I have given this story as it has been given to me. It may be relied on as true; at least in outline and in the principal facts. The men selected by Mr. Ewing as his posse were all men of herculean strength and undaunted courage ; but to himself, undoubtedly, belonged the credit of the success of the enterprise, and of the clearing of the country of the bandits.


The response of Major B. W. Carlisle to the toast, "The Hocking Canal," given at the Hocking Sentinel anniversary, held at the Remple House, in Logan, on the 26th of April, 1877, is of such value as a part of the history of Fairfield County, that' I here insert it entire. Also the letter of Gen. Thomas Ewing, addressed, on the same occasion :


"In response to the sentiment assigned us, we beg to indulge while we review in abstract, and briefly, the history and reminiscences of the Hocking Canal. Its history, though brief, and to some probably monotonous and uninteresting, is fraught with facts important to, and well remembered by the pioneers of the Hockhocking. We call upon you friends who have lived for two and a half or threescore years in this beautiful valley of milk and honey, to return with us upon the wings of memory and hear again the shouts of joy echoing through the length and breadth of this valley, as we heard them in the earliest days of our settlement.

"The first part of the Hocking Canal was built by the Lancaster Lateral Canal Company, from Lancaster to Carroll, there forming a junction with the Ohio Canal. The Lancaster Lateral Canal was put undir contract in 1832, by Samuel F. McCracken, Jacob Greene, E. Schofield, Benjamin Connell, and others, with F. A. Foster as Secretary. This piece of canal, known as the ' Side Cut,' was completed, and the first boats towed into Lancaster on the 4th day of July, in 1835, or 1836, amidst the booming of cannons, beating of drums, and the wafting to the breeze of flags and banners, and being witnessed by some ten thousand of Fairfield's yeomanry, who were assembled at the Cold Spring Hill, near Lancaster, where there was a roasted ox and a free dinner served; and after which the Greenes, Bill Furguson, and others, indulged in the popular exercise of fisticuffs.

" Up to this period (1836), our farmers usually got from 25 to 40 dents for wheat, but many of them became rich from prices received for their surplus products afterward. Lancaster was then one of the large commercial cities of the country, getting all the grain from most parts of the county, as well as from parts of Perry, Hocking and Pickaway counties. There were nine dry goods stores, all doing a large business.

" In March, 1838, an act was passed by the Legislature of the State, authorizing the then Commissioners to purchase the Side Cut from its owners. On April 6th, 1838, a committee was appointed to confer with


the Lancaster Company and negotiate terms; and on the 22d of December, 1838, a contract was matured for the same, at a cost of $61,241.04.

" The Hocking Canal was projected and put under contract by the Board of Public Works, in 1836, that Board haVing just been made to substitute the Canal Commissioner of the State. Sixteen and one-half miles, being from Lancaster to Bowner's Lock, was put under contract in 1837, and to be completed in 1839. And that portion from Bowner's Lock to Nelsonville, being sixteen and one-half miles, was put under contract in October, 1837, and to be completed in 1839, but was not completed until 1840. In September of this year the first boats loaded with coal came out of the Hocking, and served as a curiosity to most of the upper valley citizens, who had never seen stone-coal. In 1841, the canal was completed to Monday Creek, being forty-four miles from Carroll; and from Monday'Creek to Athens completed and boats running through in 1841.

“ The Hocking Canal has 31 locks, 8 dams, 34 culverts, and 1 acqueduct of 80 feet span.

" The total cost of construction of this canal was $941,670.25.

"To the opening of this canal, Lancaster, Logan, Nelsonville and Athens owe their principal prosperity, in affording an opening for the importation of their goods, and the exportation of their grain, pork, lumber, salt and various minerals of the Hocking Valley. Hemmed in as you were by towering hills, your agricultural wealth was unobserved, your mineral wealth unnown. To the Hocking Canal you owe your introduction to the world without. Through the medium of the canal, a market was brought near, and the latent wealth of your hills was then developed, and the beautiful hills of the Hockhocking became the 'hub" of the mineral wealth of Ohio.

" By the introduction of this old water-horse (the canal), the long-hidden treasures of mineral wealth of this valley were brought into notice and general use; manufactories built up in all the contiguous towns and territories, thus affording employment to a large and needy class of mechanics, and the employment of an equal number of laborers in penetrating the bowels of the earth for fuel, and the employment of horses, boats and men, to ship the fuel all along the line of our canals, and enriching many of the citizens of the Hocking Valley.

" Allow me to say, in conclusion, that although the iron-horse moves majestically along the valley, bearing the greater share of your trade, yet the old water-horse still lives and possesses a large amount of vitality, and is therefore not yet ready to be turned out to die, as some would have him. And if any inanimate object were capable of awakening in the human breast sentiments of gratitude and esteem, these, the citizens of the Hocking Valley owe to the canal."


LANCASTER, OHIO, April 26th, 1877.

EDS. SENTINEL—Gentlemen : But for unexpected business calling me elsewhere, I would have attended the anniversary banquet to-night, to join your other friends in bragging of the • success and promise of the Sentinel, and of the wonderful region, in the development of which it has had, and will yet have, an important part. We who were born in the Hocking Valley always knew, and "the rest of mankind" are fast finding out, that it is one of the choicest regions ever fashioned by the Almighty for the abode of man. Rich, healthful and beautiful, she


holds her sons and daughters to her breast by every tie of interest and affection.

Yet she attracts us more by what she is than what she is soon to be—for all men love to be associated with the birth of great events and industries. The most western out line of the Apalachian basin, this coal and iron region, began six years ago to furnish light, heat and power, to the cities and towns of the great agricultural plain of the North-west ; and now it is about to become, not only their coal-yard, but their work-shop. The hard times, by means of which the usurers are crushing and robbing the industrial classes, have only demonstrated its unequaled capabilities for making cheap iron ; and great industries perishing elsewhere, are being transplanted here, where even the blight of forced resumption can't kill them.

It needs no seer to predict, that before the editors of the Sentinel shall have grown grey in the cause of Democracy and the country, every hill-top of this region will be teeming with husbandmen, every depth with diggers of coals and ores ; while the clang and roar of mills and furnaces will make each valley resonant—a busy hive, which, in time, as my father long ago predicted, will surpass in numbers and prosperous industry any equal space on earth.

Very truly your friend,



The oldest citizens of Lancaster describe a typhoid epidemic that prevailed in the village in the fall of the year 1823. Its ravages are believed not to have been exceeded on the continent at any age, or by any visitation of epidemic disease, not even excepting the cholera. No direct or remote cause could be assigned. It prevailed largely among the prominent and better conditioned citizens. It is spoken of as having decimated the town, which means one death out of every ten citizens. One gentleman thinks the mortality exceeded even that proportion. If one should inspect the grave-stones of the old grave-yards in the vicinity of Lancaster, he would be surprised at the number of stones bearing date of 1823, most of the occupants having fell by the epidemic of that year. No similar disease and mortality has subsequently visited the place. It is said that some portion of the time there were not well persons enough to nurse the sick and bury the dead.


