becoming alarmed he clambered up into the top of a sapling or small tree. He loaded and fired again, but finding that his unpleasant and most unwelcome companions were inclined to stay by him, he set up a volley of stentorian shouts, which at last reaching the ears of some of his nearest neighbors, brought several men to his aid. But the men, on arriving near enough to communicate with the man up the tree, finding that the wolves were not inclined to give up their expected prey, they thought caution the better part of valor, and advised Mr. Bope to remain in the tree till daylight, when the wolves would go away. Which advice he took, and found, to his great joy, that with the disappearance of the darkness the wolves disappeared also.

A bear was discovered near his house. He took his favorite old Virginia dog, and his gun, and went to the attack. His first shot wounded the beast and made him savage. His dog went in, and was gathered to the embrace of Bruin, who was about to press the last breath of life out of him, when Mr. Bope went to his dog's rescue, when the bear instantly dropped the dog and made chase after the man, and was not long in fastening his teeth in the garments of the frightened hunter. At this moment Mrs. Bope arrived, and perceiving the state of affairs, advanced on the beast in a menacing attitude, which seeing, the quadruped released his hold and made for the gentler sex. There was a hickory-tree close by, that had been broken by a storm, the upper end of the trunk still resting on the stump twenty feet from the ground, and the top lying on terra firma, thus forming an inclined plane of about forty-five degrees with the perpendicular. Mr. Bope called to his wife to run for her life; but she being in the vigor of young womanhood, at once began the ascent of the angle of forty-five.

The dog by this time recovered his breath, and came again to the attack ; and in the meantime Mr. Bope had re-loaded, and now poured in another broadside, without, however, bringing down his game. Bruin placed his back against a tree, in an upright posture, the better to use his powerful paws; and while he was thus compelled to turn his head in all directions from which a deadly foe might be approaching, his eye caught sight of Ars. Bope snugly perched on the stump twenty feet above. In an instant he made for the stump, and


began the ascent. And now the finale approached, for Abraham Bope, Esquire, comprehending that from the positions of all the actors in the drama he was absolute master of the situation, at once placed a ball in a vital part, and the bear fell dead at his feet. Seven charges were said to have been lodged in his body before he capitulated.

Mr. Jacob Bope said the first school he attended in the new settlement was German, and taught by Henry Camp. Afterward an English school was taught in the neighborhood by Abraham Winters, over on the Newark road. This was previous to 1810, and when he was eight or ten years of age.

The first preacher he remembered to have heard was the Rev. Mr. Stake of the Luther an denomination, and afterward Rev. Wise, of the German Reform Church. Soon after this the Methodists and Albrights began their work, and established camp-meetings in some parts of the county, holding them annually.

In their settlement the meetings were held in the cabins of the settlers.

Everybody had to work hard, but were contented with what they had, and far happier, he believed, than the majority of the people are to-day. Money was seldom seen by anybody, and it was extremely difficult to pay what little tax was levied. A majority of the men of the settlement went out in the war of 1812. Of all those who were of men's age, and entitled to be called pioneers, and who came into the settlement previous to 1810, John Zeigler alone is living, at the great age of ninety-two years.

There was little that could be sold for car h. The price of a day's work, from sunup to sundown, was twenty-five cents, which was always spoken of then as a " quarter of a dollar. " Jacob Bope was a carpenter, and often worked at his trade for fifty cents a day. He referred to the corn-huskings, house-raisings and log-rollings, and other gatherings and usages of the pioneer age, and which were the same everywhere, and need not to be particularized here.

He remembered Lancaster when there were not more than half a dozen cabins in it. He was a pupil in music of a Mr. Imhoff, and himself taught music when he was sixteen years old. Mr. Bope served as Captain, Colonel and General in the Ohio Militia. He spoke at some length of the pioneer man-


ners and customs, and of the social pastimes and the kindly relations that existed between all ranks and conditions, when every one was ready to help his neighbor. And when I repeated : " We're boldly marching to Quebec, where the drums are loudly beating;" and, " As oats, peas, beans and barley grows," his face dropped at least twenty-five years of its age.

Thus the past drifts back into the soon-to-be-forgotten, and to be buried beneath the debris of the dead ages. The merest inklings, or perhaps it were better to say scintillations, of the life and times of sixty and seventy years ago, lives to-day in the recesses of the minds and hearts of the aged. They come to the eye and the visage when referred to in speech, or song, or tune ; but with the exception of here and there a breast, no responsive chord is struck. But to the man or woman who lived on the frontier threescore, or threescore and ten years ago, there is no joy on earth. so sweet as these reminiscences that come floating through the inward thoughts like angel-whispers, of childhood and youth's first young loves and innocence. There we can go for consolation, and live with our own dear associations, when the present has nothing dear for us. It is the priceless boon which thieves cannot steal, and which none but ourselves can participate in.

The first death, Mr. Bope said, that occurred in their settlement, that he could recall, was that of his grandfather Bope, which took place soon after they came. He said he was a very good man, and always prayed with the children every night before they went to bed. There are four of Abraham Bope's children living—Jacob and Philip, and two daughters.

Daniel Arnold built the first mill. It was on Fetter's Run. Jacob Weaver built the first still-house ; it stood on the land now owned by Philip Watson, adjoining the Bope farm. The first wool they had carded into rolls was done where Baltimore now is. Name of the owner of the carding machine not remembered.



My father, William Murphy, came from Virginia in about 1800, and settled in the north part of what is now Walnut Township, one mile south-east of the present village of Millersport. Two brothers came with him and settled in the same neighborhood—Edward and Benjamin. My grandfather, William Murphy, was also of the same company. My uncle Edward afterwards went further east and settled one mile west of the present village of Rushville.

At the time of the arrival of our family there, the whole country was unbroken and uninhabited, save by wild beasts and roving bands of Indians. James Homer bought the lands lying between our settlement and where Millersport is. Soon after our settlement my father's cabin became a preaching place, and the Rev. James Quinn, of the Methodist denomination, was one of the preachers who held meetings there. At this time, June 1877, not one of the original pioneers is living.

The first school I remember was in 1824. It was kept in a little log-pen, with the usual log-cabin fixtures of that time. John Griffith was the first teacher I went to. He was followed by John Granthum in the same house. There were no female teachers employed at that time; at least not in that neighborhood.

The first mill I went to was on Licking Creek, and stood on the borders of the present town of Newark. It was owned by John Buskirk. Newark was then a log-cabin village. My father took his grain to the mill in a wagon with wooden wheels called "truck-wheels." They were made by sawing off, with a cross-cut saw, sections of a very large oak tree, of the thickness of about four inches, with holes made in the center for the axle-tree. If they were not kept well greased, the creaking they caused when in motion could sometimes be heard a mile or more. He generally drove .a four-horse team to his truck-wagon.


I was not familiar with the wildest condition of the country, only through the representation of my parents and others.

My father killed a panther on the Muddy Prairie, where Amanda now is. He killed sixty-three wolves and received bounties for their scalps from the State. Of raccoons, foxes and wild-cats, he killed six hundred, with also about six hundred muskrats. He took the skins to Winchester, Virginia, on pack-horses, realizing for them money enough to enter three quarter-sections of land, embracing the farm on which I now live. He likewise traded extensively with the Indians for their peltries. The Indians got the impression that he had cheated them, and on one occasion when they returned to the neighborhood he kept himself hid until they went away, though they made no attempt to disturb him.


My age is seventy-nine years. I came to this neighborhood about 1810, and have lived here ever since. At the time I came the settlers in this region were :

William Hane, Samuel Crawford, Andrew Crager, James Homes, William Bowman, William Murphy, Mathias Miller, William Pugh, Henry Eversole. This was in 1810. Soon after came Abel Williams, Peter Hauer and David Keller.

When the war of 1812 came on, a great many from the settlement went into the service.

The first death that occurred in the neighborhood after I came was that of Samuel Crawford, and the next that I can remember was Andrew Crager. The first marriages after I came were Lydia and Jane Cherry ; Lydia married Robert White, and Jane married Robert McArthur.

Nearly every man in the country owned a good gun, and a great many of them were hunters. All kinds of wild game abounded in the forests. William Murphy and William Bowman were distinguished hunters.

At one time William Murphy heard that Indians were about, and he kept himself out of the way, for he had heard


that they charged him with cheating them, and he was afraid of them. But nothing ever came of it.

Squirrels, crows and black-birds destroyed the corn so fearfully that it was difficult some years to save enough for bread. Raccoons, likewise, often caused a scarcity by preying upon the corn when it was in roasting-ears.

I killed a bear where Millersport stands. I had to shoot him five times before he gave in. At my last shot, he was coaling at me with extended mouth, but my ball took effect, and, I believe, saved my life. I killed fifty odd deer in one winter, four of them in a single day. I caught a great many foxes by the chase. I could walk several miles and roll logs all day, and then walk home at night and not feel much tired.

At one time I took my breakfast at home, and then walked thirty miles to Columbus, or rather to Franklinton, and took dinner at two o'clock. When I first visited the site of the present Columbus, it was all in woods. At one time when there was a general squirrel-hunt, my brother Nathaniel killed eighty-four in one day.

I have owned a great deal of property, and lost it all. I never sued a man in my life, and was never sued.

My father died in 1863, and my mother two years before that. I had four brothers, all residing in Walnut Township, and all died in the township. Their names were : John, Nathaniel, William and James; and five sisters: Lydia, Jane, Betsy, Rosanna and Mary. Four of my sisters were buried here, and one near Chillicothe. I was the third in age, and am the only one living.

When I came here the site of Millersport was a thick woods. The village was laid off by Mathias Miller.

The " Big Reservoir " was a marsh. The upper end of it was a lake and a cranberry-marsh. It was called "the lake." It became the reservoir when the Ohio Canal was made.

During the early days and years of the settlement, the people lived very much on wild meat, particularly venison and wild-turkey, and on corn-bread, vegetables and rye-coffee. They also made use of spice-wood and sassafras teas. Milk and butter were always plenty. When cows and horses were turned out to graze in the woods, bells were put on them to make it easy to find them. They seldom strayed far away.


The women spun and made all the family clothing,. and the shoes were made by the men of the settlement, a few of whom were shoemakers. There were small tan-yards that furnished the leather. We dressed deer-skins and made pantaloons of them. We had hatters who made wool and fur-hats. In summer we went barefoot, and got our shoes about Christmas.


I came from Berks County, Pennsylvania, in the year 1805, and settled in Fairfield County, at first fourteen miles down Hocking, then in Pleasant Township, and afterwards in Greenfield, where I have been residing thirty-six years. My father was Jacob Zeller Radibaugh. He died in Greenfield Township in 1841. Of those who came out with our family from Pennsylvania, were : Benjamin Boucher, Frederick Klinger, and their families. They both settled down Hocking, within Fairfield County, and are both dead. There were but few cabins in Lancaster when we came. It was all a wild wilderness country. Our neighbors down Hocking were Mr. Watts and John Zeller. In Pleasant we lived in the Ewing settlement. My husband's father was George Radibaugh. He owned the farm now belonging to William Rigby, joining Frederick Seitz on the south.

