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The seeds of that pernicious plant, Nullification-offspring of Satan and the Stygian hag-first saw the light of day in South Carolina, in the year 1832. Nourished by the south, and watered by John C. Calhoun, it grew lustily until 1861, when it burst upon our nation in the phase of one of the most gigantic rebellions that ever tore through the entrails of any country, submerging us at once in a sea of war and tears. When the call for help came, it was nobly responded to by the citizens of Greene County. The Seventy-Fourth was principally formed at Xenia, the Ninety-Fourth contained two companies, from this county, and the One Hundred and Tenth was formed from Greene, Miami, and Darke. We subjoin the following from "Ohio in the War."
SEVENTY-FOURTH REGIMENT O. V. I.
This regiment was organized in camp at Xenia, Ohio, in October, 1861, to the extent of seven companies. On the 24th of February, 1862, it was ordered to Camp Chase, where three full companies were added, making the complement, and aggregating nine hundred and seventy-eight men.
The regiment was ordered to the field on the 20th of April, 1862, reported at Nashville, Tennessee, on the 24th of the same month, and went into camp near that city. While here, it. was thoroughly drilled, and portions of it detailed for provost duty at Nashville. The first real service performed by the regiment., was on its march over the Cumberland Mountains with General Dumont, in June. Immediately thereafter, it was detailed as guard to the railroad between Nashville and Columbia, and continued to perform that duty during the month of August. It returned to Nashville, September 3d, and remained there during the blockade of September, October, and November, 1862. During this period, the regiment was engaged in several skirmishes in the vicinity of the city.
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In December, it was placed in the Seventh Brigade (Millers), Eighth Division (Negley's), formerly part of the center (Thomas's), Fourteenth Army Corps, department of the Cumberland.
When General Rosecrans made his movement on Bragg's army lying at Murfreesboro, the Seventy-Fourth marched with its division and corps. On the 29th of December, it went into the battle of Stone River, and remained in it until nightfall of January 3, 1863; was hotly engaged December 31st, and was one of the regiments selected to charge across Stone River, January 2d, against Breckinridge's rebel corps. The Seventy-Fourth went into this battle with three hundred and eighty effective men, of whom it lost, in killed and wounded, one hundred and nine, and in prisoners, forty-six.
On the organization of the army ,it Murfreesboro, Tennessee, in February, 1863, the Seventy-Fourth was assigned to the Third Brigade (Millers), Second Division (Negley's), Fourteenth Army Corps (Thomas's), and during the stay of the army at that place, assisted in guard duty on the fortifications. At this place several changes took place among the officers; Colonel Moody, Major Bell, and captains Owens, McDowell, and Ballard resigned, which made necessary the following promotions : To colonel, Josiah Given, (late Lieutenant Colonel of the Eighteenth Ohio) ; to Captains, Mills, Armstrong, McGinnis, Tedford, and Mclllravy ; to First Lieutenants, McMillen, Hunter, Hutchinson, Weaver, and Bricker; to Second Lieutenants, Adams, Scott, Drummond, and McGreary.
On the movement toward Chattanooga, June 23, 1863, the Seventy-Fourth was in the column, and participated in the battles of Hoover's Gap, June 24th; Dog Gap, Georgia, September 11th; and Chickamauga, September 19th and 20th; arriving at Chattanooga, September 22, 1863. The regiment also participated in the battles of Lookout Mountain and Missionary Ridge, November 23, 24, and 25, 1863.
While at Chattanooga a majority of the men re-enlisted as veteran volunteers, from January 1, 1864. About the same time, Captain Fisher -,vas promoted to major.
Entitled, as they were, to thirty days furlough at home, the regiment left Chattanooga on the 25th of January, 1864, and arrived at Xenia, Ohio, where it was received with the greatest honors, kindness, and hospitality in the power of the patriotic ladies of that beautiful city to bestow. On their way home, everywhere in
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Ohio, the members of the regiment were the recipients of the most marked kindness and consideration.
The regiment reassembled at Xenia, on the 17th of March, and before leaving for the field, passed resolutions returning their hearty thanks for the unbounded kindness with which they had been treated, and making the utterance of the word "Xenia" by visitors to their camp in the field, a talismanic password to their hearts and hospitality.
The regiment being reorganized, numbered, with the addition of one hundred recruits, six hundred and nineteen men.