Governors of Ohio from Fairfield County, from the organization of the State up to 1876.—William Medill was elected Lieutenant Governor of Ohio in the fall of 1851. His term began in January, 1852. He was Acting-Governor the latter part of the


term. He was subsequently elected to the Gubernatorial chair in the fall of 1852, and served until 1856.

Judges of the Supreme Court under the Constitution of 1802.—William W. Irvin, of Lancaster, was appointed to the Supreme Bench in the early years of the State, but the exact year does not appear upon the records.

Charles R. Sherman, of Lancaster. was also on the bench. He was appointed to fill the place of John McLain, of Warren County, who resigned on the 11th of January, 1823. Mr. Sherman was Judge at the time of his death, at Lebanon, in 1829.

Hocking H. Hunter was elected to the Supreme Judgeship for the District of Ohio, under the Constitution of 1851, but resigned before taking his seat.

U. S. Senators.—Thomas Ewing was first elected to the Senate of the United States to fill the place made vacant by the resignation of Thomas Corwin, in 1831, and served till 1837. He was again Senator from 1850 to 1851.

Members of Congress.—The following are the men who have been elected to the Lower House of Congress from Fairfield since the admission of the State into the Union, in 1802:

Philomon Beecher, 1817 to 1821, and 1823 to 1829.

William W. Irvin, 1829 to 1833.

John Chaney, 1833 to 1839.

William Medill, 1839 to 1843.

Thomas O. Edwards, 1847 to 1849.

Charles D. Martin, 1859 to 1861.

Philadelphus Van Trump, 1867 to 1873.

Of the foregoing mentioned men, only two are living in 1877, viz : John Chaney and Charles D. Martin.

Officers of the year 1876.—State Senate, Robert E. Reece (District); Representative, Adam Seifert; Judge of Common Pleas, Silas H. Wright; Probate Judge, Wm. L. Bigby ; Clerk of

Court, Geo. W. Grabill ; Auditor, John C. Hite ; Treasurer, Gilbert Shaeffer; Recorder, Timothy Fishbaugh ; Sheriff, Wm. Bush; Prosecuting Attorney, John Reeves; Commissioners, Thomas Barr, Caleb Moore and William Fink.

Here follow some important historical and statistical matters, culled from the various official reports of the Secretaries of State :


The first General Assembly of the State of Ohio met in Chillicothe on the first Tuesday of March, 1803. The names of the Senators were :

John Beasley (this seat was contested and given to Joseph Darlington early in the session), Joseph Buell, William Buchanan, Nathaniel Massie, Abraham Claypool, Francis Dunlavy, Jeremiah Morrow, John Paul, Daniel Symmes, Samuel Hunting, Zenan Kimberly, Razaliel Wells, William Vance.

Representatives.—Michael Baldwin, Robert Culbertson, Thos. Worthington, Win. Patton, Rudolph Bear, Z. A. Beaty, Thos. Elliott, Isaac Meeks, Thos. Brown, John Bigger, James Dunn, Wm. James, Robert McClure, Wm. Maxwell, Thomas McFarland, Win. Jackson, Robert Safford, Wylly Silliman, Thomas Kerker, Ephraim Kibby, Joseph Lucas, Wm. Reuffle, Ephraim Quinby, Aaron Wheeler, David Reece (of Fairfield), R. Walker Waring, Amos Ellis, Joseph Sharp, Elijah Woods. Speaker, Michael Baldwin; Clerk, R. Dickerman.

In the month of December, 1803, Fairfield County contained, by official report, 1,051 free white male inhabitants over the age of 21 years. (The word "free" was used because at that time there were in the county redemptionists—persons who had been sold to service to pay their passage from the old country). In 1807 it contained 2,166 free white males above the age of 21 years.

Here follows a statement of the vote cast by Fairfield County for Governor, from and including 1806, up to and inoluding 1873:

1806—For Edward Tiffin, without opposition, 327 votes.

1808—Three candidates—Samuel Huntington, 973; Thos. Worthington, 192; Thos. Kirker, 3.

1810—Return J. Meigs, 335; Thos. Worthington, 738.

1812—Return J. Meigs, 241; Thos. Scott, 1,213.

1814—Thomas Worthington, 945; Othniel Looker, 176.

1816—Thomas Worthington, 1,059; James Dunlap, 878.

1818—Ethan A. Brown, 1,535; James Dunlap, 239.

1820—Ethan A. Brown, 1,794; Jeremiah Morrow, 33; Wm. H. Harrison, 35.

1822—Jeremiah Morrow, 87; Allen Trimble, 32; William W. Irvin, 1,819.

1824—Jeremiah Morrow, 1,369; Allen Trimble, 1,157.


1826—This year there were four candidates who were voted for, as follows, in Fairfield—Allen Trimble, 2,609; John Bigger, 5; Alexander Campbell, 14; and Benjamin Tappin, 2.

1828—Allen Trimble, 1,234; John W. Campbell, 2,076.

1830—Duncan McArthur received 1,035 ; Robt. Lucas, 1,819.

1832—This year we give the votes cast in Fairfield for President of the United States, thus : Andrew Jackson received 2,648 votes; Henry Clay received 1,274; Mr. Wirt, Anti-Mason candidate, received 2 votes.

1834—For Governor : Robert Lucas (Dem.), 2,024 ; James Finlay (Whig), 1,349.

1836—For President of the United States: Martin Van Buren (Dem.) had 2,906 votes in Fairfield; and William H. Harrison (Whig), 1,846.

1838—For Governor : Wilson Shannon, 2,717 ; Joseph Vance, 1,633.

1840—Thomas Corwin for Governor (Whig), 2,421; Wilson Shannon (Dem.), 3,411.

1842—Wilson Shannon, 3 212 ; Thomas Corwin, 2,037.

1844—Mordecai Bartley (Whig), 2,402 ; David Tod (Dem.), 3,584.

1846—William Bebb (Whig), 2,116; David Tod (Dem.), 2,931.

1848—John B. Weller (Dem.), 3,573; Seabury Ford (Whig), 2.266.

1850—Reuben Wood (Dem.), 3,232; Wm. Johnson (Whig), 2,098.

1852—Reuben Wood (Dem.), 3,042; Sam'l. F. Vinton (Whig), 1,736; Samuel Lewis (Abolition), 2 votes.

1853—For Governor : William Medill (Dem.), 2,803 ; Nelson Barrere (Whig), 1,157.

1855—William Medill (Dem.), 2,614 ; Allen Trimble (Know-Nothing), 52; Salmon P. Chase (Rep.), 2,474.

1856—This year the vote for Attoi ney General is given : Christopher P. Wolcott (Rep.), 1,631; Samuel M. Hart (Dem.), 3,095 ; John M. Bush (Know-Nothing), 581.

1857—For Governor : Salmon P. Chase (Rep.), 1,281; Henry Payne (Dem.), 2,917 ; P. Van Trump (Know-Nothing), 357.

1859—William Dennison (Rep.), 1,394; Rufus P. Ranney (Dem.), 2,821.

1861—David Tod (Rep.), 2,137; Hugh J. Jewett (Dem.), 3,119.


1863—John Brough (Rep.), 2,790; Clement L. Valandinghani (Dena.), 3,478.