The elder Radibaughs who lived in Pleasant were Nicholas and George. They settled there previous to 1810. They have both deceased, and their descendants are largely represented in the county.

Down Hocking we lived in a small log-cabin that had oiled paper for window-lights. Newspapers were often used for that purpose, and hog's-lard and bear-grease for oiling them. We had no mills very near us, and the small ones, that were some distance away, often failed for want of water, so that breadstuffs were sometimes very scarce. Sometimes several weeks passed when scarcely anybody in the whole neighborhood had a pound of meal or flour. In these times of scarcity we used pounded hominy and vegetables. Nearly every cabin


had its hominy-block. Venison and wild-turkey meat were always plenty.

The. Indians often came about, but we were not afraid of them, and they never disturbed anybody. Wild animals of all kinds were plenty.

The first wedding I attended was Mary Cisco to Jas. Philips. The next was my own, in 1811. The first death which occurred in the neighborhood was that of Adam Sellers, a small boy.

The first religious meetings that were held in our neighborhood down Hocking, were held at my father's cabin by the United Brethren. My father was a Brethren preacher. I am 82 years old. The early settlers of Fairfield County that I knew have all passed away.


His father, Samuel Sheaffer, came from York County, Pennsylvania, in company with Christly Stalter and George Dush, and settled in Madison Township in the year 1802, and when Jacob was seven years old. He has lived on the same place ever since, and is now eighty-three years of age. They came in wagons all the way—came by Wheeling, and from there over Zane's trace to Lancaster. Lancaster at that time was all forest trees, with the exception of a few rude log-cabins. They stopped over night three miles west, at the place since known as Sheaffer's tavern. There was a cabin there, occupied by a man named Swygart. From there they followed the trace to near where Amanda is, then turned south a few miles, and stoped on the same section of land where Jacob now lives. Stalter and Dush built their tents within a couple of miles. On the route between Zanesville and Lancaster there were at that time not over three or four cabins. The Swygart cabin and the Leathers House were the only structures between Lancaster and where they stopped, on Clear Creek.


At the time of the arrival of this colony of three families in Madison Township, or what is now Madison Township, there had already preceded them Martin Landis, Sr., Mike Shellenbarger, Nathan Owens, Peter Prough, the father of Mathew, John, William, Robert and Joseph Young, who lived one mile east of where Mr. Sheaffer stopped, and a Mr. Hunter, who lived a little east.

They first went to Isaac Sheaffer's, and the men went over and built a cabin, cutting out a single log for an entrance, through which the family crawled, on their arrival. The first winter was spent in it without so much as a chink in one of the cracks. There was no other floor than Mother Earth. The fire was built in one corner of the cabin. They at once began the work of clearing off some land for a cornfield, and during that winter, Mr. Sheaffer testified, he believed they were the happiest people in the world.

Subsequent to the arrival of these families, there came and settled in the adjacent region, George Buzzard, old Mr. Stalter, John, Nicholas and Daniel Conrad, Abram Sheaffer, father of the late Joel Sheaffer, and a Mr. Wolf. During the following ten or fifteen years the township filled up rapidly.

Mr. Sheaffer's father hired him to Martin Landis, Sr., for three dollars a month. He said he could, not keep himself in clothes at such wages, and before he would be compelled to do so he would run away. Landis told his father, and he said, " Send him home." To satisfy him and keep him at home, his father gave him a horse, saddle and bridle, and he was satisfied.

The first mill in the township was built very early, by Charles Friend. Samuel Sheaffer, father of the narrator, put up a small distillery early after his arrival. Drinking men came there, and it caused a good deal of disturbance.

The first school of the settlement was taught by one Richard Clark. The first remembered death, after the arrival of the Sheaffers, was that of George Lusk and child. The first marriage remembered was George Prough to Barbara Shoemaker.

The Indians, he said, were their best friends and neighbors. Mr. Sheaffer said the first vote he cast was for James Monroe, for President.

The Menese were the first religious society spoken of. They


met at the Leathers House, and held their meetings in the bar-room.

For a great many years there was very little the farmers could raise that would bring cash. But the taxes had to be paid, and it was often very difficult to scrape up what little money was required for that purpose.

At first it was necessary to blaze the trees in order to go from one point to another with safety, for the country was literally a wilderness—a trackless desert. In one instance the trees were blazed between the cabin and the litte cornfield; and also to a branch of water where they went to water the stock, though the distance was in one case but a quarter of a mile, and in the other half a mile.

The settlers made all their own clothing, on domestic wheels and looms. Every house had its hominy-block. There was in the neighborhood a hand-mill, where people went and ground their own corn. The black-birds and crows were very destructive to the corn, both in spring and fall; but the squirrels and raccoons were far more so. The first salt was brought from the Scioto works, and cost four and five dollars a bushel, which was fifty pounds. Pack-saddles were used. Almost everything was transported on horseback, for the want of wagon-roads.


I am a son of William Crook, for a long time a citizen of Berne Township. My father came from Henry County, Virginia, in 1805, and settled in Berne Township, on the farm now owned by George Huffman, two miles south-east of Lancaster. My grandfather, Ephriam Crook, came out first and lived on the same place. My father had six brothers, who also preceded him to this county, all residing in the same neighborhood. They are all deceased.

My father served as Sheriff of Fairfield County, and also as Justice of the Peace for many years, besides other positions of

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trust. He was in the war of 1812. He went out as a Major, and was promoted to the rank of Colonel. He died at his home in Berne Township, in about 1855.

At my earliest recollection our neighbors were Thomas Stone, Emanuel Carpenter, Sr., David Carpenter, William Carpenter, Israel Carpenter, Emanuel Carpenter, Jr., John Carpenter (John Carpenter was the father of Mrs. John Van Pearce), Jacob Vanmeter, John Vanmeter, James Pearce, Abraham Ream, Jacob Ream. Sampson, William, Absalom, Abram and George Ream were sons of Abraham Ream. Jacob Ream had two sons—Philip and Jacob. Peter Sturgeon was one of the earliest settlers. Abram Walker, Nicholas Crawfish and James Mumford were also early settlers of Berne Township. Mr. Jackson, father of Thomas Jackson, Esq., and grandfather of John D. Jackson, of Lancaster, came at a very early day. The father of the late Judge Joseph Stukey and Samuel Stukey was likewise an early corner.

The first mill that I can remember was the Eckert mill. It was built by the father of Jacob Eckert, who was the father of George and Henry Eckert. The mill was built on Hocking, one mile above the Ream mill. The Ream mill was built a little later. The Kuntz mill was perhaps built first. The. Shellenbargar mill was built by Samuel and Henry Shellen-barger. Samuel Shellenbarger was the father of the present Reuben Shellenbarger.

The first school I went to was on the land now owned by Mr. Prindle, two miles below Lancaster. John Adison was the teacher. This was in about 1809. He was a humorous man. On one occasion I lost my book, and did not find it until the next day. He asked me where I found it. I told him I found it in the bush. After that, when I went up to say my lesson, he would lay his hand on my head and say good-naturedly : "This is the boy that found his book in the bush." Hocking H. Hunter afterwards taught in that house, and also a Mr. Burrows.

The first funeral I can remember was that of my mother, who died in 1813.

The Presidential election of 1828 was held where the fulling-mill of James R. Pierce is, on the sixteenth section, and afterwards at the house of Henry Ozenbaugh, who was also one of the early settlers of Berne Township.


We lived at first in a little log-cabin in the woods. It had but one room, which was parlor, sitting-room, bed-room and kitchen for the whole family. The trees were deadened, and the underbrush cleared off, and the logs rolled and burned, and the corn was raised in among the trees. The rails to fence in the fields were for the most part made from trees cut down on the clearing. (The clearing was the ground in process of being prepared for the plow).

I knew one man who hauled his back-logs into the house with a horse and log-chain. His fireplace was nearly the full width of his cabin.

My mother used to spread a bed before the fire in cold weather, and five or six of us little folks would lie down in a row, with our feet towards the fire. This was made necessary by the scarcity of beds and bed-clothes.

Dances and country plays were practiced by the young people. There were little or no distinctions among the people; every well-behaved person was as good as anybody else. Money made no difference then, for we did not have enough of it to get up an aristocracy upon. Of one thing I am sure—everybody then had better manners than they have now ; and there was real friendship and sociability amongst all classes. Everybody was ready to help each other whenever help was needed. And I think everybody was honester than now—a man's word was worth something. I love to think of those good days, departed never again to return. Our associations, and loves, and friends, are nearly all lost in the now fast-growing dim vista of the past, and we can only strain our eyes towards the better land, where, by faith, we expect to meet them all again.

There is scarcely anything left of the wilderness state of this country seventy years ago.


I came from Baltimore County, Maryland; in the year 1812, and settled in violet township, three miles east of Pickerington, and on the same spot where I now reside. My age is


ninety years. When I arrived here I found living in the vicinity, or at least within the township, Michael Kraner, Alexander Donald, Philip Ebright, Andrew Peck, James Bight, Edward Rickets, George Fenstermaker, Henry Huntwork, John Bowser, Frederick Showers, Jacob Growley, John Chaney and Thomas Homes. Of all these, and several others who lived in the township at that time, John Chaney and myself are the only ones now living. My brother, Acquilla came out with me, and we purchased jointly half a section of land.

When we settled down here we were in the midst of wild woods in every direction. We cleared off the ground and put up little cabins, and then began the work of clearing some land for cornfields. To be able to find our way through the settlement from one point to another, we made blazes on the trees by peeling or hewing some bark from both sides; and these blazes were followed until beaten tracks were formed. As occasion required we cut out wagon-roads. There was a wagon-road that passed half a mile east of us, over which the army of the war of 1812 passed. This was in 1813. It was a cold winter, and we could hear the army wagons passing day and night, and could hear the shouts of the drivers.

Upon our first settlement the wolves howled around us day and night. There were also panthers, bears, and wild-cats in the woods; wild-turkeys were in vast flocks in every section of the country, and flocks of them would come up to the rear of our cabin and look in through the little window. I have shot them through the window. We could have wild-turkey and deer-meat whenever we wanted.

My brother Henry died two years subsequent to my arrival. His was the first funeral I remember in the settlement.

Jacob Nepper had a mill at that time, two miles from my cabin, on Little Walnut, and Solomon Barts had one on Poplar Creek, a little farther up the country. A man named Don-alson had a still-house three miles south of me, at the place now known as Waterloo.

Almost every little place had a peach-orchard, more or less. The natural seedling peach was all that was known at that early day. The crop seldom failed, and there were peaches in great abundance almost every year ; large quantities of them


were hauled to the still-houses and converted into peach-brandy.

