As it may be a matter of interest to many, to know the military discipline to which the youth of early days were subjected, we devote a page to its explanation.

July 25, 1788, a law was published at Marietta for "regulating and establishing the militia," which was confirmed by the territorial legislature, and approved by the governor (St. Clair). This law provided that all male citizens, between the age of sixteen and fifty, should perform military duty, be armed with a musket and bayonet, cartridge box, and pouch, or powder horn, and bullet pouch, one pound of powder, and four of lead, priming wire, brush, and six flints.

For the promotion of health, civilization, and morality, they were required to drill, on the first day of the week, at 10 A. M., armed and equipped, adjacent to the place of public worship; and at all other times and places, as the commander-in-chief should direct. For failing so to appear on the first of the week, they were fined twenty-five cents, and for failure on the day designated by the commander-in-chief, fifty cents ; for refusing to do guard duty, one hundred cents, and for refusing to serve in case of invasion, they were considered guilty of desertion, and court martialed.

On the 23d of November, 1788, the governor and judges published a law, providing that all who should not furnish arms and accoutrements, according to law, after thirty days neglect, should, for a musket and bayonet, be fined five dimes; for every pound of powder and four pound of lead, not furnished in fifteen days, two dimes and five cents; for every powder horn and bullet pouch, two dimes; for every six flints, not provided within ten days, one, dime and five cents; and brush not provided within thirty days, one dime. They were also to be inspected by the commandant of companies, on the first Sabbath of each month. By a law passed July 2, 1791, all commandants of companies, were to drill their men, two hours on each last day of the week, and inspect their arms, ammunition, etc.


All who attended the drill on Saturday, were excused from church or drill on Sunday; also if they attended church armed and equipped, they were not required to drill on Saturday. Thus the law remained until December 13,1799, when the whole was revised by the territorial legislature, which fixed the ages at eighteen and forty-five, men were to be armed and equipped in six months, officers, to have sword or hanger and espontoon, (spontoon or pike) arms exempt from execution. It also provided for districting and officering the militia; the commissioned and non-commissioned officers, to be drilled by the brigadiers, six days five hours each, during the year. Company musters once in every two months, except December, January, February, and March. Each battalion to muster in the month of April every year, and a muster of the regiment in October. For non-attendance at company muster, one to three dollars; regimental or battalion, one dollar and fifty cents to six dollars.

By act of December 30, 1803, Quakers, Menonites, and Tunkers were exempt from military duty, on payment of three dollars each year. Privates were allowed twelve mouths to equip, and fine reduced from one dollar to one dollar and fifty cents.

February 14, 1809, all laws for organizing, etc., were repealed. Only two company musters a year, in April and September; battalion, once in April, and in September. Commissioned to meet in August of each year, for two days exercise, according to Steuben's tactics.

February 2, 1813, a bounty of twelve dollars per month was allowed soldiers whose term of service had expired, in case they continued until their places could be supplied.

Passing over all the intermediate laws, continually changing the mode of organizing, times of drilling, fines, etc., we finally reach the act of 1844, which declares military duty a failure, in so far as the improvement of morals is concerned, and excuses the rank and file from drilling in time of peace, thus verifying the words of Dryden

Raw in fields the rude militia swarms;

Mouths without hands, maintained at vast expense;

In peace a charge, in war a weak defense;

Stout once a month they march, a blustering band,

And ever, but in times of need, at hand.

On the prairie north of Oldtown, was a favorite place for drilling,


and almost due west of the old tavern, described in Xenia Township, the venders of whisky had their stations. It was a day looked forward to with a good deal of pleasure. At the command of the captain, to "stand at ease," the sergeants passed along the line with a bucket full of whisky, tin cup in hand, with which every man helped himself, according to his calibre. The officers were more highly favored. Days of regimental and battalion muster were agreeable occasions, but officer muster was creta notandum.

Then these men swelled out, with war-like pride, and "set the teeth, and stretched the nostrils wide," and gave the eye a terrible aspect, and as sable,save the blue coats and brass buttons,knights of old, they pranced upon their pampered steeds, with the glitter of the polished saber, the waving white plume, the brilliant sash and flashing epaulet, the proud recipients of many admiring smiles from fair ladies, whose sparkling eyes rivaled their own gay uniforms in brilliancy, while the stolid, anti bellum Quaker, looking on, exclaimed, with the sentiment of the frogs : "It may be fun for you, but it is death to us."

Among the officers who acted a conspicuous part on these occasions, we subjoin the following:

At a court of inquiry, held at the house of Peter Borders, by the officers of the First Battalion, Second Regiment, Third Brigade of the First Division of the Ohio State Militia, on Tuesday, June 11, 1805, the officers present were

Lieutenant-Colonel-Benjamin Whiteman.

