

Park Department

University and Observatory

Total, Lands








Official List of Many Cincinnati Municipal Officers —The first act to incorporate the town of Cincinnati, passed January 1, 1802, vested the corporate powers in seven trustees, a president, recorder, assessor, collector and marshal. The president was practically the supreme officer of the town. The names of the first officers appear elsewhere in this work.

By the act incorporating the town, passed January 10, 1815, provision was made for the election of a mayor by the trustees, who should also preside over that body. The first mayor and president was William Corry, who served until the time of incorporating the city, February 5, 1819. By this latter act provision was made for a mayor to be elected by the city council. The first mayor of the "City" was Isaac G. Burnet, who was elected from time to time and served until the passage of the act of January 26, 1827, from which time the mayor has been elected by the people. The following have been mayors from 1827 to 1904:

1827—Isaac G. Burnet.

1829—Isaac G. Burnet.

1831—Elisha Hotchkiss.

1833—Samuel W. Davies.

1835—Samuel W. Davies.

1837—Samuel W. Davies.

1839—Samuel W. Davies.

1841—Samuel W. Davies.

1843—Henry E. Spencer.

1845—Henry E. Spencer.

1847--Henry E. Spencer.

1849—Henry E. Spencer

1851—Mark P. Taylor.

1853—David T. Snellbaker.

1855—James T. Faran.

1857—N. W. Thomas.

1859—R. M. Bishop.

1861—George Hatch.

1863—Leonard A. Harris.

1865—Leonard A. Harris.

1867—Charles F. Wilstach.

1869—John F. Torrence.

1871—S. S. Davis.

1873—Geo. W. C. Johnston.

1875—Geo. W. C. Johnston.

1877—R. M. Moore.

1879—C. Jacob, Jr.

1881—William Means.

1883—T. J. Stephens.

1885—Amor Smith, Jr.

1887—Amor Smith, Jr.

1889—John B. Mosby.

1891—John B. Mosby.

1894—J. A. Caldwell.

1897—Gustav Tafel.

1900—Julius Fleischmann


The mayors since the above have been as follows : Edward J. Dempsey, Leopold Markbreit, Louis Schwab, Henry T. Hunt, Frederick Spiegel, George Puchta, John Galvin, George P. Carrel, Murray Seasongood.

Concerning the various mayors from 1900 to 1926, Alfred Henderson, in the "Daily Times Star" of January, 1926, gave the following interesting paragraphs, which may be relied upon, for he was for long years city hall reporter and reported the "battles" from year to year, beginning with Hon. Julius Fleischmann :

Attendance at the inauguration of Mayor Seasongood on New Year's Day brought back events of other years most vividly. It was the tenth ceremony of this kind that I had witnessed. Each one was impressed deeply upon my memory.

The defeated men were: Alfred M. Cohen, and M. E. Ingalls by Fleischmann; Harry L. Gordon by Dempsey; Frank L. Pfaff and Dempsey in a three-cornered fight by Markbreit; John Weld Peck by Schwab; Schwab by Hunt; Hunt by Spiegel; Charles Sawyer by Puchta; Alfred G. Allen by Galvin; Dr. C. A. Bonifield and Joseph Kelley in the three-cornered fight by Carrel.

Fleischmann was the youngest man, and Markbreit the oldest. Three were Jews: Fleischmann, Spiegel, and Seasongood; two were Catholics: Dempsey and Galvin; three were of German extraction: Markbreit, Schwab, and Puchta; and two were Irish blood: Dempsey and Galvin. As to occupation they were: Business men, Fleischmann and Puchta; lawyers, Dempsey, Hunt, Spiegel, Galvin, and Seasongood; physician, Dr. Louis Schwab; newspaper man, Markbreit; editor and accountant, Carrel.

Four of the ten are dead: Fleischmann, Markbreit, Spiegel, and Galvin; one, Markbreit, died in office; one, Galvin, served out an unexpired term; one, Galvin, had been vice-mayor; one, Fleischmann, succeeded himself. Two were elected for four-year terms, Galvin and Carrel. Five held office after mayoralty, Fleischmann, on the Park Board; Dempsey, on the Charter Commission; Schwab, on the School Board, Charter Commission and City Planning Commission; Hunt, as a Southern Railroad trustee, and of the United States Labor Board; Spiegel, as legal counsel of the Rapid Transit Commission. One, Markbreit, was a Civil War soldier. Politically, one, Seasongood, was elected as a non-partisan, but he is a Republican in State and National matters; two were Democrats, Hunt and Dempsey. Seven were Republicans. Season-good has the distinction of having first appointed a woman his secretary. The list of secretaries is as follows: Charles J. Christie, with Fleischmann; Alexander Landesco, with Dempsey; Scott Small with Markbreit; Thomas L. Evans with Schwab; William G. Stiegler with Hunt; George C. Crawford with Spiegel; Newhold L. Pierson with Seasongood.

Pierson served the longest, ten years, through three administrations. Three were newspaper men: Christie, Small, and Stiegler; one, Christie, is dead. Three of the former secretaries were bachelors; Landesco afterwards married the daughter of Mayor Spiegel. Evans was a stenographer in the mayor's office before he became the secretary.

Police Department —An ordinance establishing a night watch was passed March 29, 1803, as a result of a severe fire a few nights before that date. By its provisions, the poll was to be taken of all citizens of the town above the age of twenty-one years, who were to be divided into classes of twelve men each, who should serve as watchmen in rotation.


From each set of twelve men one was chosen as the officer of the night. This patrol was divided into two sets, who took turns in watching and guarding the town "by walking to and fro through the streets thereof in a quiet, peaceable manner." Substitutes were permitted, provided that the substitute was a strong, able, discreet, sober man of twenty-one years of age and upwards. The houses of Hugh McCullum and David J. Poor were designated as watch houses. If any man refused to act as a commander of the watch, he was subject to a fine of $1o, and any one who refused to watch was fined $5. Any person insulting a patrolman on duty was subject to a fine of $20. The watch carried a watchman's rattle and large perforated tin lanterns. Their duties were not severe as the public generally retired at about nine o'clock and after that there was but little heard on the streets, except the hourly call of the patrolman.

Greve, in his "Centennial History of Cincinnati," quotes John Palmer, who visited Cincinnati in 1817, as saying: "The police of the city are respectable ; they have, however, no lamps or watch, nor do they need any. We boarded in the heart of the town and our doors were mostly open night or day. Theft is very rare ; the lowest character seemed above it." As the city at this time extended but from the river to Sixth Street and from Broadway to Walnut, with a few outlying houses, it was not difficult to patrol the entire district. Any violations of ordinances were tried before the president of the council, who acted as mayor.

"In 1817 the guard consisted of a captain and six subordinates, who were appointed by the council. The captain's duty was to see that the watchmen kept the street lamps trimmed and lighted them about dusk. The watchmen were required to repair to the watch house at nine o'clock, where they continued under the captain's command until daylight. Any person found abroad after ten o'clock at night in commission of an unlawful act was to be taken before the captain, who could hold the prisoner until morning, at which time he was to appear before the mayor."