The Methodists had a society in the settlement, but there was no meeting-house; the meetings were held in the cabins of the settlers. In 1816 I married Isabella McDonald. She was the mother of my children, and died in 1870, in the month of June.

The first taxes I paid in Fairfield county was two or three dollars a year. My land was not taxed for five years after I entered it. This was provided for in the patent. Money was hard to come at, and there was very little the farmers produced that would bring it, for we had no market and no way to get our little surplus out of the country. What little money we had was almost entirely silver, and much of it was cut money. The men soon learned to make five " quarters " out of a Spanish dollar, and five " ninepences" out of a half-dollar, or five " fipenybits " from a twenty-five-cent piece.

In harvest times the price of a day's work was fifty cents, or a bushel of wheat. Log-rollings, corn-huskings, and house-raisings were universal all over the county. One spring I rolled logs thirty days in succession, and I can't remember now how I got my own work done, but we all got along somehow.

The elections were then, and have been ever since, held at Pickerington. In the war of 1812 a great many went as soldiers. A good many of them did not live to get home.

When we came out from Maryland, we traveled in wagons by the way of Wheeling, and over Zane's trace to Lancaster. There was a tavern then on the Schaeffer corner, in Lancaster, but I cannot remember who kept it. We came from Lancaster to Michael Kraner's in one day, which was considered extraordinary for the kind of roads we had to pass over.

Lancaster was then a village of log-cabins, with perhaps the exception of two or three small brick buildings.

I have three sons and five daughters living. Timothy Fishbaugh, of Lancaster, and at present County Recorder, is my second son. I have lived to see Violet Township become wealthy, populous and well cultured. I was thirteen years old when I landed in Violet Township, and have lived on the same place sixty-five years. Have never returned to Maryland since I first came away.



My father, Frederick Harmon, came from Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania, in the year 1800, and settled five miles east of the present city of Lancaster. There were seven families emigrated in the same company, viz.: My father, Lewis and Christ Bonsey, George Henry, John Miller, Jacob Fox, Debolt Macklin; and all settled in the same neighborhood.

We came in a flat-boat from a point on the Manongahela to the mouth of the Scioto. There the boat was abandoned, and the little stock of household goods and farming implements placed on two or three wagons, and the journey up the Scioto, through the wilderness, began. A road had to be cut most of the route. Myself, with most of the others, walked the greatest part of the way. A number of days were required in coming as far as the Pickaway Plains, above Chillicothe. From the plains to Lancaster the journey was made in two days.

When we arrived on the Hocking, and crossed over, we found on the site where Lancaster now stands, not over one or two cabins; all besides was a forest, with ponds of water and swales passing over it. We encamped that night on the spot, as I subsequently found, where the old Court-house was afterwards built. On the following day we continued our journey to the point of our destination, which was the place since known as the Harmon settlement, in Pleasant Township.

My father and two or three others had been out the previous year and selected the spot, and built two or three small cabins. During their sojourn there, in 1799, the Indians stole my father's horse, and he was compelled to walk all the distance back to Westmoreland County. The horse, by some means, got away from the Indians, and was recovered the following fall in the vicinity of Marietta, having been recognized by a brand on his shoulder.

Subsequently the Indians stole two horses from a settler. The owner found them at an Indian camp near Rushville, and demanded them. The Indians shook their heads. The man insisted, when an Indian came out and circled a butcher-knife around his head, and he was obliged to leave. The next morn-


ing he returned with a posse of his neighbors, armed with rifles. The Indians still refused to let the horses go, whereupon the men pointed their guns at them and told the man to go and untie his horses, which he did, and there the matter ended.

All around us was a wilderness. There were a few families over on Ewing's Run, and on Fetter's Run, and down on Rush Creek. A man by the name of Lynch had opened a small tan-yard where Baldwin's brick house stands, two miles north-east of Lancaster. Jacob Harmon had a cabin where East Lancaster is. He was not of our family. I was eight years old when we came to Fairfield County. I am eighty-five years and six months now.

In 1815 I married Sarah Cramer, whose parents lived in Violet Township, north of the present town of Winchester. Her father owned a considerable body of land there, and I settled on that portion of it which fell to my wife, and have lived on it ever since, or sixty-two years.

There were no roads through the settlement—that is, no established roads; but we got up petitions and had them located and opened. At the time of my marriage there had not been a stick cut on my wife's land. I at once built a cabin and moved into it, and went to work to clear out fields.

At the time of my settlement here, my neighbors might be mentioned as, George Long, Peter Robnold, Jacob Algire, John Algire, William Stevenson, Greenberry Ashley, Jonathan Looker, Michael Cramer, Mr. McArthur and old Father Cramer.

The Methodists and United Brethren had societies in the neighborhood, and held their meetings in the cabins of the settlers. Newcomer and Troxel were Brethren preachers.

At an early day I went to a mill north of Columbus for my grinding, and to Zanesville for salt. Our place of election was where Pickerington is. The woods everywhere abounded with wolves, wild-cats, wild-turkeys, with occasional bears and panthers, though the settlements had been forming for several years. There was a woman who went into the woods to look for her cows ; she was absent too long, and the men went in search of her. They found the body partly devoured. She had been killed by a panther, as was believed, for the men saw it in the act of running away from her. One of her arms


was eaten off, and other parts of her body were more or less mutilated.

There was a usage in our settlement, which, I believe, was common in the new country during the pioneer age—it was that of blowing horns in the night, in case of accidents or distress of any kind where help was needed. The blast of the horn in the night never failed to bring the nearest neighbors.

During the war of 1812 I drove a wagon on the frontier. I was out several times, and received for my services a land-warrant. Our lands were entered at the land-office in Chillicothe. It was Congress land, and the price was two dollars an acre.

Wild bees were plenty. Bee-trees could be found everywhere, and any one who found a tree had the right to cut it down, for timber was not regarded as of much value. It was rather an incumbrance.

My taxes then was two dollars and fifty cents. I have since paid one hundred dollars, which I could raise more easily than I could sometimes raise the little sum of the early times.

I have six sons and two daughters living. The descendants of the early settlers of Violet Township, with few exception, are still living in the township. Lithopolis was a village when I settled here, in 1815, but there was no other village at the time in Bloom Township.

I am the oldest son of my father, Frederick Harmon, and the only one living. My brother Frederick died about two years ago, at the old place in Pleasant Township.


My father, Christian Crumly, came from Pennsylvania in 1802 or 1803, and settled in Bloom Township, one mile south of Greencastle, on the head of the Hocking river. He had previously entered land, and in settling down in the first place, he supposed he was on his own land, but after living a year or two in his first cabin, he made the discovery that he


was on the wrong land, when he abandoned his cabin and moved over on the other side of the stream, which was on the west side. On this place he lived until the time of his death, which was in the year 1856, if my memory is correct.

At my earliest recollection, our neighbors were the following families, as near as my memory serves me. There may have been a few that I cannot recall, probably not many : Father Courtright, who was the father of Jesse, Abram and John Courtright; Daniel Glick, John Ritter, Mr. Bright, Horatio Clark, Mr. Alspaugh, who was the father of George, John, Henry and Jacob Alspaugh ; John Solt, Mr. Roler, the grandfather of Henry and Elijah Roler, now living; Peter Lamb, father of the present Peter. Lamb, of Bloom Township; John Swartz, Father Elias Swartz, still of Bloom ; Mr. Thrash, father of Eli Thrash; Rev. Mr. Bennadum, father of Philip and Peter Bennadum ; Mr. Morehart, father of John and Christian Morehart; Martin Bogart, Mr. Crites, father of John Crites, late of Bloom Township; Simon Crites, father of Samuel Crites, still of Bloom Township ; Mr. Homrighouse, father of John, William and Philip Homrighouse ; Hugh Scott, father of James Scott, and father-in-law of F. A. Boving, of Lancaster ; Mr. Mesmore, George Crowley, James Donaldson, Mr. Gordon, Henry Leaphart, John Fellows, father of Joshua Fellows, still of Bloom Township, and father-in-law of Coonrod Crumley, of Hocking Township; Frederick Fellows, father of Coonrod Fellows, at present of Bloom.

Frederick Baugher was proprietor of Lithopolis, which he laid off in about 1815. An addition to the town was afterward made by Solomon Baugher. The place was at first named Centerville.

A Presbyterian Church was established there at a very early day, and later by the Methodists and Lutherans. The first church built in Bloom Township was the Glick Church—Lutheran and German Reform.

Abram Haines was a very early settler of the township, and is still living. Mr. Needels, father of B. J. Needels, still of the township, was also among the first settlers. Daniel Hay was the father of Isaac Hay, who still resides on the home-place. Adam Snyder was an early settler.

Our first mill was the rock-mill. The first structure there


was built by Loveland & Smith, and was set low down among the rocks. The grists were taken in at the gable-end and let down to the hopper with ropes, and then raised to the level by the same means.

The first still-house in Bloom Township, that I can remember, was built by J. D. Courtright. It was at the Stump Spring, between Lancaster and Greencastle. The first school I attended was in a little log-cabin on the bank of the Hocking. It had oiled paper for window-lights.

The wolves came in a large flock around our smoke-house, in the night, and the conch shell was blown to frighten them away.


I am the third son of Edward Murphy, who settled one mile west of West Rushville, in the year 1802. I was corn on the farm where I now live, the same where my father first settled. My father came from Virginia, in 1798, returned in 1799, and with his father and brothers moved to Fairfield County in 1800, settling in the north part of Walnut Township, near the present village of Millersport.

My father intended to enter the land since known as the Buchanan farm, and started to Chillicothe for that purpose, with his saddle-bags full of silver. On the way he met Mr. Buchanan, who had preceded him, and had already made the entry.

My mother's father first entered the section where I now live; his name was John Murphy. There were Indians on the tract before he made the entry. One of them showed him five springs on the section, and he marked the spots by tomahawking the trees. The springs are all still running.

My father kept a little tavern. It sometimes happened that so many men stopped for a night's lodging, that it was impossible to give them all beds, and straw was spread down for them to sleep on. Sometimes every room was full.

The Indians often came to our house for something to eat ; they were fond of salt, and always wanted the half of what


was produced. If it was a bushel, they would not be satisfied without a half-bushel. My mother coming to understand this, adopted the plan of producing a tinful, and then they would always go away with half a tinful. She was always afraid of the Indians, and on one occasion when my father had gone to Chillicothe to mill, to be gone over night, she took her children and dog and went into the fodder-house and remained till morning. To keep the dog from barking, she kept him by her with her hand on him; and for fear the baby would cry, she kept it constantly at the breast. She, however, had never been molested by them.

My mother raised five children of her own, and, in addition, thirty-two orphans. She never failed, when a mother died and left small children that were not provided for, to take one or more of them. A woman named Batson died, and my mother took four of the children, and I, having a family of my own, took two of them off her hands. She raised Joe Blanchard, colored barber of Lancaster.