The Seventy-Fourth, once more ready for the field, started for "the front" on the 23d of March, 1864, and on the 12th of April rejoined its brigade at Graysville, Georgia. Remaining in this camp until the 7th of May, it started with the army on the Atlanta campaign-that long and arduous march, so famous in the history of the rebellion. One day's history of this campaign was that of the next. For over one hundred days the regiment was under au almost continuous fire of rebel musketry and artillery. At Buzzard's Roost it was specially engaged, and in an attempt to storm that stronghold, on the 9th of May, lost sixteen men killed and wounded ; and at Resacca, May 15th, nine men killed and wounded. In the engagement of the 27th of May, the conduct of the Seventy-Fourth, and other regiments of the Third Brigade, elicited from the division commander the following commendatory notice
HEADQUARTERS FIRST DIVISION, FOURTEENTH ARMY CORPS.
NEAR DALLAS, GA., May 28, 1864.
COLONEL: General Johnson desires to express to you his high appreciation of the gallantry exhibited by the noble troops of your brigade in the night engagement of the 27th instant. The admirable spirit displayed by them on that occasion is, above all things, desirable and commendable. Soldiers animated by such courage and fortitude are capable of the very highest achievements.
(Signed) E. F. WELLS. A. A. G.
At Kenesaw Mountain, the regiment had a most arduous and perilous duty to perform. For two weeks it was under a constant fire of musketry and shells. It was also engaged at the Chattahoochie River, Peachtree Creek, and in front of Atlanta. At the battle of Jonesboro, it made three distinct charges on the afternoon
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of September 1st, and lost two lieutenants and twelve non-commissioned officers and privates, killed, and twenty-five privates wounded. For this gallant achievement, the regiment was included in the following complimentary notice
HEADQUARTERS FIRST DIVISION, FOURTEENTH ARMY CORPS.
JONESBORO, September 2, 1864.
The general commanding the division congratulates the officers and men of the Second and Third Brigades on the success of their splendid assault on the enemy, September 1, 1864. They charged a strongly intrenched double line, passing over swamps and through thickets under a murderous fire of musketry; dragged the enemy out of his works at sonic points, and drove him from them at others. The troops opposed to them were the most celebrated for obstinate fighting of any division of the rebel army. * * The conduct of all was gratifying to our commanding general, and the day should be remembered and celebrated by every soldier engaged in the battle.
By order of Brigadier General W. P. Carlin.
(Signed) G. W. SMITH, A. A. G.
The aggregate loss of the Seventy-Fourth in this campaign was eighteen killed and eighty-eight wounded. The battle of Jonesboro ended the Atlanta campaign. The rebel general Hood's unexpected dash for the rear of General Sherman's army, for the .purpose of cutting his communications, rendered it necessary for a movement of the national army to counteract it, and the Seventy-Fourth, with its brigade and division, counter-marched to Kingston, Georgia.
By this time several of the officers resigned and were mustered out, namely : Colonel Given, captains McMillan, Armstrong, and Baldwin, and lieutenants Adams and Baldwin.
The Seventy-Fourth was the last regiment to leave Kingston on the new campaign through Georgia. Thus it severed the link that connected it with the north on the 12th of November, and moved with Sherman through Georgia, arriving at Savannah without casualties December 21,1864. It left Savannah with the army, on the 20th of January, 1865, on what was called the South Carolina campaign.
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The spirits of the men of the Seventy-Fourth were buoyant ; they were about to realize a long cherished desire to bear in triumph, the "Old Flag" over the sacred soil of South Carolina, the hot bed, and originator of all the bloody scenes through which they had passed in the preceeding four years of the war. It struck its tents in the camp near Savannah, loaded the one wagon allotted to each regiment, and moved on with its corps toward Sister's Ferry. Recent heavy rains had flooded the swamps through which the road lay, making it almost impassible, and rendering it necessary to corduroy the greater part of it. The labor of so doing was so great, that the corps did not reach their destination until the last day of the month. The point reached was about forty-five miles above Savannah, where the river was much swollen, and nearly three miles wide. Laying pontoons, and corduroying Black Swamp on the Carolina shore, occupied to the 5th of February, oil which day the Fourteenth Corps was over the river, and across the first great swamp of South Carolina.