1865—For Governor : Jacob D. Cox (Rep.) ; home vote, 2,328; army vote, 23 ; total, 2,351. Geo. W. Morgan (Dem.) ; home vote, 3,393 ; army vote, 1; total, 3,394.

1867—Rutherford B. Hayes (Rep.), 2,056; Allen G. Thur. man (Dem.), 3,940.

1868—For President : U. S. Grant, 2,439; Horatio Seymour, 4,076 votes in Fairfield County.

1870—In 1870, the candidates for Governor in Ohio, were Rutherford B. Hayes (Rep), and George H. Pendleton (Dem.) Hayes received in Fairfield County 2,144 votes; and Pendleton 3,831 votes.

1871—For Governor : Edward F. Noyes (Rep.), 2,185 ; Geo. W. McCook (Dem.), 3,622 ; Gideon T. Stewart (Prohibitionist), 25 votes.

1872—For President : U. S. Grant (Rep.), 2,540; Greely (Dem.), 3,888.

1873—For Governor: Edward F. Noyes (Rep.), 2,034; Wm. Allen (Dem.), 3,551.


The German element of nationality predominates in Fairfield County. The first emigrants were largely from Pennsylvania, especially in and near Lancaster. These almost entirely spoke the German language ; and some of the first schools were purely in that language. Subsequently, the county became the center of immigration from the Fatherland, including Swiss and Hollanders, so that probably to-day every provincialism of the Teutonic language is spoken within the limits of Fairfield County.

Next to Pennsylvania, Virginia and Kentucky contributed to the early settlement of the county. A few came from the more southern States, and afterward Maryland supplied many good citizens. There is, perhaps, not one of the original States that is not represented—New England, probably, furnishing the fewest number. And there is, perhaps, no civilized trans-Atlantic country that is not represented here, and whose language is not spoken.



From the following tables a very just estimate may be brined of the average births and deaths in a given population within a given time. The figures are obtained from the As-5essors' returns for the spring of 1877, and including one year:





1st Ward

2d Ward

3d Ward

4th Ward

5th Ward











Total in city







Hocking Township Amanda Township Richland Township Rush Creek Township Clear Creek Township Greenfield Township Madison Township Bloom Township Walnut Township Violet Township

Berne Township Pleasant Township Liberty Township






























Total in city and county






To Judge G. W. Leith, of Nevada, Wyandot County, Ohio, I am indebted for the following passage from the life and highly romantic career of his grandfather, John Leith. The narration concerns so intimately the history of Fairfield County, that it deserves a place. It will be seen that it will not do to say that the Marietta and Hocking scouts, previous to the beginning of the nineteenth century, were the first white men that ever trod the Valley of the Hockhocking.

" John Leith was born in the city of Leith, Scotland. His parents being of the Huguenots who emigrated to South Carolina near the middle of the eighteenth century, where they died soon after, he was left without relatives. He was put to learn the tailoring business, but soon became dissatisfied and ran away. At Little York, Pennsylvania, he hired with an Indian trader, and went with him to Fort Pitt (Pittsburg). Soon after, together, they took a stock of suitable goods and started west, and in due time arrived at the Valley of the Hocking and opened a trade with the Delawares and Wyandots, on the very spot where Lancaster now stands, and it is thought near the foot of Mount Pleasant.

"He had not been there long when he felt a strong desire to return to South Carolina, and resolved to do so; and when he had made his determination known to his employer, the latter proposed to him that he wished to go to Fort Pitt to dispose of the large stock of furs and skins he had on hand, and that if he (Leith) would remain and take care of the stores until he returned, he would send him under the guidance of an Indian back to Carolina by a near route. This was agreed to, and the trader took his departure.

"He had not been long gone when the Indians informed Leith that the whites were marching on them in force to destroy them, and that he must be adopted and go with them, or die. He was adopted, and the remnant of the goods was parceled out among the tribe, and they left for the north.


"He was a captive among the Indians twenty-nine years. He married a white captive girl, by the name of Sallie Lowry; and in 1791, with his wife and two children, made his escape, and succeeded in reaching Pittsburg, closely pursued by his captors. There was a sister of his wife, also a captive, who was subsequently married to the father of the late Thomas McNaughten, of Walnut Township.

"About the year 1810, John Leith moved into Walnut Township, of this county, where he died about the year 1837, and was buried in the Methodist grave-yard at New Salem. His son, who was the father of Judge Leith, of Wyandot, as well as the Judge, were, I believe, citizens for a time of Walnut Township.

"The occurrence of the traffic with the Indians at Mount Pleasant, was in 1763, just one hundred and fourteen years ago, and thirty-five years before Joseph Hunter built the first cabin on the Hockhocking."


The townships assessed for taxation in 1806, and which have already been incorporated into this volume, were Hocking, Berne, Bloom, Clear Creek, Greenfield, Licking, Amanda, Pleasant, Clinton, Thorn and Richland. There were several other townships belonging to the county at that time that do not seem to have been taxed; at least the County records show no evidence that they were. Among these were Salt Creek, Jackson, Falls and Redding, none of which were stricken off previous to 1806. Licking County was the first border county to be organized, which took place in 1808. Pickaway and Hocking were incorporated a little later, and Perry in 1817. This took off several townships, which contracted Fairfield County to pretty near its present bounds.

It seems a little strange, however, that Rush Creek Township does not appear among the assessed townships for that year, for it was organized in 1804. There were two purposes contemplated in transcribing the names of the tax-payers into this history by townships : first, to exhibit the financial condition of the county in its incipient state; but especially to show who were the early settlers, and in what townships and neighborhoods they settled. Rush Creek was one of the earliest settled townships in the county, and has always been,


and is now, within the present Fairfield County. It is, moreover, among the wealthiest and most populous townships in the county. The second end, however, viz.: to give reference to the names and location of early settlers, will be found to be accomplished if the reader will search the alphabetical lists in Berne, Pleasant and Richland, where he will find all, or most of the names of the early settlers of the territory constituting the present Rush Creek Township, which goes to show that that township was made up from these three townships. Here we are obliged to leave the matter without further explanation.


In addition to the chattel tax of 1806, mentioned in the assessments already given, a land tax was assessed and collected in the same year, amounting to about nine hundred and fifty dollars ($950), which, added to the chattel-tax, as before, aggregates the sum of about two thousand dollars ($2,000). A further evidence that Rush Creek had not yet been separated from the other townships as a distinct municipality, is found in the fact that the land assessments were made on the same townships, numbering eleven.


In noticing the business men and industries of Lancaster in the year 1876, by a strange inadvertence the establishment of Mr. Binninger was omitted among the list of jewelers and watch dealers. His business place is on the north side of Main street, opposite the Hocking Valley National Bank.



At my strong solicitation, Judge Chaney consented to give me the following statement of his private and public life. He remarked that he had often been asked for similar statements, and that he had concluded now, in view of the near approach of the close of his very long and somewhat eventful life, and because he was pleased with the plan and design of the history of Fairfield County, to give me the statement, especially as I assured him that his numerous and life-long friends asked for it.