Major-William Maxwell.

Captains-William Buckles, Samuel G. Martin, James Morrow, Harry Martin, James Snodgrass.

Lieutenants-James Bull, George Alexander, William Snodgrass.

Ensigns-Joseph Hale, David McCoy, David Wilson, Reuben Strong, George Taylor.

The date of officers' commissions in the First Battalion were-

James Morrow, major, January 1, 1806.

Adam Sulkier, captain, August 10, 1804.

Jacob Haines, captain, April 15, 1806.

James Galloway, captain, October 23, 1805.

Thomas Bull, captain, April 2, 1806.

William Townsley, lieutenant, April 2,1806.

William Freeman, lieutenant, October 62 1806.

John McCoy, ensign, April 2, 1806.


Daniel Kizer, ensign, October 10, 1806.

Samuel Stiles, ensign, August 11, 1807.

Second Battalion

William Buckles, major, January 2, 1806.

William A. Beatty, major, January 1, 1810.

James Morrow, major, December 6, 1813.

John Clark, captain, March 18, 1806.

Peter Price, captain, August 11, 1807.

Robert McClellan, captain, February 18, 1809.

John Watson, captain, December 11, 1811.

John Clarke, captain, January 6, 1812.

Robert Gowdy, captain, January 8, 1811.

John Davis, captain, March 18, 1810.

William Stevenson, captain, December 13, 1810.

Joseph Lucas, captain, May 16, 1812.

Zach. Ferguson, captain, December 11, 1811.

Samuel Herod, captain, July 17, 1812.

Jacob Shingledecker, captain, February 14, 1809.

Thomas Constant, captain, May 28, 1814.

George Jenkins, captain, August 6, 1814.

George Logan, captain, May 28,1814.

Robert Buckles, captain, June 14, 1813.

Thomas Gillespie, captain, November 10, 1814.

Reese Baldwan, captain, May 28, 1814.

John Smith, captain, June 10, 1815.

John Gowdy, captain, January 1, 1810.

William Harpole. captain, June 10, 1815.

Renken Seward, lieutenant, August 11, 1807.

Benjamin Haines, lieutenant, September 1, 1807.

Robert Buckles, lieutenant, September 1, 1807.

Daniel Wilson, lieutenant, September 1, 1807.

William Kirkpatric, lieutenant, January 22, 1808.

John McCulloch, lieutenant, June 1, 1812.

Thomas Davis, lieutenant, January 8, 1811.

Stephen Hussey, lieutenant, December 11, 1811.

Samuel Stiles, lieutenant, February 18, 1809.

------ Mann, lieutenant, May 16, 1812.

Elisha Leslie, lieutenant, January 22, 1808.

Peter Borders, lieutenant, February 18, 1809.

David M. Laughead, lieutenant, March 18, 1810,


James Winter, lieutenant, March 18, 1810.

Robert McFarland, lieutenant, October 23, 1811.

Christopher Shroupe, lieutenant, May 16, 1812.

Samuel Butts, lieutenant, May 16, 1812.

Joseph Watson, lieutenant, May 28, 1814.

David Douglas, lieutenant, May-28,1814.

John Gowdy, lieutenant, August 6, 1814.

Amos Quinn, lieutenant, August 6, 1814.

Jacob Puterbaugh, lieutenant, .November 10, 1814.

J. McBride, lieutenant, February 18,1809.

------ McDowell, lieutenant, June 10, 1815.

------ Conwell, lieutenant, November 10, 1815

------ Snodgrass, ensign, August 11, 1807.

A. Maltbie, ensign, January 22, 1809.

Jacob Golden, ensign, January 22, 1808.

David Douglas, ensign, October 23, 1811.

John McClelland, ensign, July 15, 1810.

Barton Hobbett, ensign, June 1, 1812.

John McColly, ensign, February 18, 1809.

George Price, ensign, May 16, 1812.

Stephen Conwell, ensign, March 18, 1810.

Jacob Puterbaugh, ensign, May 29, 1814.

George May, ensign, July 6, 1814.

William Sutton, ensign, May 28, 1814.

Anthony Cannon, ensign, May 12, 1813.

John Tucker, ensign, November 10, 1814.

J. Snodgrass, ensign, June 10, 1815.

Robert Stephenson, ensign, January 1, 1816..

The specific enumeration of immigrants since the war, would be a work tedious beyond our time and space, and anaemic beyond the patience of our readers. We therefore close the personal history, and consider the improvements of the present.