The police force was changed again in 1840. Before then the watch had been appointed by the council, but by act of March 19, 1840, provisions were made for the election of the night watch by wards in such numbers for each ward as the council should direct. The watchmen were elected at the elections held for city council and were required to live in the wards from which they were elected. They were not permitted to receive fees as witnesses when called upon to testify for the city. The first elected under this provision were James Ewan, Peter Early, John Redhead, Robert Cappin, Jesse B. Baldwin, Aaron G. Dodd and John Cordeman. Ira A. Butterfield was captain of the watch and James Wise lieutenant. These officers were, of course, under the authority of the marshal. It must be remembered that this was a night watch and that no provision for day police in the city of Cincinnati was made until 1842, when on May 27 the council created a day watch to consist of two per-


sons selected by themselves, who were to receive a compensation of $1.25 a day. The ten-year term of Mayor Davies ended in 1843, at which time he was succeeded by Henry E. Spencer who, like Davies, was a Whig, although he became a Democrat in 1856. He served as mayor for eight years, during part of which time the position of marshal lost much of its influence by reason of the control of the watch being put directly under the mayor. The immediate command was placed in the hands of a captain and during Mayor Spencer's term of ten years the captains were William Small and Jacob Jacobs. In 1844 an ordinance was passed increasing the police force by permitting the mayor and marshal, in case of riot or otherwise when necessary, to detail any number of persons, not to exceed ten from each ward, who should be sworn in as deputy marshals and act in concert with and under the direction and control of the mayor and marshal for the preservation of the public peace. Two years later provision was made for the employment of private watchmen for the merchants of Pearl Street or any other street in the city, which watchmen were to be paid by the merchants, but to have the power of the other watchmen of the city. James Saffin, who had been the marshal since 1835, was succeeded in 1847 by Ebenezer Hulse, who served but one term, at the conclusion of which James L. Ruffin became marshal. Ruffin was a son of William Ruffin, the former city clerk, and was born in the city December 22, 1813. He was afterwards a clerk in a mercantile house, then on a river steamer, again a bookbinder and finally deputy in the county clerk's office under William Henry Harrison. Early in the "forties" he became a constable and the work seemed to be to his liking. He subsequently was chosen marshal, in which position he was very successful, and years afterwards he acted as chief of police for several terms.

In 1849 the captain of the watch was given the munificent pay of $1.75 a night, while the two lieutenants received $1.50 and the watchmen $1.35.

A reorganization of the force took place in the following year. At the last meeting in March, 1850, the council provided for the election of six watchmen from each of the wards of the city at the following April election a few days later. These watchmen were to have the same terms as those of the night watch. A month later the council passed an ordinance providing for a chief of police and six lieutenants of the watch to be appointed by the council, each for the term of a year. The duties of these officers were prescribed by the ordinance, that of the chief being, of course, supervisory. Four of the lieutenants designated by the committee on the watch were to be assigned for night duty and two for day duty and five of the watchmen in each ward were to act at night while but one was on duty in the daytime. The chief, lieutenants and the night watch were required to assemble at the city watch house every night precisely one hour after sunset for roll call. The night lieutenants and watchmen remained on duty until sunrise, at which time the whole force,


headed by the chief, once more assembled for roll call. A day force then went on duty and continued to act until sunset. There seems to have been no provision for the hour between sunset and roll call of the night force. The force seems to have been directly under the charge of a council committee on the watch, which made the regulations necessary for its government. The salaries of the officers were as stated above and no one of them was permitted to be employed in other business except by written permission, granted by the committee on the watch. This ordinance, we are told, was not put into effect until 1853, at which time David T. Snelbaker became mayor. It will be remembered that Mark P. Taylor had succeeded Mayor Spencer in 1851, and as mayor was the head of the force. His captains of the watch were Peter Early, David Hoke and John C. Coutch. By ordinance of June 25, 1851, the number of lieutenants was reduced to one, with three assistants. Provision was made at the same time for the appointment of a sergeant of police for each ward. The appointment of the first chief of police and the first organization of the department that in any way foreshadowed the present effective organization took place under Mayor Snelbaker, in 1853, at which time Jacob Kiefer was made chief. At that date there were ninety-six watchmen—six for each of the sixteen wards. These facts have been gleaned from the files of the old City Directories. Kiefer served only a few weeks and was succeeded by Thomas Looken. David Hoke followed Looken, and he in turn was succeeded by Edward H. Hopkins.

The Ohio Legislature passed an act March 14, 1859, providing for the appointment of four persons by the mayor, police judge and city auditor, which four persons with the mayor were to constitute the Board of Police Commissioners. This board was to appoint a chief, lieutenants and necessary watchmen. They were to receive no compensation for their services. The office of city marshal was abolished and its duties given to the chief, who was to receive $1,500 from the city and $500 from the county.

Just prior to the breaking out of the Civil War, in 1861, George Hatch was elected mayor and his chief police was Col. John W. Dudley, who served during part of Hatch's administration. The remainder of the time Col. Lawrence Hazen was at the head of the department. During this time came the alarm resulting from a sudden attack of Morgan's Raiders, and then came the organization of the police as a battalion of infantry. This battalion, under the chief of police, marched to Lexington and, after ten days' absence, marched back.

The next chief of police was James L. Ruffin, under whose good discipline the force was well drilled and made doubly efficient. The next chief was Charles F. Megrue, who, after a couple of years, was super-ceded by Colonel Ruffin, who in 1871 gave way to David M. Bleaks, who for years had been a private watchman in the Davis banking house.



In 1873 the Legislature once more reorganized the police department, providing for the selection of a commission of four men at the spring election. The men selected were most prominent in Cincinnati—Wesley M. Cameron, Gustav Hof, Henry Kessler and Hugh Campbell. The title of chief of police was abolished in 1877 and that of superintendent was adopted. The first in such office was Jeremiah Kiersted, who held office until 1875. In 1874 the Board of Police Commissioners had been abolished and the mayor once more took charge of the force. He appointed Thomas E. Snelbaker, who was chief until 1877, and was succeeded by Capt. Jacob Johnson, appointed by Mayor R. M. Moore. Following Snelbaker came Ira Wood for chief. He died in 1878 and was succeeded by George Ziegler. In 1879 Enoch T. Carson, superintendent of police, held office two years, and was succeeded by Jacob Gessert, who was followed by Col. M. F. Reilly, under whose administration occurred the great 1884 riots. The next chief was Col. Edwin Hudson, who held his place until the law of 1886, providing for a non-partisan police force, went into effect. Following came Arthur G. Moore and Philip H. Deitsch, the last-named serving almost seventeen years, until relieved by death. He was succeeded by Paul M. Millikin, who was still serving in 1904.

Since the last-named date—1904—the police chiefs have been : William H. Jackson, from October 15, 1910, to March 26, 1912; William Copelan, appointed March 29, 1912, and is still serving faithfully and well.

The Zoological Gardens —The following account of the Cincinnati "Zoo" was given in an authentic history of the city about the date of 188o :

The Zoological Society of Cincinnati, to which alone the garden owes its existence, was organized in 1873 and is the direct outgrowth of the Acclimatization Society. In the early part of 1873 Mr. Andrew Erkenbrecher, then president of the last-named organization, directed the secretary of that body to correspond with the celebrated naturalist, Dr. A. E. Brehm, with a view of obtaining an estimate of the probable cost of a zoological garden established upon European models, requesting statistics in regard to those already established in Europe, and all other available information pertinent to the subject. The reply of the distinguished scientist, containing many valuable suggestions, and accompanied by the annual reports and statements of several European societies, was laid before a meeting of the Acclimatization Society, held at the rooms of the Cincinnati Board of Trade, June 19, 1873. At this meeting, a resolution, offered by Mr. John Simpkinson, was adopted providing for a committee charged with the duty of digesting a plan of operations. The committee, consisting of Messrs. Andrew Erkenbrecher, John Simpkinson, and George H. Knight, subsequently called a meeting of citizens understood to be favorable to the proposed enterprise, for Monday, June 30, 1873', at which Dr. Lilienthal, Mr. Simpkinson, and others, delivered spirited addresses, a large sum of money was subscribed, and resolutions


were adopted providing for the incorporation of a society, whose capital stock should be three hundred thousand dollars. In conformity with this action, Messrs. Simpkinson, Erkenbrecher, C. Oskamp, Knight and. A. Tenner subscribed articles of incorporation under the name of the Zoological Society of Cincinnati, which were duly filed and recorded according to law, on the eleventh day of July, 1873. The first meeting of the newly-formed society was held at the Board of Trade rooms on July 28, and the following named gentlemen elected directors to manage its affairs, viz.: Joseph Longworth, J. Simpkinson, A. Erkenbrecher, A. Pfirmann, John A. Mohlenhoff, Charles P. Taft, John Shillito, George K. Schoenberger, and Julius Dexter. The Board of Directors thus constituted immediately organized and elected the following named officers, viz.: Joseph Longworth, president ; John Simpkinson, vice-president ; Clemens Oskamp, treasurer; Charles P. Taft, recording secretary, and Armin Tenner, corresponding secretary.