" I was born in Washington County, Maryland, on the 12th day of January, 1790. At the age of four years, and at the beginning of my recollections, my father removed to and settled in Bedford County, Pennsylvania. When I was fourteen years old, my father died. The family then consisted of my mother, three sisters, one brother and myself. Three or four months subsequent to my father's death, my brother died. The death of my father left the family very poor. He was a generous man, and underwrote his friends, who were unfortunate, until he lost his farm, which was a good one, and nearly all his loose property. From my fourteenth to my twentieth year the care of the family devolved almost entirely on myself.

" In the fall of the year 1810, I came west to Fairfield County, Ohio, stopping first on the spot where the village of Waterloo now stands, on the Ohio canal. I did not remain there long, but went over into Pickaway County, where I stayed until the fall of 1812, when my health having become poor, I returned to Bedford County, Pennsylvania.

- 11 -


" In the fall of 1815, my health having been restored, I again came west and settled in Bloom Township, near its northern border, in the same community where I have resided up to this time; my present home being in the village of Canal Winchester, which was a few years since struck off into Franklin County with a tier of sections, the Fairfield line skirting the east border of the village.

" In the fall of 1816, I married Mary Ann Lafere, of Bloom Township, and went to housekeeping in a log-cabin fourteen feet square. Its floor was made of rough puncheons split out of forest trees. It had a clapboard roof and clapboard loft, was one low story high, had a stick and mud chimney, wide open fireplace with the primitive back wall, jams and hearth. It was a very rude and humble home, but we were as happy as kings. Our living was that of the frontier settlers. We worked hard and were poor; but did not doubt the future, for our aims were set. We intended to live correct and honorable lives, and take the chances of the coming years. There were wolves and wild turkeys in great abundance, and now and then a bear. There were hawks of a great many varieties, which have nearly entirely disappeared; and the owls were hooting about the woods all the time. The whole country was new and wild. The little farms were small, and fenced in with rails; and the dwelling-houses were log-cabins; and the stables and barns were built of logs.

"At the time of my settlement in Bloom Township, the price of a day's work was a bushel of wheat, or two bushels of corn. Cash was seldom paid for work, and when it was, twenty-five cents a day was the wages. Almost everything was paid for with trade. A few things had to be paid in cash. The taxes were cash; and coffee and a few other commodities commanded cash when anybody could get it to pay with. Our markets, whatever they amounted to, were at Lancaster and Franklin-ton. The little mills of the settlements sometimes went dry, and we had to go all the way to Chillicothe or Zanesville to get our grain ground. The streams were not bridged, and in the muddy seasons of the year the roads were sometimes desperate. I made rails for fifty cents a hundred, and cut cordwood for twenty-five cents a cord.

" My sisters having married, I went and brought my mother out to this county. She subsequently went back on a visit,


but was taken sick there and died, and was buried beside my father. I went, and was with her during her last illness.

"Our schools were the primitive schools of the early West. After the passage of the first Ohio School Law, we built a little log school-house at the cornerings of sections 1, 2, 11 and 12. We obtained a lease of the land for that purpose for thirty years. The log school-house stood a great many years, when it was removed, and a brick built on the same ground, which is still standing.

[I am not positive whether he said the brick house was built on the same site, or in the same district.—En.]

We accepted the situation, and struggled on to better times and better life. There were no inducements to change our habitation. Ohio was rapidly filling up, and with every revolving year conditions were improving. Markets were improving, and by slow degrees we began to have better roads. Rough bridges began to be constructed over the smaller streams. The first bridges were made of logs cut from the forests for sills and butments, and the top, or platform, was made of slabs split from sections of trees, and generally hewed to a level, on the upper side, with the broad-ax, or leveled down with the foot-adz. These were the first or primitive bridges ; but after saw-mills became plenty, oak planks of the thickness of one and a half or two inches were used for the platform.

“There was another method of bridging the low, marshy, or swamp lands. These were called 'pole bridges,' or 'corduroy bridges.' They were common all over the West. The following was the manner of constructing them : Poles or logs were cut from the woods, of the length of ten or twelve feet, and laid down side by side across the road for the distance to be corduroyed. Then on top of this ground-structure was placed a foot or more of earth dug up along the sides, if it were not under water, or hauled in on wagons. This bed of earth filled the space 'between the logs or poles, and when sufficiently packed made a passably good road. And it was a part of the work of the Supervisor to repair these roads by adding additional earth when the logs became too much exposed by wearing or the washing rains.

" On the north were the Indians; and west, in Indiana, the county was still newer and less promising, much of it still in


a condition of nature. We therefore concluded to remain in Bloom Township; for, however much we might have desired to re-cross the mountains back to my native and older State, we were too poor to do so.

"At the time of my settlement here, I mention the following names, who, with their families, were my predecessors in Bloom, and my neighbors : Abram Plummer, Henry Tumlin-son, Henry Dove, Chaney Rickets, Charles Rickets, Rev. Geo. Bennadum, Rev. Elijah Spurgeon, Isaac Meason, Martin Feltner, the Courtrights, Zebulon Lee, Dorsey Meason, Henry Himebaugh, Major Bright, the Glicks, and the Alspaughs.

"In Violet Township I mention: Abram Pickering, Jacob Pickering, Samuel McCollum, George Wells, George Long, Jonathan Looker, Mordecai Fishbaugh, the Cramers and the Kraners, the Donaldsons, Frederick Bauer. All the foregoing, and others, were residing here in 1812. Not over two or three of them are living now.

"In the early years of my residence in Bloom Township, I bought a mill on Spring Run, near me (Spring Run is fed by three or four springs), where for several years I run a gristmill, a saw-mill, and a distillery, which enabled me to form the acquaintance of a pretty wide circle of citizens.

" At the time of my settlement, the Lutherans and German Reforms were the principal religious denominations of the neighborhood. The Betzer Church was their place of meeting in common. The church is situated four miles north-east of Lithopolis. There was also a church south of Lithopolis, known as the Glick Church. Both are still meeting places.

" I was elected Justice of the Peace in 1821, 1824, and in 1827, serving in all three terms, or nine years. I served as Township Trustee twenty-three years. In the Ohio Militia, old system, I served at various times as Major, Colonel, and Paymaster.

"In the years 1828, 1829, and 1830, I was elected tothe Legislature as Representative of Fairfield County. In the spring of 1831, the Legislature elected me as one of the Associate Judges of Fairfield County.

"In the fall of 1832 I was elected to the Lower House of Congress, from the district composed of Fairfield, Perry, Morgan and Hocking counties. Was re-elected from the same


district in 1834, and in 1836. In 1842 I was again returned to the Ohio Legislature, Lower House, and was at that session elected Speaker. In 1844 I was elected to the Ohio Senate, the term being two years; and again in 1855 returned to the Lower House.

"In 1832 my friends placed my name on the Presidential electoral ticket, and I had the honor of helping to make Andrew Jackson President of the United States. In 1851 I was a member of the Constitutional Convention that framed the present Constitution of the State of Ohio. I am now within a few days of the close of my eighty-eighth year, and in the enjoyment of good health."

From the friends and long acquaintances of Judge Chaney, I have received the information, that never once during his public life did he solicit office. But, when placed in nomination by his political friends, he entered into the spirit of the canvass, and helped the ticket through.