The Seventy-Fourth was at this time detailed as train-guard, a post of danger, and responsibility, as the enemy were watching eagerly for a chance to capture it. Aside from the constant skirmishing, toiling through swamps, destroying railroads, etc., nothing of special interest occured in passing through South Carolina. The North Carolina line was crossed, and the Fourteenth Corps pushed directly, and rapidly toward Fayetteville, which place it entered in advance of the army, on the 11th of March, driving the enemy under Hardee, over the Cape Fear River in confusion. At this point, for the first time since leaving the Savannah River, news from the outside world was received, brought by two government transports laden with supplies. The rebel arsenals, and workshops at Fayetteville were destroyed, and once more the northern forces turned their faces northward, again cut oil from all communications. The rebel capital was rapidly approached, and opposition from the enemy grew stronger every day. Heavy skirmishing was encountered at Averysboro, and at Bentonville, the last battle of the army was fought, March 2d, 1865.
In coming up to this point, the First Division of the Fourteenth Corps led the column. It kept well in advance, driving back a strong force of rebel cavalry, until confronted by the whole rebel army under Johnson, and within fifty yards of his intrenchments. A desperate fight ensued. The rebels came out of their works en-
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masse, to attack the audacious little band, but the veterans of the "Red Acorn" were equal to the emergency. Although driven back by overwhelming numbers, they were able to hold the rebels in check. until the main column came up, and formed its line, and then advanced with it., driving the rebels back into their works. The rebel general, finding himself pressed oil all sides, made a hasty retreat toward Raleigh, leaving his dead, and wounded in our hands. From this field of victory, the national army moved directly to Goldsboro, arriving at that place, on the 23d of March. Making a halt of ten days for clothing, rations, ammunition, etc., the regiment, and division again moved in pursuit of the enemy, who were then rapidly retreating. On the morning of the 13th of April, the First Division, Brigadier General C. C. Wolcott, being ill the advance, took peacefill possession of Raleigh, the capital of North Carolina. Before this time, the glorious news of Lee's surrender had been received, and now the rebel general, Johnson, begged permission to surrender his army to Sherman.
The Twenty-Third Corps was left in North Carolina, and the Fourteenth, Fifteenth, and Twentieth corps were at once started toward home, via Richmond and Washington, by two routes. The Fifteenth and Seventeenth were to march to Richmond via Petersburg; the Fourteenth and Twentieth on a route further to the west, via Oxford, Boydton, and Nottoway Court House. These two corps were to march oil parallel roads. On the 30th of April the friendly race to Richmond began. The First Division, under Brigadier ;General C. C. Wolcott, was the victor, arriving on the batik of James River, at Manchester, opposite Richmond, on the morning of the 7th of May, having averaged thirty-two miles per day. The Seventy-Fourth was the third regiment to arrive on the bank of the river, where they stacked arms, with but one man absent from the ranks. Thus ended what, in the language of Major General Hitchcock, "is the most wonderful march on record, and exhibits, in these veterans of many battles, unparalleled powers of endurance in marching."
On the arrival of all the troops, on the 11th day of May the march to Washington began. In passing through the rebel capital, the men of the Seventy-Fourth, who had been prisoners in Libby, Castle Thunder, and Belle Isle, pointed out to their comrades the places they occupied. Washington was reached on the 23d of May, 1865. This was the first time the Seventy-Fourth had been at Wash-
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ington as a regiment, and but few of its members had ever been there before. The soldiers were tired, and the three days before the review were spent in cleaning their guns and accoutrements, and in necessary rest.
Before 9 A. M. of the 24th of May, the regiment had marched five miles, and was in its place in the column for review. This was a proud day to the veterans of the Seventy-Fourth. They had seen the rebellion crushed; their record during the war was without a stain. They could look back at Kentucky, Tennessee, Georgia, South and North Carolina, with all their cities and towns, brought back into the Union by the prowess of themselves and their comrades of the armies of the Cumberland and Tennessee.
A few days after the review, the soldiers of the Fourteenth Corps were formed in line to meet their old commander, Major General George H. Thomas, whose duty had called him on a visit to the capital. The men of this corps had learned, under his long and faithful leadership, to love and trust him. As the brave old veteran rode through their serried lines, he betrayed the emotion of a warm and tender heart, and received their heartiest cheers.