I have seen fifty or more men and boys at a corn-husking at night. It was the custom for a lot of girls to be stationed in the rear of the huskers to take back the husks—some with rakes, and others using their arms. It was the privilege of the boys, when they found a red ear, to take a kiss, a custom also understood by the girls, and no sooner was the red ear brought to light than the lucky finder would break for his girl. This, together with carrying the husks, was the occasion of a good deal of sport. [The writer remembers the custom, and has often participated in it].


My mother was a sister of the late Walter McFarland, of Greenfield Township. She came with her father, William McFarland, to this county in 1799, and settled first on Hooker's Prairie, four miles north-west of Lancaster. Her father intended to enter the land where the Hookers live but there were two men who claimed it by tomahawk-right, and he


went and entered the land where Walter McFarland afterward lived and died.

William McFarland had two sons—John and Walter. John was the father of William, Robert and Walter McFarland, late of Greenfield Township, and Walter was the father of John McFarland, now of Greenfield.

About two years after the arrival of the McFarlands, Abraham Van. Courtright, my grandfather, came into the county, and settled near what is now known as the Betser Church, two miles south of Lockville. He did not .remain there long before he bought land and moved over in the vicinity of the present village of Greencastle, where he died fifty-one or two years ago, or about the year 1825. His three sons—John, Jesse and Abraham Courtright, settled in the same neighborhood, where they are all buried. John settled two and a half miles south of Greencastle ; Jesse lived in Greencastle, where he deceased many years since. My father, Abraham Court-right, bought a place from a Mr. andemark, one mile east of Greencastle, on the old Columbus road, upon which he lived many years, and died at a ripe old age.


My father, Jacob Iric, came from Maryland in 1805, and stopped first in Lancaster, when it was a cluster of log-cabins among the trees and stumps, interspersed with ponds and swales. He did not remain but a short time before he, in connection with his father, a man then in middle life, bought land two miles south of Lancaster, erected a little cabin on it, and moved in. There he lived until the time of his death in 1859, at a ripe old age.

They were unable to meet the deferred payments, and the land was forfeited at the land-office at Chillicothe. My father then went to work with energy, and, by hard labor and careful saving, accumulated money enough to redeem the land, when my grandfather deeded him the half of one hundred and


fifty-three acres. My grandfather died before my recollection. My mother died in about 1861.

At my first recollection our neighbors, in part, were General David Reece, Martin Baker, Mr. Pannebaker, near the Kuntz mill ; the Carpenters and the Shellenbargers. All these were very early settlers.

My mother was a daughter of Michael Hensel, who lived on Rush Creek. He came out one year before my father, or in 1804. Mr. Hensel and his wife died a little more than thirty years ago. Mrs. John U. Giesy was a sister of my mother. William and George Crook, brothers, married two of the Hensel girls. There was but one brother. He moved up to Big Walnut, and I believe is not living.

The first school I went to was near the present Prindle farm—a little log structure with paper windows. It was in the woods. A Mr. Myres, William McAboy, and Paul Carpenter taught in it; and previously, and before I went there, Hocking H. Hunter was the teacher.

Religious meetings by the Lutherans and German Reformers were held in the cabins of settlers, and in school-houses. Revs. Stake and Wise were the preachers.

There were Indians about when I was a small boy. I do not know whether the people were afraid of them, but I can remember that the men used to carry their guns and shot-pouches with them when they went to meeting, though the precaution was probably more on account of wild animals. Almost every man was a hunter. A great many bears were killed; and deer and wild-turkeys could be taken at any time with very little trouble, for the woods were full of them.

The first mill my father and his neighbors went to was Crouse's, near Chillicothe. Afterwards little raccoon burr-mills and horse-mills were built near us, and in different parts of the county.

The men of our settlement sometimes went as far as twelve miles, and more, to help put up cabins, and to roll logs, and to give other assistance to the settlers. The country was wild and new, and everybody had to work hard and live hard for many years until the lands became improved and the facilities for getting a living increased. I have heard my father say that he and his family experienced six weeks at one time when they had very little else to live on than boiled turnips.


They built a turkey-pen, in which more than two hundred turkeys were caught. I heard my father say that he bated the pen, and sat hid near by and saw them flock round it by the dozen; some of them would go in through the trench. One time he ran from his hiding-place to the pen, and found seven turkeys inside, which he secured. At another time he was loading corn in the wagon, and while he was at work on one side the turkeys were on the other pecking the ears. He tried to kill them by throwing ears of corn at them, but failed.

Nelsy Robinson and Lawrence Beck were married by Rev. Stake, about the year 1820. I was told that old Father Ream, father of Sampson and George Ream, and Henry Shellenbarger, died about 1812. Henry Rudolph, who I think was the father of Peter Rudolph, of Sugar Grove, died about the same time.

I heard my father say his tax was two or three dollars, at an early day, and that he had hard work to raise that amount.

I am sixty years old, and live on my father's old place, where I was born. I have three brothers and one sister living.


ROYALTON, March 13th, 1877.

DR. H. SCOTT—Dear Sir: At your request I send you the following items pertaining to Toby Town,' and the early settlers of Amanda Township: Toby Town was the name of an Indian village situated in what is now Bloom Township, section 33, about 80 rods eastward from the west line of said section, and about 20 rods north of its southern line. A small stream, known in early times as Toby Creek, and so marked on the old maps, ran through the village, but its eastern bank was its principal site. Said creek has long been known and called by those living along its entire length, by the name Little Walnut, and so marked on late maps. Tradition says nothing of the origin of the village, but in about 1806, or 1807, the Indians left it, and went to Sandusky, among the Wyan-


dot tribes, and no doubt became a part of that people. A few straggling ones were occasionally seen for a year or two afterwards, when they all finally disappeared. A few incidents relating to them I will state :

Shortly after they left, William Clark built on the old village site, and in digging for clay to daub his cabin, he came upon Indian remains, supposed to be those of a chief, as a large double-handful of silver rings, brooches, and other ornaments were discovered with the bones. Elijah Clark, a little son of Horatio Clark, being about thirty rods off; brought some of them to his mother, who fancied she could perceive an unpleasant odor, and thereupon ordered the little boy to return them to their sacred resting-place. The next Sunday, however, they were again taken up by two young men named Wintersteen, whose parents lived in section 32, one half mile westward, at or near the site of an old family grave-yard, where now repose the ashes of several of the Clark family, some of whom settled near Toby Town in 1799.

The Indians would take a short journey eastward, and come back with plenty of lead, which they traded to the whites. No one ever knew, nor was it ever found out where they obtained it; but from the length of time they were absent, the place could not have been very distant. An opinion long after prevailed that it was obtained near the present site of the rock-mills. But all search for the place has thus far proved futile.

The Clark family, who settled within thirty rods of them in 1799, were never seriously molested by the red-skins, though they frequently found prudence the better part of valor, when their red neighbors paid devotion to Bacchus. About twenty years ago Mrs. Clark related to me, that on one occasion that she remembered, Indians came to her house hunting whisky, and that she took her little children and hid in the brush until after they went away. Mrs. Clark's grandchildren are the present occupants of the farm, and they tell me that for many years human bones, arrowheads, and other Indian relics were frequently turned up by the plow. Tradition alone now marks the spot. The village and tribe took their names from their chief, whose name was Toby.



In the spring of 1800, three men, names not remembered, came from near Chillicothe and broke ground on the prairie in section number 4, planted corn, and then returned home. They came back in due time and tended their corn twice. The next fall one of these men sold his share to Horatio Clark, receiving a horse in payment. The other two likewise disposed of their shares to parties not now remembered. In November of the same year, Wilkinson Lane, of Huntingdon County, Tennessee, settled on section 8, and was succeeded in the month of June following by Thomas Cole, my grandfather, who had entered the section. His grandchildren still own one half of the section. The family were never troubled by the Indians. In a few years my grandfather built a school-house on his land, hired a teacher, Abraham Cole, for eight dollars a month, and then invited all who wished to send their children And pay a pro rata share, or not, as they could or would. In those days school hours were from " sun to sun, " or as soon as scholars arrived. On one occasion, my father, Broad Cole, (born in 1802), thought of " beating the master to school," some day, and, after a few failures to do so, left home one morning about daybreak; but, on arriving at the school-house, he was greeted with a good fire, and found the master, a Mr. Smith, banking up dirt against the school-house to protect against cold. That house was built on the north part of section 18. David Swope and William Long were settlers on section 8, in June, 1807. In 1800, Dr. Silas Allen bought and settled on section number 3, building a house on the crest of a hill, near the western line of said section, and fronting a prairie on the west, in section number 4. His purchase consisted of about five hundred acres. At that time there was not the mark of an ax from Lancaster to his house. Said section was soon given to his four sons—Whiting, Lemuel, Jedediah and Benjamin Allen. Lemuel and Jedediah gave ground for a village, and about 1810 William Hamilton, then living on section 22, surveyed and laid out the village of Royalton, about one mile south-east of Toby Town. For some years it went by the name of Toby Town, generally, but by the Allen family it was called Royalton, after a village in Vermont, from whence they came. Elvira Allen, now Mrs.


Meeker, was born in 1803, the first female child born, it is supposed, in that part of the township. Mrs. Meeker still distinctly remembers the Toby Town Indians coming over the prairie in single file, the squaws carrying their papooses on their backs, lashed to a board, and on arriving at her father's house, would stand up the boards upon which their little responsibilities were tied, against the outside, while they went in.

The first schools in Royalton were taught by Warren Case and his sister Sabre, in 1810; and by Henry Calhoon, in 1812. The Rev. Dr. Hoag, (late of Columbus) a Presbyterian, preached in Lemuel Allen's house, in Royalton, as early as 1810. About the same time the first tavern was opened there by Lemuel Allen, as also the first store by Jacob Rush. In about 1814, the Methodists organized a society there, and their first preacher is supposed to have been Isaac Quinn.

In this year Stephen Cole built a grist-mill and a carding machine combined, on what is called Cole's Run, heading at a spring in section 8, the mill being situated on section 7. Richard Hooker helped to build the mill ; and in 1817, Piper and Reynolds built what is known as the Hooker mill, on Turkey Run. Mr. Hooker lived on section 19. The mill has long since disappeared, only bare traces of it being now visible. Mr. Richard Hooker, now of Hocking Township, and in his 79th year, assisted in digging the mill-race.

The first horse grist-mill and still-house were situated in the south part of the township, and were owned by a Mr. Huffer, the exact date of their erection not being known. Richard Hooker was a Justice of the Peace for the township at a very early day. I have recently seen a deed, dated November 15, 1805, the acknowledgment of which was taken by Jesse Willets, J. P. Hamilton and Rush were also Justices for Amanda Township.