In parting with the venerable Judge, as he grasped my hand cordially, he remarked, while his voice swelled up in volume and animation, that, whatever his life may have been, there was one thing that he was proud of, and that was the good opinions of his neighbors and constituents. That good opinion has been merited. And how blessed it would be, if every one could say at the close of life, that he, or she, was proud of the good opinions or their acquaintances.


The following is, in substance, the statement of B. W. Carlisle, in regard to his mother and others of the first emigrants into the Hocking Valley :

" Mrs. Sarah Carlisle was a resident of Greenfield Township for the full period of sixty-four years, ending with her death on the 14th of January, 1866, at the residence of her son. She was one of the pioneer mothers of this county. She, with her father's family, in true pioneer fashion, came with wagons, rifle-guns and trusty dogs, passing through where the city of Lancaster now stands, when nothing was there but an un-


broken wilderness. Where Lancaster is, no white man had settled. "

This was in 1799. Across the prairie, near the present residence of Mr. Mithoff, was a small encampment of Indians. "Her father, John Edwards, located on Buckskin, west of Chillicothe, in that year, where she underwent the hardships and enjoyed the novelties of pioneer life, until the fall of 1802, when she was married to James Wilson, brother of old Colonel Robert and Nathaniel Wilson, formerly residents of Hocking Township." She moved with her husband on the farm now owned by her son, B. W. Carlisle, in Greenfield Township, the same year of her marriage. In 1807, she was left a widow by the death of Mr. Wilson.

"Subsequently, she was united in marriage to Thomas Carlisle, on the 23d day of January, 1813, with whom she lived until the fall of 1844, when she was again left a widow by the death of her second husband."

Mrs. Sarah Carlisle descended from Scotch parentage, who were Presbyterians, she herself uniting with that church in Lancaster soon after her first marriage, Rev. John Wright being pastor.

Mrs. Margaret Ewing, late of Pleasant Township, and mother of Thomas E., William and James Ewing, was Mrs. Carlisle's sister. She, also, with her husband, were among the earliest settlers of Fairfield County.

Mrs. Carlisle was fond of dwelling on the scenes and incidents of the pioneer age, and had a fund of highly interesting anecdotes and amusing incidents to narrate. Among her early acquaintances of the new settlement, she often spoke of the following persons: the Whites, the Coateses, the Bradshaws, the Wilsons, the Stewarts, the Lackeys; the Greens, the Biggerstaffs, the Builderbacks, the Burtons, George Sanderson, and numerous others.

Mrs. Carlisle saw Lancaster spring from the wild woods, where the white man never trod before. She spoke of the first two cabins she remembered—one near the present steam-mill at the foot of Chestnut (Jail) street, the other near a spring at the foot of what is now Wheeling street, on the canal. She lived to see Lancaster a flourishing city of over five thousand inhabitants. Like most of the women of frontier life, she was an expert horseback rider. She often rode from her home in


Greenfield to her father's, forty miles distant, in a day, carrying her babe on her lap.

An incident of her romance is well worth telling, because such occurrences were common to the pioneers. Returning from Lancaster, she came upon a young fawn in the woods, at a point somewhere near the cabin of Joseph Hunter. She knew it had strayed from its mother, and springing dextrously from her horse, she threw the bridle over a limb, made chase, and captured the little spotted fugitive, carried it home, and raised it as a pet.

Her second husband, and father of the present B. W. Carlisle, who is remembered as Thomas Carlisle, late of Greenfield Township, entered what is known as the war of 1812 the same year of his marriage, viz.: 1813. He served in Captain Richard Hooker's mounted men, who went to the relief of Colonel Croggan, who was besieged by the Indians at Sandusky.

Thomas Carlisle came from Virginia, and setted in Fairfield County in 1811; was married in 1813, and lived on what is known as the Carlisle farm until the time of his death, in 1844. Mr. Carlisle was an active business man and a highly useful citizen. He served many years as a Justice of the Peace. At the time of his death he was one of the acting Commissioners of the county.


Henry Stemen came from Virginia, and settled on Raccoon, in 1803. His wife was Mary Beery, sister of the late George Beery. Nicholas Stemen was one year old at the time his father came to Fairfield County. He continued to reside in Fairfield until he was about thirty years old, and then moved across the line into Perry County, where he still resides. Mr. Stemen stated that his father helped to clear off some of the first ground where Lancaster now stands. Below is his statement of the



Who came into the Raccoon neighborhood a little before the Stemens. Nicholas Beery was the father of eight sons and seven daughters, viz.: John, Jacob, Abraham, Isaac, Henry, George, Joseph and Christian; Barbara, Magdalene, Elizabeth, Mary, Susanna, Fanny and Rebecca. Most of his large family settled in the east part of Fairfield County, and became thrifty and useful farmers and citizens. Most of them are buried in the county.


Caspar Hufford settled on the Raccoon at a very early day. He built the first mill, on the site where Lobenthall's, and since, Mike Moyer's mill stands. It was a small Raccoon Burr Mill, of the capacity of eight or ten bushels of corn a day. Mr. Hufford's sons were : Solomon, Abraham, Daniel, Jacob and John. These all settled on the Raccoon. Catharine Hufford, daughter of Caspar, married John Friezner ; and Susan married David Beery, son of John Beery, and grandson of Nicholas Beery. David Beery built the brick house in which Solomon Beery, son of George, now lives, on the Bremen road.

Mr. Nelson built a mill on Raccoon in 1805, on the land now owned by James Driver. Mr. Stemen remembers that, when a mill-boy, about 1812, he saw the miller carrying the ground wheat in a half-bushel up the steps, and turning it into the hopper of the bolting-chest, while the owner of the grist stood turning the bolting-cloth by means of a crank, (The writer has witnessed the same operation many times about the same era.) William Johnson built a mill on Rush Creek, a little below Rushville, during the year 1812, or about that time. Johnson's mill is well remembered. Jacob Rhodes built a still-house on Rush Creek at a very early day. Mr. Harmon, father of Fred. Harmon, erected a distillery in Pleasant Township.


The first religious societies formed in the Raccoon settlements were : Dunkers, Mennonites, Presbyterians, Seceders, German Reforms and Methodists.



Were kept in small log school-houses about three months in the year. Reading, writing, and "cyphering," as far as the Rule of Three, was the course of instruction. Webster's and Dillworth's spelling-books, and Pike's Arithmetic were used. For readers: The Testament, English Readers, Columbian Orator, and the American Preceptor. This was the English course. Some of the first schools were exclusively German, and others were German and English.


Corn-bread, vegetables, milk and butter, and wild meats, constituted the principal subsistence, but even these were sometimes scanty. When the mills were stopped for lack of water, breadstuffs became very scarce, and the neighbors would borrow from one another as long as there was any in the community. Venison was quite plenty, and also wild-turkey. Coffee and tea were dear, and hard to come at. As substitutes the people used spice-wood and sassafras teas; and for coffee, burned rye and wheat. Pounded and lye hominy were universal. The forms of corn-bread were johnnycake, hoe-cake, dodger, ash-cake and pone.