The western troops were sent to Louisville, Kentucky, under command of Major General John A. Logan, for muster out. The Seventy-Fourth traveled by railroad to Parkersburg, and from thence by boat, down the Ohio River, to Louisville, where it arrived on the 20th day of June.
On the 4th day of July, the troops were formed by brigade for the last time, to meet and receive the final farewell of their trusted and honored chief, Major General William T. Sherman, whose fortunes they had followed to the very end with firm and unshaken confidence.
The muster-out rolls of the Seventy-Fourth were made out, bearing date July 10, 1865, and signed by the mustering-out officer of the First Division, and on the 11th of July the regiment received the farewell addresses and thanks of their corps, division, and brigade commanders, and the warm and affectionate good-bye of the members of the regiments with which they had served so long, and started for Camp Dennison, Ohio, on the same day.
The friends of the regiment, at home, wished to give it a reception before the men were disbanded, and permission was granted them to go to Xenia, on the 16th day of July, for that purpose. An immense crowd was gathered in the little city. Congratulatory
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addresses were delivered, and tables loaded with all the choicest delicacies, were spread by the fair daughters of Xenia. Bouquets and wreaths of flowers were profusely showered through the ranks. Everything was done that could in any way express the unbounded joy and gratitude of fathers, mothers, wives, sisters, and friends.
On the 17th of July the regiment returned to Camp Dennison, and on the 18th received their pay and final discharge papers. That evening the veteran Seventy-Fourth Ohio Regiment was no more.
The parting of these veterans was a sad one. Nearly four years' service had made them as brothers, and as they turned toward their homes, it was no slight sorrow that was mingled with their joy. At the closing scene, the thoughts of many naturally reverted to those comrades who did not return-whose bones were left to bleach in the far-off battle field of the South. The remains of some have since been carefully gathered up and deposited in the different national cemeteries, while others have been brought by loving hands, and buried with their people at home.
At the outset the Seventy-Fourth was noted for being commanded by a well-known Methodist preacher and popular orator. Between him and the lieutenant-colonel a coolness sprang up, which promised to lead to injurious results. So handsome, however, was Colonel Moody's conduct at Stone, River, that on the field the lieutenant-colonel dashed up to him, and held out his hand, saying he could not remain at variance with so gallant an officer.
ONE HUNDRED AND TENTH REGIMENT, O. V. I.
Though this regiment was not organized in this county, it consisted in part of Greene County men; hence its history is of local interest. The following sketch is obtained from "Ohio in the War : "
The regiment was organized at Camp Piqua, Ohio, on the 3d of October, 1862. On the 19th of October the regiment moved, by railroad, to Zanesville ; thence, by steamer, to Marietta ; and from there, by railroad, to Parkersburg, Virginia. On the 3d of November, it moved to Clarksburg, where it remained until the 25th, and then took the cars for New Creek, where it arrived the next day. Here it remained in camp, fortifying, drilling, and performing guard and picket duty, until December 13th, when it marched, via Burlington and Petersburg, to Moorfield, Virginia.
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Three hundred men from the One Hundred and Tenth, joined an expedition to move in the direction of Winchester, Virginia, while the remainder of the regiment moved with another expedition in the direction of Romney. The main portion of the regiment arrived at Winchester, without serious interruption, on the 1st of January, 1863, and joined the detachment which had arrived a week previous. While at Winchester, the regiment was assigned to the First Brigade, Second Division, Eighth Army Corps, and Companies A and D were detailed as provost guard. The-regiment was employed in guard and picket duty, in drilling, fortifying, and in making raids and reconnoisances. At one time, a detachment went to Front Royal, and captured a large amount of stores ; at another time a, detachment proceeded to Summit Point, and other places, dispersing bands of rebels and destroying stores; and in the early part of May, the regiment marched to New Market and returned.
On the 13th of June, the regiment was moved out of Kerustown, and engaged Lee's advance. This was the first time the regiment was under fire, but it fought bravely, disputing every foot of ground against a, greatly superior force. On the morning of the 14th, the One Hundred and Tenth occupied a slight earthwork, about three quarters of a mile from the main fort. In the afternoon the enemy opened on it with twenty-six pieces of artillery, and advanced in strong columns to the assault. The regiment held the works until it was driven out at the point of the bayonet by an overwhelming force. It attempted to retire in the night, but was met by the enemy, and a two hours' engagement ensued, in which the regiment succeeded in cutting its way through, and marched to Harper's Ferry.