The grounds upon which the garden has been established were secured from Messrs. Winslow & Wilshire on perpetual lease, at the rate of $7,5o0 per annum, with privilege of purchase at the rate of $2,000 per acre. Ground was first broken in October, 1874, but the work on the larger shelter-houses did not commence until May, 1875. On the eighteenth of September of the same year the garden was opened to the public, and since that the society has been constantly adding to the collection of animals, and expending large sums for improving and beautifying the grounds. It is but an act of justice that we should state that the success with which this enterprise has thus far been crowned, is chiefly due to the extraordinary labor of Mr. Andrew Erkenbrecher, who properly may be named the founder of the garden, who, however, was ably assisted in his efforts by such gentlemen as Messrs. John Simpkinson, Julius Dexter, Florence Marmet, George A. Smith, Clemens Oskamp and others.

On December 1, 188o, the collection consisted of 983 specimens, divided as follows:

Mammals - 321

Birds - 608

Reptiles - 54

Total - 983

Greve's Centennial History of Cincinnati gives the following concerning the condition of the Zoological Gardens in 19̊4:

"The Zoological Garden was started September 18, 1875, and is most largely indebted for its organization to the late Andrew Erkenbrecher. It contains 45 acres located between Clifton and Avondale and a number of handsome stone buildings which cost over $300,000. About a million dollars has been expended upon the Garden and its collection of wild animals and birds, exceeding in number 1,500, is regarded as among the best in the country. The "Zoo" is not only one of the most interesting


institutions of the city but its educational value, also, with regard to the study of animals and plants, cannot be overestimated. The landscape features have been handled with the greatest care and not only has this resulted in a park of remarkable beauty but the intelligent marking of trees and shrubs has made it available as an arboretum for the study of tree life."

It was found that more money was needed to further the enterprise and so in 1899 the Cincinnati Zoological Company, largely through the efforts of the late L. B. Harrison, was formed. The future of the Zoo seemed to be assured and another stroke of good fortune occurred in December, 1901, when W. Kelsey Schoepf, president of the Cincinnati Traction Company, which had in that year just leased the local street railway system, perfected plans by which that company secured control of the Zoo through the purchase of the stock of the Cincinnati Zoological Company.

The purchase was not completed until early in 1902, when a new board of directors was elected and an extensive program for improving the Garden was adopted. This included the addition of a large number of animals to the collection, the construction of the new Herbivora Building, which stands near the front of the Garden, being a concrete structure of east Indian type of architecture, surmounted by an imposing dome ; several smaller buildings were also erected and about twelve acres of land added to the area of the Garden. The work was accomplished under the administration of Mr. Edward Goepper, as president, whom Mr. Schoepf induced to undertake this position.

In addition, a new band stand was erected, as was also an outdoor auditorium, known as the Woodland Theatre, which was used in the first instance by the Ben Greet Players and was pronounced by Mr. Greet to be the most beautiful spot for dramatic productions that he had ever seen. The summer entertainment also included concerts every afternoon and evening by the best bands in the United States.

Under the impetus thus given the Zoo Garden increased in popularity and importance and not only retained but increased its reputation throughout the country, and, in fact, throughout the world, and was visited by many more people than ever before, including thousands from out of the city and some who made special trips from abroad to see some of the birds and animals in the collection.

While the garden continued to grow, the cost of its operation grew enormously, and it became apparent that the Traction Company ought not to continue the operation of the Zoo Garden. Accordingly, a movement was started among the citizens of Cincinnati to purchase the Zoo. The work of preserving the Zoo started with the passage by Council of an ordinance authorizing the mayor to appoint a committee of five citizens. Mayor Spiegel appointed August Hermann, Andreas E. Burk-


hardt, George W. Weedon, Samuel R. Meyer and Alfred Mack. The committee was organized on February 22, 1915, with August Hermann as chairman and Andreas E. Burkhardt as vice-chairman and Alfred Mack as secretary.

A Ladies' Auxiliary Committee was also organized, of which Mrs. Robert Ralston Jones was chairman. The Committee received a proposition from Mrs. Charles P. Taft and Mrs. Mary M. Emery, in October, 1916, who agreed that each one of them would pay $125,000.00 toward the purchase of the Zoo, providing a like amount of $125,000.00 should be raised by the public, this public subscription to be used to make permanent improvements. The original value placed on the Zoo by the Traction Company was $375,000.00, but that company agreed to reduce the selling price by $125,000.00 if this deal was consummated.

The plan was perfected and the operation of the Garden was assumed by Mrs. Taft and Mrs. Emery as of October I, 1916, and the new plan was put into effect by the organization of the Cincinnati Zoological Park Association, which was organized and assumed the active operation of the Garden on May I, 1917.

Mr. Charles P. Taft was elected the president of the association ; Mr. Charles J. Livingood, representing Mrs. Emery, vice-president ; Mr. C. H. Rembold, treasurer, and Mr. Charles G. Miller, secretary and business manager, while Mr. Sol A. Stephan was retained as general manager. The trustees elected were : Mr. Charles P. Taft, Mr. Charles J. Livingood, Mr. C. H. Rembold, the mayor of the city, ex-officio, Mr. August Her-, mann, Mr. Alfred Mack and Mr. Walter A. Draper.

Another stipulation under the new agreement was that Mrs. Taft and Mrs. Emery would each pay one-half of any deficit from operation for a period of five years. During the first two years of this agreement a deficit was paid, but since that time the Zoo has been self-sustaining. While the original agreement to meet deficits expired December 31, 1921, it has been renewed from year to year since that time.

The association is incorporated as "a corporation not for profit," and, therefore, can pay no dividends. Should any profit be made over and above operating expenses it must go into improvements, animals, etc. Since the new owners of the Garden assumed control the $125,000.00 improvement fund has been expended in constructing a complete auditorium out of the former band stand, in extending the Club House and Restaurant.

Present City Government —The government of the city of Cincinnati was, up to January, 1926, under the direction of a mayor and City Council consisting of twenty-six members, each representing a ward, and six members representing the entire city ; laws were authorized by ordinances passed by an majority vote of all the members of the council.


Enforcement of ordinances are under the supervision of a Safety and Service Director and their departments.

At the city election, in November, 1924, Cincinnati accepted the City Manager form of government. This went into effect January 1, 1926. The city is now really governed by a Council of nine members who appoint from their number a mayor. This office practically carries no governing power. The Council appoints a City Manager who, with the Council, governs the city.

The 1926 city officials include these : Clarence Osborn Sherrell, city manager ; Murray Seasongood, mayor ; vice-mayor, Stanley Matthews ; solicitor, John D. Ellis ; city treasurer, William J. Higgins ; Louis Blackman, city clerk ; city auditor, A. F. Deckebach ; purchasing agent, Ernst Von Bergen ; wharf-master, Jefferson Glover ; examiner of weights and measures, John J. Kinney ; smoke department, G. D. Rowe ; judge of municipal court, Hon. Samuel W. Bell, presiding judge.