The wearing apparel of the settlers was nearly entirely home-made, consisting of flax and tow linens, linsey and flannels. Every farmer raised a patch of flax, from which the linens were made. The flax and tow were spun on hand-wheels. Wool was carded at first on hand-cards, and afterwards by carding-machines run by water or horse-power. The weaving was done on hand-looms. Every neighborhood had its weavers, and sometimes nearly every house. The girls often spun, wove and made up their own wedding-dresses in the most primitive times of frontier life. Buckskin pants, and sometimes vests, were very common as men's wear. Shoes were almost wholely home-made, and boots were nearly unknown.



In common with all the frontier settlers, the inhabitants of Raccoon and Rush Creek Valleys practiced the plays common to the 'times. Mr. Stemen's parents did not approve them. In those times the family discipline was very rigid. The same ruling would be tyranny now. Nevertheless, that kind of discipline gave the world a more noble class of men and women than we shall ever see again.


Wolves were very numerous, making it difficult to keep sheep. The State paid premiums for their scalps. Panthers, bears and wild-cats were plenty, deer abundant. Bear's meat was common. Catamounts were also often seen in the woods. (The catamount is of the feline species, and in size is intermediate between the domestic cat and the American panther. They were greyish, and sometimes spotted). When wounded, or enraged, they were dangerous enemies.


There were bands of various tribes of Indians wandering about the country during several years after the white settlements commenced. They were peaceable for the most part, but had to be kept in a good humor. Mr. Stemen spoke of an instance where several Indians came to his father's house and asked for something to eat. His mother had a corn pone baked for her family, and little besides to give them. She gave them half of the pone, and they went away, but soon returned and demanded more, and to pacify them she gave them all she had.

The writer remembers many similar instances in another part of the State, but there, the Indians, for the most part, had something to give in exchange for what they wanted, such as furs, peltry and venison hams, and sometimes cut money. On one occasion a company of Miamis came to our house when my mother was a hundred yards away at the• spring rinsing her clothes. I was the baby, and had been left alone in the cradle in the cabin. As was their custom, they stopped out in the grove and sent their commission of two squaws into the house, who finding no one in besides the baby,


took me from the cradle and carried me out to their comrades for a show. In a few minutes my mother returned, and finding the cradle empty, ran screaming out into the yard, when the squaws seeing her distress, hastened to meet her and restore the object of her alarm. She at once gave them everything she. had about the house that could be eaten, and they left in good humor.

They were Miamis, and their town was seven miles from our house. I never heard of them plundering or stealing in time of peace. They always asked for what they wanted.


Of this truly distinguished citizen and Jurist, I need not write much. His fame is as wide as American history. It is written in books, and in the hearts of the people. I speak only of his citizenship in Fairfield County.

Mr. Ewing settled in Lancaster in 1815, and commenced the study of law with Hon. Philemon Beecher, and was admitted to the bar in 1816. He continued to reside in Lancaster until the time of his death. Of the high positions of trust and honor he was called to fill in the nation, I do not speak ; they are recorded in the archives of the nation. It will not be too much for my humble pen to say, that Mr. Ewing was in some respects a remarkable man. No man living, perhaps, possessed the powers of speech and logic in a superior degree. He used no needless or superfluous words. He was not verbose. This was his strong forte in argument. He said much in few words. All understood him at once.

Of Mr. Ewing's family still surviving, are Mrs. General Sherman, Mrs. Colonel Steele, Hon. Hugh Boyl Ewing, Gen. Thomas Ewing and Gen. Charles Ewing. On the lid of his burial-casket was engraved—


Born December 28th, 1789;

Died October 26th, 1871."

Mrs. Maria Ewing, consort of Hon. Thomas Ewing, was born in Lancaster. She was daughter of the late Hugh Boyl. She was married to Mr. Ewing in January, 1820, and died in February, 1864. They are buried in the Catholic Cemetery,


east of Lancaster, and their graves are designated by fine marble monuments.


Charles Sherman was born in Norwalk, Connecticut, May 26, 1788. In 1810 he was admitted to the bar, and in the same year married Mary Hoyt, also of Norwalk. In the following year, with his wife and infant child, he came to Lancaster, O., and began the practice of law. In speaking of his emigration, Gen. Wm. J. Reece, one of his sons-in-law, says : " The way to it (Lancaster) from their New England home was far and weary, beset with hardships, and exposed to dangers. They were obliged to journey the greater part of the distance on horseback, carrying their infant child on a pillow before them. * * * * The little boy they carried on the pillow before them is now the Hon. Charles Taylor Sherman, United States District Judge of the Northern District of Ohio."

Judge Charles Sherman was elected by the Legislature of Ohio to the bench of the Supreme Court in 1823, which place he filled a few months over six years with distinguished ability, when his labors were ended by death. He died at Lebanon, Ohio, while attending Court, on the 24th day of June, 1829, in his 41st year. His companion, Mary Hoyt Sherman, survived him many years. Their tombs are in Lancaster Cemetery.

Judge Sherman was the father of Gen. W. T. Sherman, and Hon. John Sherman, U. S. Senator; also of Mrs. W. J. Reece, now of Lancaster, besides several other sons and daughters, with whom the writer was not acquainted.


Hocking H. Hunter was one of Ohio's leading lawyers. He was once elected to the Senate of Ohio, and subsequently declined the poll for Governor. As a lawyer he was eminently successful. He began life in a very humble way, as most of the sons of pioneers did, and worked his way up to fortune and fame by his own personal application and diligence. Mr. Hunter was a man of stern integrity of character, and unsurpassed administrative ability—pre-eminently just and upright in all the affairs of life. He was the son of Joseph Hun ter, who was the first white man that erected a cabin in Fairfield County.

Mr. Hunter was born in the month of August, 1801, and died February 4, 1872, in the 71st year of his age. Of his children there are six yet living, viz.: three sons and three daughters. It has commonly been believed that Mr. Hunter was the first white male child born in Fairfield County. There are, however, two or three other aspirants to that distinction, but the matter is too far back in history to be settled at this late day.


Dr. Williams is not mentioned as a pioneer of Fairfield County, though he deserves a place in its history. He is one of the living men who has made his mark, and who will leave a record. He has a brain seldom equaled or surpassed. Few men have lived of his mental capacities in his specialties. As a mathematician, grammarian and general scholarship, he stood, at his meridian, unrivaled. He has been a teacher, and author of school text-books. He was not brilliant ; but as a teacher and general educator he was forcible, clear and concise. There are probably more men to-day who owe their success in the professions and other vocations in life to having been pupils of Dr. Williams, than to any one man living. He was proprietor for several years of an Academy in Greenfield Township, known as " Greenfield Academy ;" and subsequently teacher and Superintendent of Lancaster schools. From age and infirmity, he, five or six years since, retired to his small farm, four miles north of Lancaster, where at present he resides.


UPPER SANDUSKY, O., July 20th, 1876.

DR. H. SCOTT—Dear Sir: I learn that you propose to publish a history of Fairfield County, and desire information in aid thereof. I herewith inclose .a letter prepared.by me for Dr. Tom. O. Edwards, in 1871. If of any use to you in your work,


you are at liberty to use the same as you may think proper. When your book is ready, please send me ten copies, and I will remit the price at once.