On the 16th of June the One Hundred and Tenth crossed the river, and encamped on Maryland Heights. On the 1st of July went, by. canal, to Georgetown, District of Columbia ; then to Tenallytown, then to Washington, and, by railroad, frona there to Frederick City, Maryland. At this place the regiment was assigned to the Second Brigade, Third Division, Third Army Corps, Army of the Potomac. It marched in pursuit of Lee through Williamsport, Loudon, and Upperville, to Manassas Gap, where it skirmished with the enemy, and finally reached Fox's Ford, on the Rappahannock, on the 1st of August. On the morning of the 15th, the regiment left the ford, took the cars at Rearton Station for Alexandria,
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and there embarked on the steamship Mississippi for New York.
The regiment camped for awhile on Governor's Island, and then moved to Carroll Park, South Brooklyn. Here the regiment was treated with much kindness, and received many favors from the citizens of Brooklyn.
On the 6th of September the regiment returned, via Alexandria, to Fox's Ford, and marched from there to Culpepper, Virginia, in charge of an ammunition train. On the 10th of October it moved out to meet an attack, and remained under arms all night, and the next day marched across the Hazel and Rappahannock rivers, through Centerville, Bristow, Catlett's Station, and at last reached and occupied the first line near the Rappahannock.
On the 7th of November the regiment crossed the river, skirmishing with the enemy, and the next morning made a reconnoissance, and captured between thirty and forty prisoners. In the afternoon, the One Hundred and Tenth, in the advance of Brandy Station, was severely shelled by the artillery, and was the first to occupy the enemy's position. Upon breaking camp at Brandy Station, four companies of the regiment were detached as train guard, and the others took a prominent part in the battle of Locust Grove, losing five killed and twenty wounded. The regiment returned to Brandy Station December 3d, and occupied winter quarters.
During the mouth of March, 1864, the One Hundred and Tenth became a part of the Second Brigade, Third Division, Sixth Army Corps. On the 4th of May the regiment crossed the Rapidan at Germania Ford, and the next day took a position on the extreme right of the national line at the wilderness. After brisk skirmishing it advanced to charge, and drove the enemy to their works. The regiment held its position till after dark, and only fell back when its ammunition was exhausted. The loss sustained was one officer killed and six wounded, and eighteen men killed, eighty-two wounded, and eleven missing. The next day the One Hundred and Tenth occupied the second line, but was much exposed to an artillery fire. In the evening, the brigade on the right being routed, the regiment fell back about a mile, and held the new position all day on the 7th, and in the evening fell back, through Chancellorsville, to the vicinity of Spottsylvania Court House. Here the regiment was engaged in fortifying and skirmishing until the 14th, when it marched toward Spottsylvania, waded the Nye River after dark, and occupied the enemy's works, from which they had been driven.
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The One Hundred and Tenth was in several reconnoissances, almost constantly engaging the enemy, marching via Guinia Station, and Chesterfield Station, crossing the Pamunky and throwing up fortifications on Dr. Palmer's farm. On the 1st of June, the regiment was engaged at Cold Harbor. In the assault on the rebel works on the 3d, the regiment was in the front line, and was ordered to continue the advance after the line halted, which it did, and held an exposed position for two hours, when it was withdrawn. During the entire clay, the regiment was exposed to a heavy fire, losing one commissioned officer, and four men killed, and thirtyfour men wounded. On the 14th, the regiment left the works, crossed the Chickahominy, passed Charles City Court House, and at Winona Landing, embarked on the transport Star, landed at Point of Rocks, and marched to Bermuda Hundred.
In the evening of the 19th, it crossed the Appomattox, and arrived near Petersburg. After resting a day, it marched to the Norfolk and Petersburg Railroad, and charged the enemy's line, driving it in; and a few days later, moved to the Petersburg and Welden Railroad. On the 30th of June, the reginient commenced its return, and on the 2d of July, occupied its former position near Petersburg. It embarked on the transport City of Albany for Baltimore, where it arrived on the 8th, and took cars for Monocacy Junction.