Resume of the City Down to 1900 —The subjoined list of important dates and events was the work of the Cincinnati Chamber of Commerce at the beginning of the twentieth century, since which time this veneration is more familiar with the city's developments :

First Settlement - December 28, 1788

Named by St. Clair in honor of Revolutionary Society of Cincinnati - 1790

Wm. Henry Harrison commands post - 1795

Cincinnati Capital of Territory - 1799

Population 750 - 1800

First Bank Established - 1803

Population 2,540 - 1810

First Steamboat arrives} - 1811

Great earthquake - 1811

Public Library Established - 1814

First Insurance Company - 1819

City Incorporated - 1819

Manufactures $1,059,459 - 1819

Miami Canal begun - 1825

Cholera Epidemic - 1832-33-34

First Industrial Exposition of Mechanics Institute 1838

Moselle Explosion, 200 lives lost - 1838

Abolition Riots - 1836-1841

First Railroad ("Little Miami") - 1846

First Saengerfest, genesis of present Music Festival - 1849

First Steam Fire Engine built here - 1852

Martial Law, Morgan's Raid, Kirby Smith Demonstration - 1862-63

Cincinnati Southern Railroad built - 1875-80

Court House Riots - 1884

Money Panics - 1837-57-73

Floods - 1812-47-81-84-90

Population: 1840, 46,388; 1850, 115,435; 186o, 161,044; 1870, 216,239; 1880, 255,139; 1890, 296,308; 1900, city proper, 325,000; city and suburbs, 500,000.

Chamber of Commerce —This important institution, which has for long years been of so much practical value to the city's growth, was organized October 22, 1839, and at first only met once each month, and had its rooms in the Mercantile Library. Seven years later the Chamber of Commerce was merged with the "Merchants Exchange" and in 1850


it was chartered under the title of "The Chamber of Commerce and Merchants Exchange." The first president, after its incorporation, was Griffin Taylor.

From time to time the concern had its charter amended until it finally possesses all the rights and powers ever granted by the State to such organizations. For many years the meetings of the Chamber were held at No. 22 West Fourth Street, then moved to the Pike Building. Their next home was when they purchased the old. U. S. Government corner at Four$i00,000 streets, for $100ioo,000 and there built a structure costing $600,000.

The first board of officers in 1839 was as follows : Griffin Taylor, president; B. W. Hewson, treasurer ; Henry Rockey, secretary, and Roland G. Mitchell, Peter Neff, S. B. Findley, John Reeves, Thomas J. Adams, and Jacob Strader as vice-presidents. The total number of members enrolled in 1903 was 986. The present location of the chamber of Commerce is No. 124 East Fourth Street. A new building on Fourth Street is being erected at this time.

Beginning away back in the sixties and seventies when local industrial Expositions were popular, everywhere, this Chamber gave much financial support to the enterprises. During the fearful Chicago fire in the early seventies this organization rendered never-to-be-forgotten assistance, as it did also in Yellow Fever Plague days and later in the times of floods and storms at home and in distant States. The same spirit still runs through the membership in time of disaster as well as in trying to boost some legitimate business enterprise.

Among important results growing out of the efforts put forth by the Chamber of Commerce may be noted that in recent years $1,800,000 annually has been saved to the Cincinnati gas consumers through the work of the Chamber of Commerce alone, by their intervention and the mayor's veto of a, proposed ordinance increasing the gas rates to the consumers of the public. The Gas Committee of the Chamber communicated with other cities and was responsible for the municipality of Cincinnati's being invited to unite in an effort to forestall a policy promoted by gas utilities, to increase the natural gas rate in the Ohio Valley cities. The city council appointed two members to attend a conference of representative Ohio, Pennsylvania and West Virginia cities for the purpose of united action.

In 1923 the Chamber of Commerce succeeded in Cincinnati's holding its position as third in rank for convention cities in America, entertaining 239 conventions, with a total of 122,235 visitors.

The Business Men's Club —The report of 1924 shows the club named in this item had a resident membership of 2,500, including the representatives from leading industries, trades and professions. It has a noS00esident membership of Soo with scores of names on the waiting list.


A magnificent new building has recently been dedicated for the permanent home of the club and its many activities. This is practically two clubs united. The building is a fire-proof structure, of reinforced concrete. It is thirteen stories high ; occupies a frontage of 200 feet on the north side of Eighth Street, and ninety feet on Race Street. The building, including its handsome furnishings and equipment, cost over two million dollars. It is the just boast of the club and city in general, that this is the finest structure in the country.

As Seen From an Air-ship —In this the beginning of the air-ship period, from one of these hitherto styled "flying machines" the visitor sailing over Cincinnati will behold some of America's finest buildings ; these include numerous sky-scrapers, Emery Auditorium, Music Hall, Conservatories of Music, the city-owned University, the Observatory, many modern bank structures and office buildings, etc. The Ohio River flows on its way to the sea being spanned by many wonderful bridge structures, including suspension types of construction ; then the birds-eye view shows one the location of an unusual number of handsome public parks, the golf clubs, business men's clubs, women's clubs, extensive and costly Young Men's and Young Women's Christian Association buildings, the Automobile Club, Country Club, the Elks' Building, Fenwick Club, the Queen City Club, Cincinnati Riding Club, University Club, etc.

Preparations are now being made for the air service that is to be second to none in America. This will include the regulation of air-plane traffic, both for freight and passenger service. There are already three landing places. One is owned by the city, the others being owned and controlled by private interests. Griswold Field, municipally owned, is already recognized by the War Department. This field contains about one hundred acres, with large facilities representing a plane capacity of ten machines. The private fields are very near to the heart of Greater Cincinnati.

The Ohio Mechanics Institute —This belongs to that group of institutions generally known in the United States as technical institutions. In the main, its work may be divided into three groups : (A) Post high school courses, two years in length, preparing men in industrial mechanical engineering, industrial electrical engineering, industrial art, and power laundry technical work ; (B) technical high school courses preparatory to mechanical industries, electrical industries, industrial art, printing and lithography ; (C) full-time and part-time courses in wood work, machine work, oxy-acetylene welding, electric arc welding, printing Linotype operation, lithographic designs, lithographic art, freehand drawing, and watch repairing. Some of these courses are cooperative courses, in which the student works half time in a store, plant, or shop for wages.


These courses are offered in both day and evening classes. The institute serves about one thousand students a year, more than half of whom are in the evening classes.

In general, the instructors are selected because of their technical or craft proficiency. In the evening classes particularly, the Institute is known for the practical and technical excellence of the instruction, which is given in large measure by successful practitioners. There are about twenty-five instructors in the day classes, and about sixty in the evening classes.

In the two-year intensive post-high school courses in the day classes, the Institute endeavors to meet the need of the ambitious young man of high school training who desires technical preparation and must complete it within two years. Quite a number of the students of the Institute are mature persons who have had practical experience in the line in which they are preparing themselves, before coming to the Institute for study. A number of the students in the craft lines are also men of experience who have come to acquire additional skill. In the evening classes it is customary for every age from fifteen to forty-five to be represented.

The Institute is endowed, and, while a private institution, its Board of Directors is elected, and its general policy is one of cooperation with the existing educational institution in the city and community. Moderate fees are charged, far below the actual cost of instruction. Quite a number of students come from out of Cincinnati to attend it, though its main service is to students in Cincinnati and vicinity. Perhaps twenty states are represented in the student body of men who have come specifically for the courses offered at the Institute.