Very truly Yours,


HON. TOM. O. EDWARDS : Your favor of the 8th inst., containing request to furnish dates and names of early settlers of Fairfield County, is received. In answer, I am only able to state, from memory, conversations had with my father on the subject of his first settlement in your county. He was the youngest of six brothers of his father's family, in the order here given : John, Isaac, Abraham, Jacob, Henry and George. There were two half-brothers, Christian and Joseph, all of whom were among the first settlers of Fairfield County.

George, my father, was born in Rockingham County, Virginia, in the year 1783, and emigrated to the almost unbroken wilderness of your county in the year 1800. He came down the Monongahela and Ohio rivers in a flat-boat, and up the Hocking to the falls, thence through the woods on foot to Lancaster, and remained over winter, clearing land for others by the acre. He returned to Virginia the next spring, and finally returned to Fairfield County in the fall of 1801, and settled on the Raccoon Creek, near Bremen, clearing land and working for others, thus enabling him to enter eighty acres, which he did in the fall of 1807. GEORGE W. BEERY. 

In 1809 he married and settled on this small tract of land, continuing to live thereon, and in the neighborhood of Bremen, until the spring of 1832, when he moved to the little Raccoon, five miles east of Lancaster, where he died in 1856. 

John Beery, his eldest brother, came to the county in 1805, and the other brothers soon after, all settling on and near the streams mentioned, in Rush Creek and Berne townships. They were a hardy, stout and industrious set of men, and did their full share of clearing and improving that part of the county. They are all dead, leaving families scattered all over the country.           

Their education being very limited, and their habits sober and industrious, were content with the occupation of farming, except my father, who was always far in advance of his neighbors in schools and public improvements. He took an active part in the construction of the canal from Carroll to


Lancaster; also in building the Zanesville and Maysville Turnpike-road; was one of the Commissioners of the county, I think, in 1828; and assisted in locating and building the County Infirmary.

In 1834 he laid out the town of Bremen;. and in the next year, in partnership with Mr. Hedges, commenced the business of selling goods, an occupation yet followed by several of his children, who received their first lessons under his supervision. 

In the war of 1812, he was pressed into the service with his team. and while Major Crogan was defending Fort Stevenson, at Lower Sandusky, with team and provisions he was encamped at Fort Ball, now Tiffin, and within hearing of the guns of the fort.

He was a personal friend and admirer of Hon. Thos. Ewing, claiming that he had no superior as a lawyer and statesman in the Union. Such was his admiration of this truly great man, that he called his tenth and youngest son Thos. Ewing.

As a citizen, he was public-spirited; as a neighbor, kind and benevolent; as a father, strict in his requirements, yet tenderly devoted to his children.

My mother was a Uradlebaugh, a daughter of a revolutionary soldier, a German Reform minister, and a man of considerable influence in his day. He emigrated to Western Pennsylvania soon after the war closed, and in 1810 or 1811, to Fairfield County, where he soon afterwards died. My mother was born in Washington County, Pennsylvania, in the year 1789, emigrated to Fairfield County in 1806 or 1807. and died in 1870. She was a woman of more than ordinary force of character; positive in her opinions, and free to express them ; industrious and economical; loving right and hating wrong; prompt and active in every duty ; exerciking a marked and controlling influence over her husband and family—a mother of the old type, in every sense of the word. They had twelve children, nine of whom still survive. Four are living here, one near Urbana, Ohio, and the balance in and near the family village of Bremen.




William McClung died at the residence of his daughter, in West Rushville, on Friday, September 8th, 1876, aged 83 years, 7 months and 19 days.

Judge McClung came into Fairfield County in 1803, where he resided continuously until his death, and was among the last of the surviving pioneers. Few men have lived and passed away within the limits of the county, who more eminently deserved the reputation of a good man. He was upright, just and reliable in all the affairs of life, and, so far as the writer knows and believes, he had few, if any, enemies. Of him it may be very justly said, that he was one of that noble class of first men who helped to break the wilderness, and who lived to give character and prosperity to the country—a class that, very much to the world's detriment, is rapidly passing away.

Judge McClung, during his protracted and useful life, filled successively, and with the popular approval, the offices of Justice of the Peace, State Legislator, and Associate Judge under the old Constitution, as also many minor positions of trust in the civil and military service. He was one of the volunteers who enlisted under Captain George Sanderson in the war of 1812, and was included in the surrender of Gen. Hull in front of Fort Detroit.

He was likewise an officer in the church of his choice ; and it is said of him, by those who best knew him, that Christianity was illustrated by all his intercourse with the world, both in his public and private walks.


One of Fairfield's pioneer mothers is still living in Lancaster, at the venerable age of 87 years. Mrs. Flora Buttler King has been in most respects a very remarkable woman. Following is a condensed synopsis of her statement recently made to me :

Her father, Ebenezer Buttler, and the father of Gerrit Smith, were first pioneers in Onondagua County, N. Y. She was


born in Onondagua County in January, 1790, and during her early childhood and youth was the school companion of Gerrit Smith. She was the first female child born in that county. In 1812 she came to Ohio, and soon after to Lancaster. She was the first female teacher in Lancaster. Her school-house was a rough cabin built by Christian King, and stood where Doctor Turner's office now is, on Main street. In February, 1813, she was married to Christian King. She was mother of two children—William, who died many years ago in California, and Flora, wife of Charles Deshler, of Columbus, o.

After the death of her husband, Mrs. King devoted herself to painting and drawing, by which she accumulated a considerable amount of cash. Receiving intelligence of the death of her son in California, she made the trip there alone, by the Isthmus, and brought back his three children, their mother also being dead. She raised two of the boys, who are now in honorable positions. The other one died young. She witnessed the riot at Panama, when one hundred Americans were killed, and barely escaped with her own life by paying the natives a gold bonus.

William and Christian King came to Lancaster in 1799, and sold goods under the firm name of W. & C. King. Christian King built a toll-bridge across the prairie, west of town, on the track of the present turnpike-road.

Mrs. King remembers, that in 1812 the Kings and John Creed were merchants; Philemon Beecher, Robert F. Slaughter and William Irvin were practicing law ; Drs. Wilson, Torrence and Shawk were practicing medicine ; Thos. Sturgeon ke,)t tavern where Mrs. Creed now lives, and Mr. Swoyer on the Shaeffer corner.

William King died in 1831, and Christian, her husband, in 1840.


John Ashbaugh was my grandfather, and Andrew Ashbaugh was my father. They came into Fairfield County in 1801, and settled near where Bremen now is, and died there. My father's

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brothers were: Jacob, John, Frederick and Joseph; his sisters, Elizabeth, Mary, Patsy and Polly.

The Indians stole our horses, and were followed, and the horses recovered at Bowling Green, north of Zanesville, by paying the Indians one dollar a head for them.

Andrew Ashbaugh, my father, and a big Indian had a hopping-match, in which the Indian got beaten, and became angry, but others interfered, and all ended well.

On one occasion the Indians removed the bells from some horses and slipped them away, but fearing the consequence, as was believed, they restored the bells and the horses.

John Davis and Edward Young came and settled in Rush Creek Township in 1802.