It was placed in position on the south side of the Monocacy, and ordered to advance, which it did against a destructive fire of artillery and musketry, the former coming obliquely from front and rear, and directly from the right. The regiment only fell back when it was pressed by overwhelming numbers, and when in imminent danger of annihilation. It retired to Ellicott's Mills, where it arrrived about noon, on the 10th of July. In this engagement, the regiment lost one officer killed, four wounded, and two captured ; three men killed, seventy wounded, and fifty missing. On the 11th, the regiment went to Baltimore, and camped at Druid Hill Park until the 14th, when it took the cars for Washington, and the day after marched through Tenallytown, waded the Potomac near Edward's Ferry, passed through Snicker's Gap to the Shenandoah, and skirmished with the enemy. On the 20th, the regiment crossed the Shenandoah, rested awhile, re-crossed the river, marched all night, and arrived at Washington again on the 23d. Three days later it broke camp, and marched through Hyatts' Town, Monocacy Junction, Frederick City, Maryland, and Harper's Ferry to Healltown,
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arriving on the 20th, and on the 30th fell back through Harper's Ferry to Frederick City, Maryland. On the 3d of August, the One Hundred and Tenth resumed the march through Buckeyston, across the Monocacy at Monocacy Mills, and then moved by cars from Monacacy Junction to Bolivar, and marched from there to Healltown. On the morning of the 10th, it marched through Charlestown, Newton and Middletown, arriving at Cedar Creek on the 12th. Here it. was engaged in several skirmishes, and on the 16th marched as train-guard to Charlestown.
It fell back to Bolivar Heights, closely pursued by the enemy, but again advanced to Charlestown, and on the 29th, in an engagement completely routed the rebels. On the 3d of September, the regiment marched to Clifton Farm and fortified. On the 19th, it crossed the Opequan, and engaged in the battle of Winchester. The regiment joined the pursuit of the rebels, engaging them at Fisher's Hill, capturing four pieces of artillery, and one hundred prisoners. It again pursued as far as Mount Crawford, and returned to Harper's Ferry. On the 6th of October, it moved to Strasburg, and from there to the vicinity of Front Royal. On the 13th, it$ marched to Ashby's Gap, and the next day returned and encamped at. Cedar Creek. On the morning of the 19th, when the Eighth and Nineteenth Corps were driven back, the Sixth Corps, with the One Hundred and Tenth in the front. line, was formed to arrest the advancing rebels. Frequent stands were made, and in the final effort which resulted in the rebel rout., no regiment took a more active part than the One Hundred and Tenth. It lost two officers, wounded, one of whore died in a few days after, five men killed, and twenty-seven wounded, and one officer, and one man missing. In the evening, the regiment occupied the camp from which it had been driven in the morning, and continued to occupy it till November 9th, when it encamped one mile from Kerustown and built winter quarters.
On the 3d of December, it. marched to Stebbins' Station, took cars for Washington, proceeded thence to City Point by steamer, took cars near midnight on the 6th, and arrived at the front at daylight. It occupied the line east of the Weldon Railroad, and proceeded to build winter quarters. On the 9th of February, 1865, it took position between forts Fisher and Welsh, and again erected winter quarters.
On the 25th of March, the entire brigade assaulted the strongly
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intrenched picket line, and after a second charge, under a severe fire, carried it ; capturing a large number of prisoners and small arms. An assault was made on the enemy's works before Petersburg, on the 2d of April, just before day break, and before it was fairly light, the Sixth Corps was in possession of the fortifications, and many prisoners, and guns. The regiment pursued the enemy, routing him at Saylor's Creek, and continuing the pursuit until the surrender of Lee. The regiment marched to Burksville Junction, and on the 17th at the presentation of captured flags to Major General Meade, the One Hundred and Tenth having captured more flags than any regiment in the corps, was selected as a guard of honor, to escort: them to General Meade's headquarters. The regiment proceeded to Richmond, Virginia, and while passing through the city was reviewed by General Halleck, and from there it marched to Washington City, where it was reviewed by the President and Cabinet, at the Executive Mansion.
During its term of service, the regiment. was in twenty-one engagements, and sustained a loss in killed, wounded, and missing of seven hundred and ninety-five men. It was mustered out at Washington City, on the 25th of June, 1865, and was discharged at Tod Barracks, Columbus, Ohio.
NINETY-FOURTH O. V. I.