The Institute was one of the earliest to offer technical training in Cincinnati, and is widely known. Some of its courses are unique, as, for instance, the Power Laundry Cooperative Course, the first established in this country, and the only one that has maintained an uninterrupted course for the past six years. The Institution offers also the most comprehensive evening courses in lithography that are found in the country. The watch-repairing course at the Institute serves Ohio, Kentucky, Indiana, and West Virginia, there being no other watch-repairing course in that territory. The course in electric arc welding is believed to be the only one in this vicinity, also. It was established so that students would not have to be sent to New York State for the training.

The equipment of the Institute is unusually complete, and its shops and laboratories are excellent. The splendid building in which it is now housed was the gift of Mrs. Mary M. Emery, in memory of her husband, Thomas J. Emery, whose industry and sterling character contributed much to the material advancement of Cincinnati and other American cities. This building, which includes the Emery Auditorium, is located


on Walnut Street, between Canal and Twelfth streets. A large bronze tablet is attached to the wall, at the left as one enters the building, the same containing this inscription : "Ohio Mechanics Institute Founded 1828. Building at Sixth and Vine Streets Erected in 1848. The Present Building a Memorial to Thomas J. Emery Erected 1909."

All white students of good character, who have the qualifications for admission, are admitted, irrespective of religious, political or economic belief. While most of the courses offered at the Institute are of a character to attract young men, the Institute has for many years trained young women in its day and evening classes in free-hand drawing, lithographic design, dress-making, millinery and some of its technical high school and special courses. In the main the student body is composed of young men.

The Board of Directors of the Ohio Mechanics Institute consists of the following: Charles J. Livingood, of Thomas Emery's Sons, president; Fred A. Geier, president of the Cincinnati Milling Machine Company, vice-president ; James C. Hobart, president of the Triumph Electric Company, secretary ; Ernest Richter, retired chief engineer of the G. A. Gray Company ; Lucian Wulsin, treasurer of the Baldwin Piano Company; Dr. John C. Kunz, physician ; Albert A. Merkel, wholesale merchant ; Morrison R. Waite, attorney; Walter A. Draper, president of the Cincinnati Street Railway Company. Changes in the personnel of the Board occur rarely, some of the members having served for twenty years. The Board is elective, serves without compensation, and every member is active. Cincinnati owes a good deal to this faithful group of men who are working for its interests, giving of their valuable time in a position which is not spectacular, and whose routine duties often impose quite a burden.

The subjoined is a list of members of the faculty, with the exception of a few lectures. In the main, members of the faculty are selected for their technical competence. Changes in the personnel of the faculty are infrequent, and members of the faculty have wide authority over their specific departments.

Faculty—John Theodore Faig, M. E., president ; George Cox McDiarmid, LL. B., head of Department of Mathematics ; William John Davies, director of woodshop ; Victor Emanuel Muncy, M. E., head of Department of Physics and Electricity ; Charles William Boebinger, instructor in Industrial Art ; Henry Northey Hooper, head of Department of Architecture ; Francisco Pena, A. B., M. D., instructor in Spanish ; Oscar Braun, instructor in German ; George John Frey, head of Department of Mechanical Drawing and Design ; Daniel Stone Bonner, head of Department of Printing; Marion Noble, A. B., acting head of Department of English ; Paul Ashbrook, head of Department of Lithography ; Paul Kennedy Johnston, M. E., instructor in Physics and Electricity ; Paul Klenk,


A. M., acting head of Department of Chemistry; Beatrice Malvina Le Tendre, instructor in French ; Carroll John Groom, acting director of machine shop ; Donald Everett Tuttle, Ch. E., instructor in power laundry course ; Marie Markley Johnson, instructor in household arts ; Clarence Joseph Roberts, E. E., instructor in electricity ; Reuter Wilhelm Brodersen, instructor in linotype operation and mechanism ; Stephen Jacob Felton, Met. E., instructor in mechanics and metallurgy; Frederick Alvah Clark, instructor in watch and clock repairing ; Frank Hier, A. B., assistant in English ; Nelle Sprague Mullikin, A. B., librarian ; Carson Hoy, instructor in gymnasium ; Stella M. Yost, instructor in millinery ; Herman Rudolph Isler, instructor in machine design ; Francis Farnham Heyroth, M. D., instructor in chemistry ; Charles Albert Joerger, M. E., instructor in steam engineering; George Emil Zugelter, M. E., instructor in mechanical drawing; Edgar Dow Gilman, B. S., C. E., instructor in civil engineering drawing; Irving Rosenberg, instructor in mathematics ; George M. Enos, Ph. D., instructor in metallurgy ; Clement Meade Fenker, B. E. E., instructor in heating and ventilating; Robert George Thayer, A. B., instructor in English and economics ; Everett Woodruff, instructor in Mathematics ; Randall Edwin Walker, C. E., instructor in estimating; Clifford Oliver Boyce, instructor in architectural drawing; Raymond W. Renn, instructor in surveying; Charles Roehm, assistant in architectural drawing ; F. Van Houten Raymond, instructor in camera work, Department of Lithography ; Oscar Curtis Willey, instructor in machine work ; Albert Hector Maggs, M. E., instructor in mechanical drawing; John Darby Dreihs, assistant in lithographic presswork ; William Hoffmann, assistant in linotype operation ; Odus Raymond Taylor, instructor in mathematics ; Ralph Charles Flohr, instructor in foremanship ; Clinton Hiester Miller, instructor in mathematics ; William W. Kidney, instructor in mechanical drawing; Edward S. Smith, instructor in mathematics ; William Joseph Lyon, instructor in lithographic art work; Harry Charles Webb, instructor in proving and transferring; Lelah Hatfield, instructor in dressmaking ; Edward Henry Potthast, instructor in art ; Joseph Warren Surbaugh, B. S. M. E., instructor in mechanical drawing ; Carl John Schroeder, assistant in physics ; Allen Ferdinand Reed, assistant in art ; Charlotte Muhlhauser, assistant in dressmaking.

Early History of This Institute—In the year 1828 Dr. John D. Craig delivered a course of lectures on natural and experimental philosophy which attracted much attention. At the close of his lectures he suggested the propriety of establishing a Mechanics' Institute. On the evening of October 25, 1828, in pursuance of a public notice signed by W. Disney, Luman Watson, John P. Foote, and John Locke, it was determined that such an institution should be formed in this city and the four gentlemen named, as well as J. Bonsall, were appointed a committee to report a