On the 6th day of September, 1817, Elders Eli Ashbrook and Jacob Tharp organized the Turkey Run Regular Baptist Church. This church is still in existence. They held their meetings in Hooker's school-house as late as 1838, about which time a house of worship was erected. None of the original members are now living, and but one now lives who became a member by letter a year or two afterward, viz.: Permelia Ashbrook, now 83 years old. Elder Eli Ashbrook, one of the

- 15 -


original founders of the Turkey Run Church, died in January, 1877, aged 96 years.

In 1803 Valentine Reber came out from Pennsylvania, and entered section 10 of our township, and in 1805 he brought out his young wife from Berks County and settled on the section. Frederick Leathers settled in the southern part of the township, about the year 1800.

The township steadily and rapidly increased in population, and the red-men, deer, bears and wolves disappeared in proportion. The nearest neighbors were out of sight, because of trees and brush. The diet was plain, but the people had much better sauce for their tables than the present owners of the soil, and it was not a compound article, but simply hunger. Try it, ye dyspeptics ; and then eat corn-pone, or johnny-cake, or venison-jerk, with ash-cake, buckwheat-cakes, wild-honey, butter, and coffee once a week for a rarity, and you will adopt the language of an old settler, and say, "It don't go bad." The difference in diet within the last seventy-five years was once referred to by an old uncle, a pioneer, thus: " Nowadays, when folks go a visiting, the inquiry at table is, will you take coffee or tea ?' but when I was young, the word was, will you take sweet milk or sour?' "

Boys and girls then went to meeting barefooted, the girls, and their mothers too, sometimes putting on shoes and stockings just before going into the meeting-house. After meeting, a chicken-pie was sometimes indulged in, if the hawks and owls had not flown off with them. One great fear in those days was that the timber would give out. For fear it would, some would even buy rail timber of their less fearful neighbors. The settlers were usually that class known as " poor men," who were glad to sell their timber to raise a little money. Coon-trees and bee-trees had, on this account, to be cut on the sly.

Now, Doctor, permit me to introduce a few anecdotes, and I am done. A quite early settler, who had entered a section and settled upon it, went to work and met his payments yearly, until but one remained. The time drew near, and he lacked but three dollars. None of his neighbors could help him to the amount. Only one day remained, and he had to pay the money at the land-office at Chillicothe, nearly forty miles distant. If he failed, his all would be gone. In this


extremity his only cow died. This opened the way for relief. He skinned her and sold the hide for enough to let him out, and setting off for the land-office, arrived there a little before midnight of the last day, barely in time to save his land.

My grandfather, Thomas Cole, once made the round trip to Chillicothe and back, carrying on his shoulder a flax spinning-wheel to get it repaired, the whole distance both ways being sixty miles. When moving to this county from Huntingdon County, Pennsylvania, in the year 1801, he always first waded the creeks with a long stick in his hand, to test the depth of the water and firmness of the bottom.

George Disinger was one of the early settlers. He once went to Mr. Valentine Reber's to get straw for a bed-tick, but failing to procure any, he and his wife filled the tick with dry forest leaves. After sleeping on it for two or three nights, they thought something was wrong, and upon emptying out the leaves they found that they had had a black-snake for a bed-fellow.

William Long, before-mentioned, was a small man, but remarkably well-proportioned. He once had a pair of pants made from a single yard of tow-linen, but the pattern was rather scant, and the pants too tight. He said he would never spile " another yard of linen in that way. This same Wm. Long found that his cows would not eat straw, so he adopted a strategy. He stuffed straw in the fence cracks, and several times drove the cows away when they had tasted it, and after that he had no trouble in getting them to eat it, and even to eat up his entire crop of Straw.

Pages might be written, of anecdotes, jokes, etc., that would be enjoyable, because they would so richly smack of those good old times when men were free and equal in the substantial sense of the term; and of sociability, such as no longer attains. These were the characteristics of the pioneer age; at least as the rule. One more anecdote must suffice for the present, lest I trespass too much on your space, which I do not wish to do.

Mr. Henry Kiger and his wife, aunt Polly Kiger, are residents of Amanda Township, though they were not among its first settlers. Mr. Kiger is now nearly ninety-seven years of age, and his wife is about six months younger. She is quite brisk, and able to walk several miles to visit her children.


The old gentleman is rather feeble. From a personal interview had with them last Monday, March 5th, 1877, I took the following from their lips: When nearly nineteen years of age, she was living in Hancock Town, 'with an Irishman whose name was James Foley, and who was a tailor. She was there for the purpose of learning the trade. On one occasion General Washington came there on some business connected with the " Whisky Boys." The General put up at Johnston's Tavern, and presently came to Foley's to have his suspenders mended. Foley passed them to Polly Walduck (now Mrs. Kiger) to be repaired. They were profusely ornamented with silver. When she returned them, the General inquired of Mr. Foley if the young lady was his daughter. He replied that she was not, but that she was a mighty fine girl, "when the General put his hand on my head, and called me a pretty girl, which made me mad, though I made no reply."

Mr. Kiger was in the war of 1812, serving seven months. His company was encamped three weeks at Washington City, after the burning of the Capitol by the British, in 1814. He says he walked up the stone steps of the burned Capitol frequently and viewed the ruins.

The first settlers of our township are all gone, and not more than five or six of the children first born to them remain. The rest are all hidden by the sods of the valley. Very shortly nothing of the past scenes will be known, except through uncertain tradition, and written history made up at so late a day as to be deficient in much that ought to have been recorded, and which would have added greatly to the interest of the future. Nevertheless, sweet thoughts will roll over life's troubled sea, while perusing the pages of the history of first settlers and early times of our county.

Yours, truly,   THOMAS COLE.

March 9th, 1877.


DR. H. SCOTT—Dear Sir: Your note of the 12th ult. was duly received. It would require an older person than myself to give a full and correct account of the very earliest settlers


of this township. But such older persons are scarce, and my health not being good, I cannot go to see many that might assist me most, but I will do the best I can. I was less than four years old when, with my parents, I came into the township, and I have lived here ever since-63 years. I will merely mention the names of some of the earliest settlers who have been known to me, as follows :

James Holmes, Wm. Murphy, Thomas Cherry, Eli Whitaker, Wm. Harvey, James Crawford, Andrew Krager. These settled in the northern part of the township. Then Samuel Wiseman, Edward Berry, Abraham Harshbarger, Jas. Miller, Wm. Milligan, David Runk, Asa Murphy, Wm. Irvin, Thos. Ross, George Heis, David Dillinger, John Miller, A. Miller, Nicholas Ketner, Samuel Mills, David Lyle. These lived in the central part. Then in the more southern section of the township were Mr. Thoman, Jesse Pugh, Solomon Barks, Edward Teal, Jno. Decker, Job, Thomas and Adam McName, Wm. Beard, Samuel Trovinger, Tillman Baker, Adam Geiger, John Shipler, Daniel Hall, Jonas Rienhart.

The religious societies first organized were the Methodists and Baptists. Both societies built log meeting-houses on lots donated by Job McName. The first Methodist preachers were : Charles Waddle, James Quinn, Father Goff and James Gilruth. First Baptist preachers : Eli Ashbrook, John Hite, Rev. Caves, Rev. Snelson and George Debolt. School Districts were not known. The settlers built log-cabins to suit neighborhoods, and teachers were hired by "articles of agreement." The article of agreement was drawn up by the teacher, either male or female, in which the terms were stated. Then the paper was by them carried around and presented to the heads of families, who put down their names for so many scholars, according to the size of the family, at a price named per scholar. The most noted teachers were James Allen and Jesse Smith, who taught in different neighborhoods for many successive years. The other teachers were transient persons.

The first grist-mill built was by George H. Houser, on Walnut Creek, where the Foglesong road crosses. The second was built by John Good, one mile above. The third was built by Solomon Barks, on Little Walnut, in the same neighborhood. These little mills have all disappeared long since, principally


because the water failed, and also because larger establishments have been erected on larger streams.

Two still-houses were early erected on section 15—one by. William Irvin, and the other by Thomas Ross. Another, and third one, was established on section 4 by Eli Holmes. All have disappeared about fifty years ago.

The people lived in log-cabins. Their dress was chiefly home-made cloth, linsey and flax and tow-linen. The men found pastime enough at log-rollings and house-raisings; and for more social gatherings they had singing-schools, and the like.

The morals of the people were good for a new country. Gambling of any kind was almost entirely unknown. The first log-cabin in the township was built by Thomas Warner, on the south-east quarter of section 20.

The names I have given you of the early settlers were all here previous to the year 1813. I have stated matters as they occurred to my mind, and without system. You will arrange my items to suit yourself, any of them, or all of them, if you deem them worthy of a place in your history of Fairfield County, a volume I hope we shall soon see.

Very truly yours,


April 12th, 1877.


My father came from Baltimore County, Maryland, in the year 1812, and settled first in Rush Creek Township, in this county. In 1817 he removed to Amanda Township, locating on Clear Creek, one and three-quarters of a mile south of the village of Royalton. He was the father of nine sons, viz.: Henry, Robinson I., Nathan, Wesley, Stephenson, Andrew, Gideon, Lewis and Ebenezer. His four daughters were : Rachel, Leah, Mary and Elizabeth. Of the sons, eight are living, in April, 1877, Gideon having deceased in 1844. The four daughters married as follows: Rachel married William Broomfield; Leah married Broad Cole; Mary married Daniel


Walters, and Elizabeth married Newton Williamson. William Broomfield deceased about the year 1874. His sons at present residing in Fairfield County, are Robinson I., Wesley and Andrew ; Lewis and Stephenson reside in Pickaway County; Henry in Upper Sandusky, and Nathan and Ebenezer in Marion, Marion County, Ohio.

I mention as my father's neighbors, at the time of his settlement in Amanda Township, in 1817, Valentine Reber, Jos. Huffman, Jacob Restler, Abram Myres, George Disinger, 'Squire Stevens, 'Squire William Hamilton, Jacob Prestler, Mr. Hanaway, Jesse Hutchins, Jacob Schleich, Thomas Galaher and Mr. Huber. These were all citizens of Amanda Township. They have all passed away.

I settled in Hocking Township in 1838, three miles west of Lancaster, and have resided in the township ever since. Of my neighbors in Hocking Township, there have died since the time of my settlement, Abram Hedges, Jacob Burton, Jas. Reed, George Strode, Henry Ingman, Father Kemp, James Grantham, Mr. Smith, Allen Green, Father Broomfield, William Broomfield, Joseph Work, Jesse Spurgeon, Nathaniel Wilson, Robert Wilson, William Graham, Buhama (Builder-back) Green, Alice Hedges, Mrs. Burton, Mrs. Proomfield, the elder; Mother Kemp, Mrs. James Grantham, Mrs. Henrietta Ingman, Mrs. Joseph Work, Mr. and Mrs. Joseph Work, near' Royalton ; Mr. and Mrs. Huffman.