This regiment was organized at Camp Piqua, Miami County, Ohio, under the immediate supervision of Colonel J. W. Frizell. The officers were appointed on the 22d of July, 1862, and so vigorously was the recruiting prosecuted that in just one month one thousand and ten men were mustered into the service of the United States.
On the 28th of August, without uniforms or camp equipage, and never having been drilled as a regiment, the Ninety-Fourth was ordered to. Kentucky, that state being then invaded by the rebel forces under Kirby Smith. It proceeded via Cincinnati, and upon arriving in that city was immediately ordered to Lexington, Kentucky. By great persevervance the colonel succeeded in obtaining three rounds of cartridges to the man; and, being supplied with this very limited amount of ammunition, and sufficient clothing to satisfy immediate wants, the regiment took the cars for Lexington, and arrived at 9 P. M. on Saturday night, and heard for the first
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time an authentic account of the battle of Richmond. After considerable search, the colonel succeeded in finding the officer to whom he was to report, but in such a beastly state of intoxication as to be unable to rise from his bed, and perfectly incompetent to give intelligent instructions. With the assistance of some citizens, passable quarters were obtained for the men; and hungry, tired, and anxious for the morning, the regiment tried bivouacking for the first time.
Sunday morning dawned, brightt and beautiful, disclosing the town full of stragglers from the Richmond battle-field, relating wild stories of defeat and disaster; and though but little confidence was placed in their reports, still this, together with the general gloom always attending such state of affairs as. then existed, caused the order for the regiment to proceed to Yates' Ford, on the Kentucky River, fifteen niles east of Lexington, on the Richmond road, to be received with fearful forebodings. However, the order. was obeyed without a, murmur; and after a bard clay's march under a scorching sun, over a dry and dusty road, with water very scarce, the regiment arrived near the ford just at dark. This being the first march they had made, the men were much exhausted, and dropped to the ground as soon as the order to halt was given.
While the colonel was endeavoring, as best he could in the darkness, to select a position which could be easily defended, a fire was opened upon the regiment by a rebel scouting party, concealed in the thickets skirting the road. It was afterwards ascertained that the whole of Kirby Smith's army was encamped but a couple of miles north of the ford. A veteran regiment could not have behaved better. than did the Ninety-Fourth on this occasion. The night was very (lark, the men were lying down, and many had already fallen asleep ; but, after the confusion incident to their rude awaking, every little trouble was experienced in getting the regiment properly formed. The rebel fire lasted but a moment, yet two men were killed and six wounded. After posting his men to the best advantage, Colonel Frizell remained with the advance picket-post (which, from the nature of the country, was but a short distance from the regiment) during the night; Major King, Captain Drury, and the adjutant, occupying intermediate positions between the colonel and the regiment.
The night passed slowly and without further alarm, and as soon as daylight appeared the hungry men began looking for some wagons
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that had arrived during the night, which the officer in command at Lexington said he would send. The search revealed one hundred and twenty-five rounds of ammunition to each man, and three sacks of green coffee! While endeavoring to make a breakfast from these " supplies," the rebel army was reported advancing, and soon began shelling the regiment from a battery they had placed in position in the woods just across the river. Colonel Frizell watched the rebel maneuvers for a few moments, and then ordered his adjutant to form the regiment and march back until past the road, where it was supposed the rebels would attempt to form, and attempt a retreat. The movement was effected in good order, but none too soon, as the rear-guard had just past, the road' when the rebels came trooping from it into the pike, and began firing upon Captain Drury's company, which had been selected as rear-guard. Colonel Frizell remained in the rear until the advancing rebels were checked, when he directed his regiment to a certain point and there to prepare for action. He knew that his force was greatly outnumbered, but his orders were to " contest every foot of ground back to Lexington." Just as the movement was begun a messenger arrived with an order from General G. C. Smith, dated the night before, for the Ninety-Fourth to return to Lexington with all possible dispatch.
The regiment was now twelve miles from any support, with a. fresh and victorious enemy (niore than ten times superior in numbers) close to the rear; and to successfully conduct a retreat of raw troops under such circumstances required the most thorough ability on the part of the commander, and the most undoubted confidence on the part of the men. The regiment toiled along the hot and dusty road, Colonel Frizell, Captain Drury, and other officers, fearlessly exposing themselves to prevent straggling, but their utmost efforts could not prevent quite a number of their almost exhausted men from falling by the wayside, and becoming an easy prey to the closely pursuing enemy.