plan of action. At a meeting a month later, November 20, 1828, Rev. Elijah Slack in the chair, Dr. Craig delivered a discourse on the subject of "Mechanics' Institutes" and Mr. Foote read the report of the committee. As a result of this step, a charter was obtained from the Legislature on February 20, 1829, for the organization of an institution for advancing the best interests of the mechanics, manufacturers and art designers by the more general diffusion of useful knowledge in those important classes of the community. The founders of the Institute included Messrs. Foote, Craig, Watson and Disney already mentioned, and also Thomas Riley, William C. Anderson, David T. Disney, George Graham, Jr., Calvin Fletcher, Clement Dare, William Greene, Tunis Brewer, Jeffrey Seymour, Israel Schooley and Elisha Brigham. Classes were formed for instruction in chemistry, geometry and arithmetic under Drs. Cleaveland, Locke and John L. Talbot. Lectures in chemistry were delivered partly in College Hall and partly in the council chamber on Fourth Street, between Main and Walnut. Other lectures were delivered at Mr. Talbot's school. A little later the Enon Baptist Church on Walnut between Third and Fourth, was purchased and arranged for the purpose of the Institute. On the ground floor were the library, reading room and the class room. In 1831 Jeptha, D. Garrard bought from Dr. Craig his valuable mathematical and philosophical apparatus and presented it to the Institute. In the hall of the Institute were given the introductory lectures of the Medical College of Ohio and some attempt was made to combine the Cincinnati College and the Institute. When the first payment of the $4,000 purchase money came due, the Institute was unable to meet it ; thereupon the property was conveyed to Messrs. Foote, Graham, Fletcher and Bonsall as trustees to raise the necessary funds. At the same time stock was issued in the sum of $16,000 divided into $25 shares ; with this it was expected to erect a building to include stores and school rooms as well as a public hall and other necessary rooms but the public did not subscribe and the time passed within which the trustees were to have received their money. At this time (1833-34) the suggestion was made by the Cincinnati College to relinquish to the Institute the college edifice on condition that the Institute should comply with the terms of the college lease in relation to the tuition of the twenty-eight free scholars, the use of the building and the preservation of the partition walls, but for some strange reason the board of directors declined to accept the offer. During this winter Professor Stowe, of Lane Seminary, gave an introductory lecture on the history of letters, followed by Hon. James Hall on the importance of establishing a library in Cincinnati. The audiences were so small and the interest manifested so slight that the course was abandoned. In May, 1835, Dr. John D. Craig was appointed librarian and general superintendent but in November of that year, as a result of the unsatisfactory financial condition of


the institution, the building was abandoned and the large hall of the College Building and the front rooms above were procured (at a rent of $100 per annum) to be used as a lecture and library rooms. After a year another move was made to the building on the south side of Fifth Street, just east of Vine. The Western Academy of Natural Sciences had a room in the third floor while the lectures were delivered in College Hall. Here Dr. Craig gave two lectures a week, one course of which was to a class of ladies.

Greve, in his history in 19o4, says of this institution : "The history of the Institute from this time has been one of constant progress. It is now one of the most important educational factors in the city. It has at present a faculty of over thirty members and provides instruction in every phase of mechanical and scientific education, including mechanics, steam engineering, architecture, free-hand drawing and designing, mathematics, chemistry, physics, applied electricity, wood working, wood carving, metal work, clay modeling, languages (English, German, French and Spanish), history and economics, and music. There is a summer school and both day and night sessions. The enrollment for the year is about 1,500 in number. The director for some years has been John L. Shearer."

Museums —Cincinnati has ever been interested in the collection and preservation of rare objects and curiosities such as usually find place in first class museums. The first such institution of this city was the Western Museum established in 1818, just before the place became a real city. This museum not only had articles of interest from this part of the country but also from abroad. The price of membership to this society was fifty dollars, which admitted a person's entire family. This collection of curiosities was first placed in the Cincinnati College. Notice was given that "Decent strangers" were admitted cheerfully.

A former Cincinnati history mentions museums after this note : "The Cincinnati Museum recently commenced by Messrs. Letton and Willet occupied the upper story of the building on the corner of Main and Upper Market streets. Some old timers may recall the existence of this museum.

"There had been deposited in the Museum : Dr. Drake's cabinet of minerals, organic remains, fossil bones and Western antiquities ; remains of the mammoth and Arctic elements, found at Big Bone Lick in Kentucky; the collections of James Griffith, John J. Audubon and Dr. Best of quadrupeds, birds, reptiles, and fishes of the West ; several hundred specimens of natural history collected by Consul General Condy Raguet from Rio de Janeiro ; Mr. Dorfeuille's own collection of Egyptian antiquities, foreign and domestic birds and Western amphibians and the collections of the late John D. Clifford of Lexington, Kentucky, including many specimens of antiquities, fossils and minerals. This collection was in an extensive suite of rooms on the corner of Second and Main streets


where lectures were delivered to the public on matters pertaining to the various articles in the Museum.

"Letton's Museum, owned by Ralph Letton, was kept in two spacious halls in the second and third stories of the brick building at Fourth and Main streets. In the upper hall were principally wax figures. The museum contained about 200 birds, 40 animals, 2,000 minerals, 5o mammoth bones, 23 wax figures, besides Indian antiquities, shells, etc."

Another account of early public museums is found in the Centennial History by Greve, as follows:

"Included in the places of amusement must be the museums. The first suggestion of an institution of this character came from William Steele, who proposed to Dr. Drake and others, the founding of a public museum. At the very time when Drake's mind was occupied with the founding of the Lancaster Seminary, the Medical College, the Poor House and the Hospital, he took up this subject of amusement and instruction. A public meeting was held and a large sum of money subscribed. Drake's idea was that it should be a complete school for natural history in which would be concentrated the choicest natural and artificial curiosities in the Western country. An account of this institution as the Western Museum has already been given in the extracts from Drake's and Mansfield's book. In 1834, at which time it was kept at the corner of Pearl and Main streets, it included, in addition to specimens of natural history, Egyptian and American antiquities, a large number of microscopic designs, cosmoramic, optical and prismoramic views of American scenery and buildings and specimens of the fine arts such as paintings, models in wax, plaster and the like."

The Rookwood Pottery —The "Centennial History of Cincinnati," published in 1904, gave the subjoined account of this pottery, now so famous throughout the world :

Not far from the Art! Museum, upon the brink of Mount Adams, is the Rookwood Pottery, one of the most prominent institutions of the city, and the one probably that is best known throughout the world. In 1874 and 1875 a number of women in the city were led to experiment in the decoration of ceramics and some of their work in overglaze porcelain decoration was exhibited at the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia. Afterwards they tried other processes of decoration under the glaze, tested all sorts of native clay and made experiments in the application of color to the wet clay body with the idea of producing a new pottery by applying colored decoration in the material itself before firing and then protecting and enriching this biscuit with the glaze. Prominent among these artists was Mrs. Maria Longworth Storer, who in 1880 opened a pottery on Eastern Avenue which she called "Rookwood" from the name of her father's place. Here the first kiln was drawn on Thanksgiving Day and here developed an art industry that has grown to marvelous pro-


portions, whose output vies with the most beautiful products of the potter. By 1889 the works had become self-supporting; Mrs. Storer withdrew and Rookwood passed to a company under the control of William Watts Taylor, who had cooperated in the institution since 1883. In 1892 the old building, spreading out in all directions, outgrew the possibilities of its site on Eastern Avenue and a new piece of ground was purchased on the bluff of Mount Adams. Here was erected a picturesque building, which can be seen from all parts of the lower plain of the city, which in itself is one of the most striking architectural features in Cincinnati. An enlargement was made in 1899 and at present (1904) additional buildings are in process of erection. The decorators who have worked in the pottery have comprised both men and women and have been drawn mainly from the Art Academy. There has been no imitation of other wares and the constant effort has been to produce individual pieces, each an ideal in form and color. Mechanical repetition is avoided and each piece is a fresh and independent rendering of its motive. Experiments are constantly carried on in the effort to broaden the character of the work. At first the native clay inclined the color quality towards yellows, browns, and reds, and these types are regarded as the standard Rookwood. Other glaze effects are known as the "Tiger Eye," the first made in 1884, the earliest "of the class of Crystalline glazes since so extensively made at Sevres, Copenhagen and Berlin." "Gold Stone," another crystalline glaze, is more limpid in quality. Other grades are the "Iris" and "Sea Green." The development of the "mat glaze" began here in 1896 as an outgrowth of efforts at a dull finish or smear glaze.

A later feature of Rookwood is the application of metals, which are used very successfully in designs for lamps and electroliers. Faience panels, flat and in relief, are used for mantels, wall panels, fountains and architectural reliefs. The celebrated Indian heads of the design so frequent in Rookwood ware are absolutely correct portraits of Indian chiefs. Much of such work was on exhibition at the St. Louis Louisiana Purchase Exposition.