Our place of worship at that time was the Methodist Church, known as Mount Zion. There was likewise a Brethren congregation in the neighborhood, and a Lutheran Church. Our school-house stood on William Broomfield's land, and the school district was number two. The building was a hewed log structure with a shingled roof. My father died about forty-nine years ago, and my mother some years afterward, at the age of eighty-seven years.

I have known the county in its pioneer age, and have marked its progress to its present population of about thirty-five thousand, and its more than two hundred and fifty thousand dollar tax-duplicate. I have seen two full generations pass away, and two new ones come upon the stage. I have lived to witness the disappearance of every thing common to the log-cabin age, and live in a new condition of society.



The first settlements in Pleasant Township were begun in 1799. The following persons, with their families, came in, 1800 and the few succeeding years : Thomas, Mathew and David Ewing came in 1800, and settled on Ewing's Run, four miles north of Lancaster. Thomas was my father, and David was the father of the present David Ewing, who resides on and owns the paternal farm. James Ewing was a son of Thomas, and now is the resident owner of the old place. John and Benjamin Feemen came in 1801, and settled immediately north of the Ewings. James Duncan, father of the present Thomas Duncan, Esq., came in 1800, and settled on lands adjoining Thomas Ewing. Peter Lamb first settled where Frederick Sites lives, purchasing the lands at the Government sales. This was in 1801. In the fall of the same year, his father came with his family and settled on the same land. George and Nicholas Radibaugh settled in the township in 1801. George was the father of George, Jacob and William Radibaugh, who have all been well and favorably known residents of Pleasant Township, but now deceased. George had three daughters ; Mary was the wife of Jacob Culp; the second daughter married Adam Conklin—her name is not remembered ; Betsy married John Nelson. Both of these latter moved out of the township early. John, George and Daniel Smethers came into the township in about 1801, all settling on Ewing's Run. John Burton came into the same neighborhood also in the same year, and located on what is known as the old Christ Huber place, on the east of Ewing's Run. The father of the three Smethers brothers was also a first settler, his sons being young men at the time ; but his Christian name is not recollected.

During the war of 1812, a rifle company was raised on Ew-ing's Run and adjacent settlements, which marched to Sandusky. David Ewing was its Captain; Thomas Ewing, 1st Lieutenant; John Burton, 2d Lieutenant. The company numbered from 80 to 100 men.


While encamped at Sandusky, this company was challenged to a wrestling match by a man of another company near by, who denominated himself " Cock of the Walk. " The challenge was accepted, and the Ewing company came out best in every fall. Jacob Culp, of the latter company, threw his man three straight falls, thus securing the title " Cock of the Walk. "

Mr. Ewing gave the correct version of an incident of David Ewing shooting an Indian squaw, elsewhere alluded to ; at least his statement of the affair is likely reliable. A party of six men went out on a hunting expedition. In the course of the day they divided into squads of two. David Ewing and his companion, when somewhere in the vicinity of Daniel Arnold's cabin, discovered what they supposed to be a bear, by its motion among the bushes, and the black hair. Mr. Ewing fired at the object, and was terribly frightened at the scream that responded to his shot—he had wounded a squaw. The two men fled with all possible speed, for well they knew that the Indians, whom they could not doubt were in the near vicinity, would soon be upon their trail. In fleeing, they passed the Arnold cabin. The Indians were soon on the trail, and having followed it to that point, supposed they had gone in there, and at once rushed in. Mrs. Arnold was seated with her baby on her lap, when one of the Indians raised his rifle to fire upon her. She raised her hands, exclaiming, " Herr Yesu " (Lord Jesus) just as a stalwart Indian rushed forward and threw the gun aside, thus saving her life. She protested that her husband was not out that day with his gun, and thus dallied them until she sent her little eight-year-old daughter to a neighboring cabin to tell her father to come home. He came with one or two of his neighbors, who succeeded in satisfying the excited savages that Mr. Arnold was innocent, when they went away. Mr. Ewing kept concealed until the affair was compromised, after which he returned to his family, and nothing more came of it, the Indians having become satisfied that the accident was the result of a mistake. The little girl sent by Mrs. Arnold to bring her father was the present Mrs. Sheric, of Lancaster, now an old lady.

Old Mr. Arnold, whose Christian name Mr. Ewing could not recall, was a very early settler of Pleasant Township. He was


the father of Frederick, Daniel, Henry, Jacob and Geo. Arnold, all of whom are well remembered as citizens of Pleasant Township, but now all deceased. Father Arnold had three daughters, who were respectively married to John Foglesong, Thos. Orr, and Jacob Fetters. Conrad, Jacob and Philip Fetters settled on Fetters' Run, Pleasant Township, in 1801. Old Father Harmon, father of Peter, Frederick and George Harmon, also came into the township in 1801, settling on Pleasant Run. John Baldwin, the same year, settled on what is still known as the Baldwin farm, two miles north-east of Lancaster.

The first school-house Mr. Ewing remembers was a small round log-cabin standing on the Radibaugh land. He remembers a Mr. Newman who taught school in it, about the year 1820. The first meeting-house in the settlement was built by the Lutherans, and has since been known as the Ziegler Church. He thinks it was built between 1801 and 1810. The first preacher there, which he remembers, was Rev. Stake. The first building was constructed of hewn logs, but that was subsequently removed to give place to a good frame church edifice. The first still-house in the settlement was erected by Thomas Ewing, father of the narrator, previous to 1810. The first mill recollected was erected on Arnold's Run, by old Father Arnold, father of Frederick, Daniel, Henry and Jacob. The site of it was a little north of where the County Infirmary now is. It was a raccoon burr-mill, and its capacity was about ten bushels in twenty-four hours. When it dried up the people had to go to Zanesville to get their grists ground. There is not a vestige of the mill now to be seen.


My father, Peter Sites, came from Rockingham County, Virginia, and settled on the farm where I now reside, in 1809. He purchased the land from Jacob and Philip Lamb, they having bought it at the Government land sales about the year 1801. My father continued to reside on the same place until the time of his death, at the age of 85 years. My mother sur-


vived him ten years, she being about ninety at the time of her demise.

Our neighbors sixty years ago were : Judge Burton, Thomas Ewing, David Ewing, Mathew Ewing, James Duncan, John Feemen and Benjamin Feemen. The first school-house that I can remember stood on my father's land. It was a small cabin built of round logs, with stick and mud chimneys and paper windows. I also remember another school a little further east, on Mr. Harmon's place. It was kept in the second story of his spring-house. This was in 1815. The teacher's name at that time was G. Langfore.

The Methodists held meetings at my father's cabin. The first Methodist preachers who held meetings there were : Rev. McElroy, James Quinn, Jacob Young, Cornelius Springer and Charles Waddle. The meetings were afterwards moved to Nimrod Bright's; and again they met at the cabins of Thomas Anderson, Daniel Arnold and Peter Sites. The United Brethren had also a society in the neighborhood, and held their meetings at my father's, and at Daniel Arnold's. Their preachers at that time were : Rev. Stewart, Rev. Anderson, Rev. Havens, and Bishop Christian Newcomer. In the east part of the township were Jacob McLin, Dewal Maclin, Peter McLin. Not one of the early settlers I have named are living, and there were likewise a great many of their compeers, previous to 1820, who have passed away.

During the war of 1812 an incident occurred which caused great excitement throughout our new country for a few days. An alarm spread over the country that hostile Indians were coming. The settlers mostly went into fort. The people of our neighborhood forted at the house of Judge Burton ; and those of North Berne Township forted where James Driver now resides, near Bremen. The people in some instances carried their extra clothing and valuables and hid them in the clover fields and other outdoor places. We took our pitchforks and axes into the house as weapons of defense against the expected foes. The fighting men of the settlement rendezvoused at Lancaster for organization and offensive operations. I remember that some persons came to the fort in the night for protection, and called to be recognized, and to assure the people that they were friends. The rumor proved false, and within a few days all was as before.


We wagoned our wheat to Zanesville and sold it at first for twenty-five cents per bushel, sometimes taking salt in exchange. A little later we got forty cents. We likewise went there to mill, when our home mills failed for want of water.

Our wearing apparel was almost entirely home-made, consisting of flax and tow-linens in summer; and for winter wear, linsey, flannel and home-made fulled cloth. Our women spun their flax and wool on spinning-wheels; and the weaving was done by the women on hand looms. Every neighborhood had several looms. The wool was at first carded with hand-cards; and afterwards we had carding-machines.

Boys and girls had for the most part one pair of shoes in the year, and these were often not obtained until towards Christmas. To economize these, and make them hold out as long as possible, they were carried in hand in going to meeting on Sunday, until near the meeting-house, when the shoes and stockings were put on, to be taken off after coming out. The girls thought they did well if they got one calico dress in the year. Young ladies not unfrequently spun, wove, and made up their wedding-dresses.

In those days people confided in each other—promises were seldom made that were not kept. Almost every man's word was as good as his bond. What little money we had was almost entirely silver, and the change, by fractions of the dollar, was made with cut money; thus, a quarter of a dollar cut in two made two ninepences; and cut in four pieces, made four fipenybits, of the value of six and one-fourth cents each. It was said that people sometimes made five fipenybits of one quarter. And in the same way a half-dollar cut made two quarters, or four ninepences. These latter were sometimes called elevenpences. Men had hard work to pay their little taxes.

From my twenty-second year, for twenty-five years, I drove a six-horse team backwards and forwards across the mountains, taking produce and bringing back goods. Afterwards I took over droves of hogs and cattle.



My father, Martin Landis, Sr., visited this valley in 1798, when all that is now Fairfield County was an unbroken wilderness, if Zane's trace, and perhaps the cabin of Joseph Hunter on the Hocking be excepted. In 1799 he moved to the county, settling first two miles below where Lancaster stands, and as near as I can state on the land now known as the Prindle farm. After remaining there about one year, he removed and settled within what is now Madison Township, where he died in the year 1814, or about the close of the war of 1812.

He served as Justice of the Peace during the administration of James Madison as President of the United States. He entered land in the land-office at Chillicothe for Henry and Samuel Shellenbarger, the same that was afterwards known as the John Wiley farm, on Clear Creek. He also entered for Miss Katy Shellenbarger, sister of Henry and Samuel, the place now owned and occupied by Isaac Julien. Miss Shellenbarger was afterwards and long known as Mrs. Eckert. For another sister of the Shellenbarger's he entered the land now known as the Ezra Wolfe farm. This was Sarah Shellenbarger, who became the wife of Emanuel Carpenter, Jr.

My father had six children—two sons and four daughters. My only brother died in childhood, at the Prindle farm. My sister Mary married William Guy; Katy married Isaac Wolfe; and Sarah married Emanuel Dunic ; Nancy did not marry. The sisters are all living.