At 4 o'clock the regiment reached Lexington, to the great surprise of every person who knew they had been sent out on that expedition. The order sending it to the ford was a blunder, and' probably the only thing that prevented its capture was the very boldness of the movements made. Our army that. had retreated from Richmond, had already left Lexington, still in retreat, towards. Louisville, and all stores that could not easily be transported had
IN THE REBELLION. - 365
been destroyed. With the exception of coffee and crackers on Sunday morning, the men of the Ninety-Fourth had had but little to eat since Saturday morning, were tired and footsore, and in bad condition for further marching. In the absence of instructions to the contrary, it was Colonel Frizell's intention to remain in Lexington (unless driven out) until his men had procured the muchneeded food and rest; but the order for continued retreat reached him and was obeyed. At daylight the retreating army reached Versailles, and a halt for breakfast was ordered, but just as the coffee began to boil another order to " fall in immediately " came from the officer in command.
The season was very dry, and but little water could be obtained. The suffering in consequence of this may be inferred from the fact that Ohio soldiers gave five dollars for a canteen full of muddy water, a dollar for a drink, and many drank from standing pools the water that the horses refused to touch ! The roads were almost ankle deep with dust, and the sun shone fiery overhead. The day's march began at from 2 to 3 o'clock in the morning, and continued till late in the night. The only provisions issued (or to be obtained) were a few hard crackers each night, and what green corn yet remained in fields adjacent to the camping grounds. The troops were nearly all newly enlisted, and, being unused to such a life, it is not to be wondered at that they fell out of ranks by the hundred, and were easily captured by the force of rebels following.
Upon arriving at Louisville, the Ninety-Fourth went into. camp, without tents, in the woods, but the men were so exhausted that their only want was to rest as best they could. Having been almost entirely deprived of sleep, water or food, for seven days, marching night and clay, with feet and limbs swollen almost to bursting, and every sense dulled by suffering, many of the men were pitiable objects.
In a short time, however, all had regained comparative strength, health and cheerfulness, and were ready to go where duty called.
The first. regular report that the adjutant could make after arriving at. Louisville, showed a loss of two hundred and eighteen men! With the exception of two men killed at Yates' Ford, all eventually rejoined the regiment, having been paroled by the rebels as soon as captured.
With the exception of some hard work in the 'trenches, and on fortifications, for the defense of Louisville, and a participation in
366 - HISTORY OF GREENE COUNTY.
two or three "grand reviews," the regiment had a very easy time until the 1st of October, when the movement began which resulted in the battle of Perryville, and the driving of Bragg's rebel army from Kentucky.
Previous to the battle of Perryville, the Ninety-Fourth had been assigned to Rousseau's division of McCook's corps, and took a prominent part in this engagement, being highly complimented in general orders.
The regiment broke camp near Nashville on Christmas day, 1862, and was in advance of the army, marching on Murfreesboro, and during the battle of Stone River was engaged every day from Wednesday until Saturday.
The Ninety-Fourth was again in advance on Tullahoma, participating in the fight at Hoover's Gap, hi June, 1863, had a skirmish at Dug Gap, and were engaged in the hard-fought battle of Chickamauga. At Lookout Mountain and Mission Ridge the regiment again took a. prominent part, participating in the grand charge upon the ridge; was with Sherman, on the march to Atlanta, taking part in the battles at Buzzard's Roost, Resaca, Kingston, Pumpkin-vine Creek, Kenesaw Mountain, Chattahoochie River, Peachtree Creek, Atlanta, and Jonesboro.
After pursuing Hood, the Ninety-Fourth participated in Sherman's grand march to the sea, arriving in Savannah before Christmas. On the 20th of January, 1865, it. was again on the march through South and North Carolina., and after participating in the battle of Bentonville, North Carolina, arrived at Goldsboro on the 23d of March, 1865.
The Ninety-Fourth was the first regiment to enter Raleigh, North Carolina, and soon after the surrender of Johnston, marched to Washington, via. Richmond and Alexandria, participated in the grand review before the president, General Grant, and others, and was mustered out of service at Washington, on the 6th of June, 1865, with an aggregate of three hundred and thirty-eight men all that were left of them-left of one thousand and ten!"