In the last two decades great developments have crowned the success of this art pottery where the world's best wares are produced. These extensive works must be seen in order to be fully appreciated by lovers of high art in this line.

Another paragraph concerning this great industry in art-work pottery written twenty years ago, says :

"The artists employed were educated for the purpose in the Cincinnati Art Academy, with one exception, the well known Shiriyamadani, a native of Japan. Several artists of the plant, including Albert R. Valentien and Artus Van Briggle, studied in Europe, as did the analytical chemist, Stanley G. Burt. Joseph Bailey, who comes from a family of potters in Tunstall, Staffordshire, England, was superintendent of Rook-


wood until his death in 1898. The clay used is mainly found in the Ohio Valley, and includes a variety from Buena Vista, Hanging Rock, a white or cream colored clay from Missouri, and many others, all of American origin. The company is managed by fifteen shareholders, who are able and willing to uphold Rookwood in its best purposes without regard to pecuniary benefit. The officers are William Watts Taylor, president and treasurer ; J. H. Gest, vice-president ; and Albert G. Clark, secretary."

Briefed. Data —The subjoined page of facts concerning Cincinnati in 1925-26 has been quoted from the Commercial Tribune and Year Book for 1926 :

Settled December 28, 1788 ; incorporated 1819.

Population 1925, 410,674, metropolitan 650,000 ; rank, sixteenth ; area, 72 square miles ; parks, 2,660 acres ; paved streets, 621.82 miles.

World's greatest producer of radio receiving sets.

Only city in the United States owning a steam railroad.

Only city in the United States owning a university.

Leads the world in the manufacture of wood-working machinery.

Has the largest soap factory in the world.

Leads the world in the manufacture of prison and ornamental iron.

Has the largest washing machine factory in the world.

Has the largest tannery under one roof in the world.

Has the largest leather supply house and largest harness factory.

Has the largest trunk factory in the United States.

Organized the first paid fire-department in the country.

The first steam fire engine was made in Cincinnati.

Cincinnati makes more playing cards than any other city in the world.

Cincinnati has the greatest May Musical Festival in the United States.

Has the leading conservatories of music in the United States.

Has one of the leading symphony orchestras in the world.

Leads in industrial training and opened the first "continuation" school in America for factory apprentices.

Ranks first in the manufacture of acids, bookcases, field musical instruments, printing inks, laundry machinery.

Greatest lithographing center in the United States.

Has the largest piano factory in the Middle West.

Has the largest manufacturers of high grade engineering specialties in the world.

Leads in the export of special pianos built in special designs for tropical and other countries.

Has the largest factory in the world for manufacturing base balls and base ball supplies.

More fruits and vegetables are shipped through the Cincinnati gateway than any other inland market.



Street Railways —The city of Cincinnati had its first street railway traffic on and from September 14, 1859—a horse-car system from Fourth and Walnut streets to the city building at Ninth and Plum streets. This was just prior to the opening of the Civil War period. In those days there were a number of omnibus lines in operation, as well as stage coach lines, but no street car had appeared. The first authorizing of such a means of transportation was by an ordinance bearing date of July 1, 1859, which described the terms and conditions under which they could be operated. By this ordinance it was provided that the consent of the City Council must be obtained to lay down rails along any of the streets of the city. Also that the city was to purchase the omnibus line with which the street railway might come in competition at a price to be ascertained by arbitration. The cars, with all modern improvements, were to be run as often as the public conveniences might require, under the direction and regulation of the council. Tickets were to be sold in packages of twenty-five and no fare was to be more than five cents. The cars were not to run at a greater speed than six miles an hour and when turning a corner not faster than a walk. Cars going in the same direction were not permitted to approach each other nearer than three hundred feet. These restrictions seem very odd and out of place to the present generation when an auto goes racing down congested business streets at a breakneck speed and one, two and three cars follow each other up so close a man cannot pass between them. The provision requiring the purchase of omnibus lines and stages was the cause of most of the early street railway companies going into bankruptcy. The rates of fare varied widely on various 'bus lines. On the Brighton-Cumminsville line it was five cents to the corporation line on Liberty Street and ten cents to Cumminsville. By the Sedamsville line to Walker Mill road it was five cents and to Sedamsville ten cents. The fare to Liberty and Sycamore streets on the Mount Auburn and Clinton line was five cents, to Mount Auburn ten cents, and to Clifton twenty-five cents, later reduced to fifteen cents. The fare to Avondale was fifteen cents. An omnibus left for East Walnut Hills and Madisonville every day at three in the afternoon. The starting point for Walnut Hills was Fifth and Sycamore. The 'bus for the Brighton House, then an important landmark, started from Fourth and Main streets. Omnibuses ran regularly from the Miami Canal packets to all parts of the city, starting at Main and Canal and also from the Little Miami and other depots and from boats at the public landing, where as



well as at Second and Broadway there were regular omnibus and hack stands, similar to those that were common in the city down as late as in the "eighties."

The city council, in July, 1859, determined upon six street car routes as follows : Route No. I was granted to Rufus King, John C. Thorpe, James C. Moores, S. M. Ely, and William Keck, under the name and title of the City Passenger Street Railroad Company. The cars of this line were all painted red and displayed a signal at night of a bright red color. This line extended from Fourth and Main streets and Brighton House to Western Row and was usually styled the John Street Line. The tickets sold at twenty-five for one dollar. Route No. 2 was afterward granted to the Cincinnati Street Railroad Company and started at Fourth and Walnut and ran up to Ninth by Walnut to Baymiller, from Maple to Freeman, returning by Seventh Street to Vine and to Fourth to place of beginning. This was known as Seventh or Dark Blue line. Route No. 3 extended from Fourth and Sycamore to Liberty, to Broadway. This was never fully constructed. Route No. 4 was subsequently granted to J. P. Kilbreath, N. Headington, J. W. Donahue, Samuel N. Pike and Thomas Gaylord under the name of "The Passenger Railroad Company of Cincinnati." This commenced at Third and Lawrence and ran to Fifth and Freeman and back. These were the yellow cars and the line was usually styled the Third Street Line. Route No. 5 was later granted to John Hooker, Solomon L. Green, A. E. Jones, A. M. Scudder, 0. P. Thorpe and Charles Rule under the name of "The Pendleton and Fifth Street Market Space Passenger Railroad Company" but commonly styled the "Democratic Company." This line ran from Main and Fifth to Front and Washington streets. Route No. 6, established at the same time (1859), was never built ; it was to have run from Fifth and Main to Vine and Hamilton Road.

Route No. 7 was established July 25, 1860, providing for a line on Front Street from Washington to the east line of the city, and this route was soon merged with the Pendleton line and was a part of Route No. 5.

Concerning the first cars run on the streets of Cincinnati, as before mentioned, this was September 14, 1859, from the corner of Fourth and Walnut to the city building on Ninth Street. A former writer speaks of this event as follows : "A large crowd gathered at the starting point to see the car start. It was drawn by four beautiful horses of a gray color. It carried the officers of the company, the mayor, a number of the councilmen, with members of the newspaper press. At the corner of Ninth and Walnut the car was derailed, one track being laid too low ; thereupon the passengers jumped out and put their shoulders to the car and put it once more on the track. As the car passed the Ninth Street District School the children joined in the procession, which numbered several thousand. Opposite the residence of Dr. J. L. Vetter, who was the president of the


company, which was on Ninth Street, the car stopped and cheers were given for the company and for the doctor and in the language of the chronicler 'he gave them that which cheers.' At the corner of Ninth and Plum streets a small negro boy, about fourteen years of age, who had been hanging to the platform, fell from, the car, which passed over his left leg, making necessary its amputation. Throughout the day the car continued to make free trips and was packed with passengers anxious to have the pleasure in riding on the first street car that ever ran in the city."