My father sustained such pecuniary losses during the war of 1812, as to seriously embarrass him. He engaged in stock driving, and was within twenty-five miles of Washington City with a drove of fat cattle, when it was burned by the British. This disaster compelled him to sell his cattle at a sacrifice: He did not live to retrieve his losses.

My father was a Mennonite, and was very charitable and liberal in his religious views. He built a church in his neighborhood, which was called in its time "The Mennonite Meeting-house." It was, however, free for all denominations. Rev.


Stake, Lutheran, of Lancaster, often preached in it. The building was likewise used for a school-house. It was a log structure, of the size of about twenty by thirty feet. It continued to stand until recently.

There was a powder-mill that I remember well. It stood near where Abbott's store now is. I do not remember by whom it was built, or the year, but it remained a long time.


David Foster was born in Lancaster in 1811, and has been a life-long citizen of the place. In 1827 he went to learn the chair-making business with Jacob Grubb. In 1831 he succeeded John B. Reed in that business, at his stand on the north-west corner of Columbus and Wheeling streets, where he still continues, under the firm of Foster & Son. He uses the same lathe and work-bench with which be began ; also, all his other implements, and has never changed his plans of work. Mr. Foster has witnessed the transformation of Lancaster from a condition almost of woods to its present population and business. He has preserved a wonderful memory of its early mechanics, their location and business, with also many other things belonging to the early history of the place. The following is his statement, given to me, which is probably entirely correct:

He has a distinct recollection of the sickle-mill, which was on Baldwin's Run, a few hundred yards below the fourth lock, and a little above the crossing over the canal on the old Logan road. Christian Rudolph informs me that the establishment was built by a man named Roland [David Foster said the name was Funk] previous to the year 1810. It was run by the water-power of Baldwin's Run, and was used for cutting teeth in sickles, and grinding them, and, I suppose, their entire manufacture. The sickle was an implement used for cutting wheat and other small grain at an early day. Mr. Foster remembers that the establishment was not entirely removed in 1828. During the past winter (1876-7), in sinking a culvert under the canal where the sickle-mill stood, part


of the fore-bay and other remnants of the old mill were found several feet below the surface, including a fragment of a grinding-stone.

Mr. Foster likewise describes another establishment which I have not previously heard spoken of—it was a water-power mill for the purpose of breaking and scutching flax. It stood about on the site of a dwelling-house now opposite what is known as the Giesy mill, on the Logan road, three-fourths of a mile below town. He remembers seeing it at work when he was a small boy. The establishment has long since entirely disappeared. He fixes his recollections of it at about 1816. Ile thinks it was erected by John Rolan I, or Funk, who was also the proprietor of the sickle-mill.

About the same time, there was in operation a powder-mill, on the lands now known as the Fricker farm, three miles south-west of Lancaster. The concern was owned and run by one George Bickler. He thinks it was discontinued about the year 1823.

He spoke of the mechanics of Lancaster in 1815 and the few succeeding years. A Mr. Matlock and William Bodenheimer were wheelwrights—that is, makers of spinning-wheels. Mr. Matlock's shop was at the foot of the present Main street. A Mr. Spogle likewise made spinning-wheels. His shop was in with Henry Miers, who was a cabinet-maker. Mr. Miers was the father of the late Henry Miers, and of the present James Miers. Their shop was on Main street, next west of what is now Bauman's tavern. It was a two-story log-building. William Tony made chairs and spinning-wheels about where Mr. Stroble's furniture-store now is. This was from 1817 to 1820. Jacob Grubb bought out Mr. Tony, and carried on the business at the same stand.

William Duffield was a carpenter. He built the first frame house in Lancaster—at least such is Mr. Foster's recollection. It stood on the ground now occupied by the new Court-house. Christian Weaver was a carpenter. and occupied the lot where Mrs. M. Z. Kreider lives. John Foglesong carried on black-smithing where John D. Martin resides, and which was the residence of the late Samuel F. McCracken. John Leonard, James A. Weakley and Wilson Latimore were early carpenters, also John K. Myers. Samuel Blazell carried on black-smithing at a very early day, on the same corner occupied by


D. Foster & Son as their chair and furniture-shops. Henry Johns, carpenter, had his shop where Dr. P. Carpenter now lives.

John Leonard, Luman Baker and Thomas Dawlin carried on cabinet-making where Bauman's tavern is, on Main street. Samuel Effinger had a tin-shop about where the First National Bank is, on Main street. This was previous to 1820. Scipio Smith (colored) carried on tinning about the same time. Thomas Sturgeon was a silversmith, and carried on where Sturgeon's row is, east of the Public Square. John Townsend was a silversmith previous to 1820. James Gates came to Lancaster early, and succeeded Thos. Sturgeon in silversmithing. This was Thomas Sturgeon, Jr., who is at present a citizen of Lancaster.

Mr. Foster remembered a tailor, who, previous to 1820, carried on where John Work lives on Chestnut street, opposite the Jail; also, shoemakers of the same times. He thought John Stallsmith, Jacob Embick and John Napkin were here as early as 1815. Joseph Work, Sr., was carrying on shoe and boot-making in 1827. He spoke also of Hiram Hanson, who was in the same business very early.

John Beeman and Col. Geo. Seits were gunsmiths, and had their shop near Dr. Shawk's office, on Main street. Samuel B. Thompson, George W. Claspill, John Gibbs and William Bodenheimer commenced the gun-making business probably about the year 1826.

Robert R. Claspill, blacksmith and plow-maker, came to Lancaster in 1825. Robert 0. Claspill carried on the same business on the grounds now occupied by the English Lutheran Church, in 1831.

Colonel Samuel Blazer first introduced into Lancaster patent scales, about 1825.

John Shur, father-in-law to Mr. Foster, was a baker in Lancaster as early as 1812. He also kept a small tavern. Other bakers were remembered, who were in the business at a very early day. Among them were Daniel Keltner, Hiram Hanson, Gotleib Steinman and John U. Giesy.



Christian Rudolph came to Lancaster in 1815, when it was little more than a log-cabin town. The same fall he hired himself to Richard M. Johnson, who then had the contract for carrying the mail from Pittsburg to Limestone (Maysville), Kentucky. He was then fifteen years of age. He commenced carrying the mail in October of that year on horseback. His route was from Lancaster to Zanesville, and back, over Zane's trace. The route required him often to be out all night, which, over the narrow road, and through the forests, especially in very dark nights, was a lonesome and dreary business. It was often so dark that he could see no part of the road, and was obliged to depend on the better eyes of his horse to follow the path. On one occasion he arrived at Zanesville late in the night, and being behind time, he received his mail and turned back, and came as far as Somerset without feeding or taking a bite to eat. In these mail routes he forded the streams that were fordable, sometimes when they were dangerously high. The rivers were crossed in canoes, and horses changed on each side.

Two or three years after he began to carry the mail, open box-wagons were put upon the road. I think he said the new contract required the mail to be carried six months in wagons, and six months on horseback. This latter contract was by J. S. Dugan. Stage-coaches were introduced on the route, by Mr. Dugan, about the year 1820.

Mr. Rudolph carried the mail in all about five years, when he purchased a four-horse coach and team, which he drove four years as a common carrier, and then opened a livery-stable, in which business he is still engaged, at the age of about seventy-seven years.

He spoke of the taverns in Lancaster at the time of his arrival. John Swoyer kept a house of entertainment on what, for many years, has been known as the Shaeffer corner, now

- 16 -


occupied by George Beck's drug store. Frederick Shaeffer succeeded him as hotel-keeper. Mr. Beck, father of the present George and Jacob Beck, kept a tavern on Columbus street, on the grounds now occupied by the dwelling of George Beck. It was known as the Black Horse Tavern. Mr. Beck also had a blacksmith-shop on the same lot. A third tavern was then kept on what is sometimes spoken of as the Latta corner, on Main street, east of the Public Square, by Thomas Sturgeon. Mr. Sturgeon was uncle to Thomas Sturgeon, now of Lancaster.

The store-keepers at that time were: John Creed, between McCrackin's alley and Columbus street. Wm. and Christian King, on the corner now occupied by Beecher White as a drug store. Frederick A. Foster kept a store also on the same square; all on the north side. Mr. Rudolph thinks the buildings were either frames, or log-houses weather-boarded. At that time the town was all below the hill. He stated that Sosthenes McCabe had the contract for furnishing the brick for the old Court-house, and that he made them for two dollars and fifty cents a thousand.


Mrs. Van Pearce was of the Carpenter family, and was born on what is now the Giesy farm, one mile south of Lancaster, in the year 1800. John Van Pearce, her late husband, was brought across the mountains when a child—part of the way strapped fast to a pack-saddle. He came in 1810.

Mrs. Van Pearce remembers Lancaster when it was a village of log-cabins in the woods. She claims to have been the first white female child born in the county. She was the daughter of John Carpenter, Jr., and her mother was a sister of Emanuel Carpenter, Jr., who was the proprietor of the south part of Lancaster.

She referred to a few incidents of her childhood days. On one occasion, when her mother had gone to visit the family of Rudolph Pitcher, she being as she thinks about four or five years old, she wandered away from home, and can just recall the circumstance of lying in the door of some cabin in the village-


lage and crying for a piece of bread, and that she was eating it when she was found by her scared family.

At another time she went with other children to gather hickory-nuts, over in the vicinity of Kuntz's mill. When she came out of the bushes that were close up to her father's yard-fence, she was greatly surprised at seeing the yard filled with people, all seated on the ground. They were Indians. Her mother came out with all the cold victuals she could find, and divided it among them, giving each one a pittance, which they ate, and then went peacefully away. The had papooses, which Mrs. Pearce says she took and nursed, which pleased the squaws very much.

She said that during the Indian scare in 1812, her father refused to leave his own house, and that he rolled bars of lead round, and then cut them in small pieces, and rolled them in the bottom of a large iron kettle, to be used as shot if the Indians came on him, designing to make his house his fort, and the windows port-holes. She spoke of the Dr. Shawk family, the Pitcher family, and many others then here. Between their house and town all was thick woods and marshy prairie, and the only road was a path.

She remembered going to school in town to two teachers, named Rober and Smith. The first meeting she remembers going to was in a log-cabin below where Mr. Prindle now lives. She spoke of Carpenter's mill, the first built—where Kuntz's mill subsequently stood. Her story of how the people lived, and what they did, and how they did it, was the same given in several places throughout this volume. It was the pioneer age ; and pioneer life differed in no essential points throughout all of the great North-west at the same era.


Mr. Foster came to Lancaster in 1810. He was born in Providence, Rhode Island, on the 7th of May, 1791, and is therefore at this writing 86 years of age. He was first employed as a clerk, and at about 1816 began business on his own account, and was for many years one of Lancaster's dry


goods merchants. He named the following dry goods men who were in business when he came :

Christian and William King, Nathaniel Cushing, on what is still spoken of as Connell's corner. Samuel F. McCraken sold goods on the old Green corner. Archibald Carnahan had a store about where the First National Bank stands. John Creed sold goods near the spot where Bininger's jewelry store stands. Rudolph Pitcher also sold goods, and Andrew Crocket had a store where Giesy's block is, on the south side of Main street.