Street Railway Fares —The subjoined paragraph from the pen of Charles Theodore Greve, in his 1904 History of Cincinnati, we are permitted to use in this connection :

"Consider the relative street railway fares of Cincinnati and neighboring cities. Cheap service, if efficient, tends directly to promote the city's expansion and commercial prosperity by cutting down living expenses, particularly of the laboring man. Cleveland and Columbus have practically three cent fares. Detroit has fares below five cents. Cincinnati alone in this group, in comparative stagnation, is burdened with straight five cent fares. The answer to Cincinnati's bad plight is government by the politicians in partnership with public utility companies. Evil politics in the past has kept the interurbans practically out of the heart of the city. Compared with the growing cities, such as Detroit, Indianapolis, Columbus, Dayton, and Toledo, Cincinnati's interurban facilities are insignificant. How potential a factor this is in the prosperity of a city is shown by the statement of ex-Mayor Bookwalter, of Indianapolis, that more people come to that city each year on the interurbans than on all the steam cars combined. As a result of the deficiency in our interurban system, and consequent disadvantages in the quick delivery of merchandise, many small towns and farming communities naturally tributary to Cincinnati, are being taught to purchase their requirements in Columbus, Dayton and Indianapolis."

President Schoepf's Farewell Dinner—One of the most impressive and unique gatherings ever held in Cincinnati was that of the farewell dinner and the presentation of five hundred and seven gold watches to the veteran employees of the traction company at the hand of their much appreciated retiring president in the autumn of 1925, when he left the presidency of the great system of Cincinnati street railway and became a retired citizen. This farewell was given at both the Business Men's Club and at Keith's theatre. At the latter place five hundred and seven (507) gold watches were presented to the veteran employees of the company. The address made by Mr. Schoepf was lengthy and replete with interesting narratives and reminiscences concerning the little army of men who had been associated with the company so many years. He brought out the fact that in the twenty-five years in which he had been in charge


there he had employed 406 men ranging in time all the way from twenty-five to fifty-eight years for this one company. These men Mr. Schoepf aptly designated "Gold Star Men." Those who served less years were classed by the speaker as "Silver Star Men." Then he called the roll of 2,454 "Bronze Star Men." Mr. Schoepf is succeeded by Walter A. Draper, who has been the senior vice-president.

This was a wonderful gathering of hard-working, faithful men and officials of a great traction system. Besides, it was also the thirty-fourth wedding anniversary of Mr. and Mrs. Schoepf, making it doubly a pleasant event, never to be forgotten by all participants.

The tribute in praise of the hundreds of employees of the traction company, by the speaker, was not overdrawn, but gave the true ring in paying honor to so many fine specimens of manhood as were there before the retiring president. Each of the handsome watches presented to the five hundred and six men and one woman employee, were properly engraved with name and years of service with the company. The sole woman employee was Miss Caroline Hein, assistant secretary.

Statistics —The "Commercial Tribune 'Almanac" for 1926 gives these figures : Cincinnati and its suburbs are connected by surface electric railway and bus transportation. The street railway system is owned by the Cincinnati Street Railway Company and the city's interest looked after by a director of the street railways of the city of Cincinnati. There are forty-two lines—comprising approximately 237 miles of track.

Concerning the bus traffic it may be said that there are 189 busses ; ninety-nine are urban lines having a seating capacity of 4,273. It is estimated that approximately 30,000 people ride the busses every day. The weekly transportation for busses, therefore, would be near 200,000. Their lines divided are as follows : twenty-two urban lines, with a possibility of an additional interurban line being added in the very near future, as well as another city line. The rates of fare range from ten cents to $3.50 one way. These figures of course are to thee end of the respective lines, the intermediate points varying between these amounts.

Retrospective —A historical volume published in 1881 gave the following, which shows the vast change and contrast between those days—forty-seven years ago— and today, in the matter of transportation and street travel in and near Cincinnati. The article is headed "Horse Railroads," and runs thus :

"These include four lines to Covington, one of them through Newport ; another Newport line ; the Elm Street and the Vine Street lines, connecting with the Clifton line by the inclined plane near the head of Elm Street ; the Main Street line, using another incline at the head of Main Street to reach its track to the Zoological Gardens ; the Baymiller Street line, connecting at the foot of Mt. Adams with an incline to the summit,


up which cars, horses and passengers are taken as they drive upon its carriage from the street, and at the top connecting with the Eden Park, Walnut Hills and Avondale line ; the Eighth Street line, connecting with the inclined railway at Price's Hill ; the Cumminsville and Spring Grove line, which has recently been extended to Fountain Square, furnishing the longest ride in the city, between five and six miles, for a single fare; the Walnut Hills line up Gilbert Avenue ; the Third Street line ; the Seventh Street line ; the John Street line, and the Riverside and Sedamsville line. A recent extension on Liberty Street gives a new line to Brighton by Fourth and Main streets. The Elm Street line, at its eastern terminus in Pendleton, connects with steam dummy lines for Columbia and Mount Lookout. The direct Newport line makes connection with a dummy line for Bellevue and Dayton. All the down-town horse railways start from or near Fountain Square. Most of the lines are consolidated, so that tickets sold by one line are usable upon others."

Cincinnati's Theatres and Opera Houses —The following list is believed to be the principal playhouses of the city up to the beginning of the present century:

The Thespians, opened 1801; Cincinnati Theatre, opened 1801 ; Shell-bark Theatre, opened 1814; Columbia Street Theatre, opened 1819; The Third Street Theatre, opened 1831 ; Lippincotts Amphitheatre, opened in 1833 ; Shires Theatre, opened in the thirties ; National Theatre, opened 1837; Peoples Theatre, opened in the forties, burned 1856; Woods Theatre, about same as last named playhouse ; The Trivolia, the first German theatre of Cincinnati, opened in fifties and burned in 1860; Palace Variety, burned in 1869; Academy of Music, burned 1870; Pikes Opera House, opened 1859; Grand Opera House, opened at commencement of Civil War period ; the Music Hall, elsewhere mentioned in this work.

Cincinnati with her suburbs had, January 1, 1926, theatres as follows : Aragon, No. 4, Werner and Flora.; Avenue Theatre, 122 West Fifth ; Boulevard Theatre, 1012 Vine ; Capitol Theatre, Seventh and Vine ; Carrel Theatre, 4021 Eastern Avenue ; Columbia Theatre, 2557 Vine Street ; Cox Theatre, Seventh and Walnut ; Emery Theatre, 497 Benson Reading ; Family Theatre, Garfield Avenue ; Family Theatre, 524 Vine Street ; Forest Theatre, 611 Forest Avenue ; Gifts Theatre, Sixth and Vine ; Grand Opera House, Vine and Opera ; Heucks Theatre, 1213 Vine ; Hippodrome Theatre, Seventh and Washington ; Hippodrome Theatre, Newport ; Holliwood Theatre, 5912 Hamilton ; B. F. Keith's Theatre, 519 Walnut ; L. Theatre Circuit, 2621 Vine ; Liberty Theatre, Spring Grove ; The Liberty Theatre, Pike and Madison, Covington ; Lubin Theatre, 14o West Fifth ; Lyric Theatre, 508 Vine ; Lyric Theatre, Covington ; Metropolitan Theatre, 15th and Central Avenue ; Music Hall Theatre, Newport, Kentucky ; Nordland Plaza Theatre, 2621 Vine ; Norwood Theatre, Main,