There were others who came in afterwards and sold dry goods. Jacob Green came from Tarleton at an early day. Then followed John Black, Samuel Rogers, Jesse Beecher, Elenathan Schofield, Thomas Cushing, Latta & Connell, Robt. Smith, and Ainsworth and Willock. All the above were more or less engaged in selling dry goods previous to 1825. There were no groceries, as such. Everything in the grocery line was kept in the dry goods stores, as also iron, hardware, cutlery and all kinds of farmers' goods, such as sythes, sickles, hoes, grubbing-hoes, chopping-axes, pitchforks; all kinds of castings ; nails, saddle-stirrups, bridle-bits, log-chains and trace-chains ; spades, andirons, smooth-irons, drawing-knives, augurs, gimlets, chisels; a great many things not now in use; and whisky.

He stated that the Lancaster Ohio Bank went into operation in 1816, and closed in about 1842. After it resolved to wind up, the officers contracted with Jacob Green to redeem all outstanding notes, for the sum of $4,001. The amounts came out about even. The bank was solvent, and nobody lost anything by it, with the exception of some slight shaves on some of its notes in changing hands after it suspended operations.

The first President of the bank was Philemon Beecher, who, Mr. Foster thinks, remained about one year, when he was succeeded by John Creed, who continued, to be its President until it ceased. Michael Garaghty was Cashier throughout the entire course of the bank.

The immediate cause of the close of the bank was the refusal of the Legislature to renew its charter. At that time there was found to be on hand about three-quarters of a million of dollars of unissued bills of all denominations. These


were, by the order of the Directors, delivered over to Fred. erick A. Foster and Jacob Green, to be burned, which they proceeded to do.

Mr. Foster referred to the typhoid epidemic that prevailed in Lancaster in 1823. He remarked, that to the best of his recollection, only two persons in the town escaped its influence entirely, whom he named as Christian Weaver and himself. A great number of leading citizens died.

At the time of Mr. Foster's coming to Lancaster there was but one brick building in the place, and that was the office since known as that of John T. Brazee, on the Schofield corner, Main street. In the fall of the same year, viz.: 1810, Philemon Beecher built his brick office adjoining his residence, on what is at present known as Rising's corner—once Beecher's corner, on Main and Columbus streets. The third brick building was a residence, which is still standing, and at this time occupied by Henry Reindmond, on the north side of Main street going east, up the hill. It was built by Rev. John Wright, first pastor of the Presbyterian Church of Lancaster.

The very first tavern in Lancaster was on Wheeling street, south side, a little below Center, or McCracken's alley. It was a log building, and was removed at an early day.


Mr. Vandernark, when a boy of five years, came with his father, Gared Vandernark, from Luzerne County, Pennsylvania, and settled three miles north-west of Lancaster, in the year 1810, and in the autumn of that year. Their first location was on the same spot which was the residence of the late John Levering. Their nearest neighbor was Adam Bear, father of Adam Bear, who at this time resides on the same place of his father. He spoke of the following persons at that time residing within neighboring distance of his father's cabin : Peter Woodring, Joseph Hunter, Mr. McKey, Samuel Grabill, Joseph Work, Jesse Spurgeon and Mr. Stewart, father of the present Levi Stewart, of Lancaster.


He remembered Lancaster as being at that time a village of log-cabins, whose streets were filled to some extent with stumps and mud-holes. He spoke of the swale that crossed Main street at Center alley, and thought the fill there now, east of Shawk's alley, is from six to ten feet. There were only one or two small brick houses in the place, and a few frames. South of Chestnut street there were no houses, and the ground was used for a muster-field and race-course. East of High street, and occupying all the present church grounds, as well as the Court-house lot, was at that time a small cornfield, fenced with split rails and surrounded with woods. All the railroad grounds, and including the starch factory, was a common, grown over more or less with wild-plum, black-haw and hazel-bushes, interspersed with a few large elm-trees.

The first school-house he remembered stood near the house known as the Jesse Beecher place, perhaps a little west of it. It was a round log-hut. They got their water from a spring near a big elm-tree that he thought is still standing. The first teacher in it was a Mr. Cole; and after him W. H. Coley. That was in about 1813. He had not forgotten the droll way Mr. Coley required them to spell and pronounce their words, and for failing to do which they often got their ears soundly boxed. He tried to imitate the teacher's way, thus : S-a-1 sal, v-a vay, salva, t-i-o-n shun, salvashun ; the final pronunciation being broad, and accented on the third syllable. After that, and in the year 1818, he went to school to a Mr. Jas. Hunter, at the same place.

Mr. Vandemark said : "My sister Jane married David West-enbarger in 1812. It was the first wedding I had ever seen. The license was issued by Hugh Boyl, and the ceremony was performed by Adam Weaver, Esq., father of the late John C. Weaver. Mr. Boyl was at that time Clerk of the County Court.

" During our three months' term of school, which was all we had in the year, we had spelling-schools, and a polemic, which was sometimes denominated a 'debating society,' or debating school.' It was at one of these debating schools that I was religiously convicted under the following circumstances: We held these meetings at night, and in a log-cabin that had previously been a dwelling, and which stood somewhere between the present residences of Robert Work and Newton Peters. The question debated on this particular evening was, Which


is the most useful to mankind, the Doctor of Divinity, or the Doctor of Physic ?' Myself and Levi Stewart were appointed chief combatants. I took the affirmative, and Mr. Stewart the negative. I tried to show the value of an immortal soul, and in the effort I became so affected that I shed tears, and the whole house was so wrought upon that the meeting broke up without any decision being given on the question, or arrangements for another meeting. Jacob and Daniel Strayer, brothers, were the judges. From that evening I identified myself with the Christian people, and have ever since been trying, in my humble way, to preach the gospel of Jesus Christ."

Mr. Vandemark remembered that they went to Carpenter's mill (later Kuntz's mill), for their grinding, and when the water got low, and the little mills could not grind, they were compelled to go all the way to Chillicothe, or Zanesville, to mill. He spoke of the old hominy-block, and of the corn-grater, and of the way the people dried pumpkins, and beans, for winter sauce. He had also a distinct recollection of the old-time log-rollings, corn-huskings, house-raisings, quiltings, grubbings, rail-maulings, and the like. Also, the fodder-house, ash-hopper, and potato and turnip holes. He said his father was a teetotaler all his life, and on that account sometimes had difficulty in getting his harvesting and other work done, because he refused, from conscientious scruples, to furnish whisky. But he never yielded, and at last got his work done.

He described another custom of the pioneer age, which the circumstances of the times compelled the people to adopt, and of which the writer has also a distinct remembrance. The wheat was thrashed out with flails, or tramped out with horses, often on dirt-floors ; and then, after raking the straw clean from the wheat and chaff, the latter was shoved into a heap, and the following method of cleaning it resorted to: The wheat was let down from an elevation as high as a man could raise his arms, either through a riddle (which was a kind of course sieve) or from a shovel, falling in a stream, from which the chaff was blown away with a common bed-sheet held at each end by two persons. From eight to ten bushels in a day was good work for three hands, as it had to be gone over generally two or three times before the wheat was ready for the bags.



Mr. Hathaway's father was one of the early settlers of the vicinity of Winchester. He is at this writing seventy-one years of age, and has spent his life in the neighborhood. He remembers the times and incidents of the log-cabin state of the section of country, since known as Violet Township. He named the following persons as having been his father's neighbors, at the time his recollection reaches to, or, about sixty-five years age. He fixed the time at 1812 to 1815:

William Perin, George Tong, Michael Creamer, John Shoemaker, Lewis Phillips, John Daniel ; Adam, Jacob and George Creamer; George Harmon, John and Jacob Algire, John Huff, Clem Green, David Painter, Thomas Roberts and John Tallman. Old Mother Creamer, wife I believe of Michael, was familiarly known all through the country as "Granny Creamer." This was an appellation given to certain old ladies in the early days of the country, who performed duties now belonging to the doctors. The title has become obsolete. The above-named persons have all deceased, with the single exception of George Harmon, who is living near Pickerington, at the great age of more than eighty years.

Mr. Hathaway related an incident which reflects back-woods life, and has many similar counterparts which still live in the memory of the writer. At the age of four years, he was accompanying his mother to the cabin of Mr. Tallman. They discovered a large black-snake near the path, and his mother having an instinctive dread of Eve's betrayer, told him to stay and watch it while she went to fetch Granny Creamer to kill it. Mrs. Creamer was in sight of them, in the act of grubbing up bushes in the clearing. She came and killed the snake, greatly to the relief of Mrs. Hathaway, and then returned to her grubbing-hoe

Their cabin was two miles north of the present village of Winchester. There was a sorrel mare belonging to the family, which was nightly stabled in a log-pen. The wolves came every night and howled in the near vicinity, which


caused the family to believe they were after the old sorrel. The country abounded with wolves, bears, wild-cats, panthers, deer and wild-turkeys. He spoke of the sociability and kindly feeling that united the people together, and thought everybody was happier then than they are now.

He spoke of the first mill of the settlement. It was built on Little Walnut, one mile below where Winchester now is. In the latter part of summer, and in the fall, it " went dry," and then the people had to go to Zanesville for their grinding. In a good stage of water the mill could grind ten bushels of corn in twenty-four hours. It was a raccoon burr-mill, the only kind known in the pioneer country.

He gave a full account of the pioneer hominy-block, corn-grater. lye-hominy, johnny-cake, hoe-cake, ash-cake ; flax and tow-linen, linsey ; the one pair of shoes a year; and how the people went to meeting barefooted in summer. A man by the name of Hughes built a hand-mill, and the neighbors went there and ground their corn on it.

The first school he remembered was three miles from his father's. It was a pioneer school-house, with a paper window. He remembered that William Hackney, Thomas McArthur, William King, and a Mr. Allen taught school in it, and that John Swasey taught in the same neighborhood about the year 1820.

William Stevenson settled in the neighborhood in about the year 1815. He was a Methodist, and opened his house for preaching and other religious meetings. The ministers who preached at his house the few succeeding years were, Vananda, Charles Waddle, Russel Bigelow, Jacob Cooper and Jacob Young. The United Brethren organized a society in the neighborhood soon after, and Lewis Creamer was their preacher. Presbyterians likewise made their appearance at an early day in the settlement of the township.

Mr. Hathaway thought that George Tony was the first 'Squire in the township. He was at least among the first. Abraham Pickering and John Rickets were also early Justices in Violet.

Reuben Dove was the first proprietor of Winchester. He laid off and sold lots in about 1825. The plan of forming a village there was settled upon immediately after the location of the Ohio Canal was made. Subsequent additions to the