Abraham Ream was born in Reamstown, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, in 1746, and removed to Fairfield County, Ohio, in 1798, at the age of fifty-two years. He came to Pittsburg in wagons, then down the Ohio river in a flat-boat as far as the mouth of the Hocking river, thence up that river to its falls (now one mile above Logan), in dug-outs, or canoes, thence by land up the stream to the point yet known as Ream's mill, where he settled down. He there entered four and a half sections of land in a body. His family consisted at the time of twelve children, viz.: five sons and seven daughters. In 1804 he built the mill which still retains his name.

His daughters were married to the following persons, viz : John Panebaker, Abraham Sheafer, Isaac Sheafer, Joseph Stukey, Lewis Hershberger, Henry Aneshensel. The youngest of the daughters died single, from the effects of a stroke of lightning.

His sons' names were : Sampson, William, Absalom, Abraham and George. Abraham died at the age of twenty years (single). The others married and raised families. Not one of the children of Abraham Ream are now living.


In early days, the Ream men were all great hunters —strong, fearless aid daring.

When they arrived in Fairfield County they were the sixth family of white settlers. The Indian villages were not entirely broken up where Lancaster is.

Jacob Ream, half-brother to Abraham, came a little later—four years, I think. He located south of Ream's mill, about one mile. Jacob L. Ream, who died recently, was his son. The Ream family was very numerous, and are widely intermarried, so that in that region, now, almost every third person one meets can claim relationship to them.

Of Sampson Ream's family, there are but three out of thirteen living. Two died in the Mexican war, and one in California. Of the sons-in-law of Abraham Ream, two yet survive —Aneshensel and Hershberger. The first winter the family were here they killed eighteen bears and twenty-seven deer. They also killed numerous wolves, wild-cats and panthers. A bear-skin then was worth seventy-five cents, and a deer-skin fifty cents. Deer-skins were dressed and made into pantaloons and moccasins, and bear-skins were used for bed-covers.


Levi Stewart (now a citizen of Lancaster) was born in Greenfield Township, in 1800, and is therefore now in his 77th year. His father was one of the first settlers of Fairfield County. He came in 1799, and settled near the Hocking, immediately south of the residence of the late Judge John Grabill, two miles north-west of Lancaster, on the Columbus pike. Mr. Stewart has spent his long life in the vicinity of the place of his birth, and has made it his care to preserve a recollection, not only of the first settlers, but of the places where they located, as well as of the general condition of the country, and domestic life of the pioneers. The following is a condensed note of his statement :

At his first recollections, the country was almost a literal wilderness, interspersed with rude cabins of unhewed logs,


one story high. The country abounded with wolves, deer, bears, wild-cats and panthers. Indians were more or less numerous, who lingered about until about the year 1810, before they entirely disappeared.


Samuel Bush came in 1802, and settled on the spot which is the present farm of Daniel Bush, his grandson, one and a half miles north-west of Lancaster, on the Columbus road. David Fink settled near the same time one and a half miles north of Lancaster, to the right of the Baltimore road. Ralph Donelson settled first where Samuel Bush (son of the pioneer) now lives. Henry Cline, about the same time, settled on the farm, as he thinks, now owned by Judge Shaw, near Shimp's Hill. Alexander Sanderson (father of the late Gen. Sanderson), settled in 1798, and located in the same neighborhood. Jacob Sells, in 1800, entered a large tract of land embracing the site of the present village of Dumontsville, four miles north of Lancaster. John Sells came in the same year. David Bright (father of the present David and John Bright), came in 1800, and located where John Bright now resides. Henry Abrams came in 1800, and settled on the place now owned by David Bright. John Bailar settled where James McCleary now lives, in 1800. Adam and John Westenberger, brothers, settled in the McCleary neighborhood in 1800. Mr. Nail, about the same time, located on the William McCleary place. John McArthur settled where Newton Peters at present resides, probably in 1800. John Morgan located about the same time on the John Grabill farm. Joseph Stewart, father of Levi, first settled a short distance south-west of the Grabill place, in 1799, and on the north side of Hocking. In the year 1805, Samuel Grabill, father of John, Jacob, Gabriel, Christopher and Samuel, succeeded Mr. Morgan on what has ever since been known as the Grabill farm, where Judge Grabill was born and died. In the year 1800, Gideon Geary settled on the place now known as the G. H. Smith farm, on the pike, west of Grabill's. About the same time, Samuel Tallman located immediately joining the Smith farm on the west. At Yankeytown (Claypool's), James Brooks, Mr. Cook and Drake Taylor squatted in the year 1799. Jacob Claypool, father of Isaac, bought them out in 1805, and opened a farm


Isaac Meason came into Greenfield, in 1798, first locating on the Carroll road, where the late Elijah Meason resided. Isaac Meason was the father of the late John Meason. Patrick Lusk, in 1800, settled on the place afterward known as the Isaac Wilson farm, south of Carroll. John McFarland, father of the late Walter McFarland, in 1798, located on the spot where Walter lived and died. Isaac Rice located near the present woolen factory, below the rock-mill, in 1799. William and James Reed, brothers, in 1798, settled a little east of the subsequent Rice place, in 1798. Their places were near the Hocking. Thos. McCall, about the same time, settled near the Reeds. James Wells settled on the present Hooker land, in 1799. William Wilson, in 1798, located a little south of Hooker's. His son James now resides on the same place. Samuel Wilson settled the same year, adjoining William. James Wilson, Sr., settled on the Carlisle farm. He was the first husband of the late Mrs. Thos. Carlisle.

David Pence, Henry Gearhart, Daniel Gearhart, David Wintermuth, Daniel Wintermuth, Adam Wagner, David Baugher, John Hanna, James Hanna, Abraham Fairchild, William Wiseley, Edmund Wiseley and John Miller settled in the north-east part of Greenfield Township, in the years 1800 to 1805.

Henry Abrams built the first hewed log-house in Greenfield. David Bright built a still-house near where John Bright lives, at a very early day. William and James Reed built a saw-mill on the Hocking, below rock-mill, very early. John Goolthrite taught the first school that is remembered in Greenfield. Another school is said to have been taught in the " Spook's Hollow, " east of the Grabill farm, at a very early day. School-houses were log-shanties with oiled-paper windows.

The Indians procured lead not far from the present rock-mill, but the mine, if any, has not been discovered to this day. No inducements could prevail on them to tell where they got the lead. They had rifles, and knew how to handle them.

The intercourse between the log-cabins of the pioneers of Greenfield was over paths worn by following the blazed trees, at first. Mr. Stewart remembers a tornado which passed over the country in 1809, that he has not seen equaled, in his nearly


fourscore years. The timber was so blown down as to blockade the roads seriously.

The subsistence of the pioneers was corn-bread, wild meats, wild-honey, milk and butter, and vegetables. Roasted rye and wheat were used for coffee, which could not be had, or seldom, and then at enormous prices. They carried their corn on horseback to the falls of Hocking (Logan), to get it ground, and sometimes had to wait several days for their turn. Salt was packed from the Scioto below Chillicothe, and from the Muskingum, and cost about $5.00 a bushel. He had known seasons of three to five weeks when the whole community was out of breadstuff, because the mills were stopped for want of water. They pounded hominy, grated corn, and cooked vegetables, and made other shifts.

The sports and pastimes of the settlers were pitching quoits, jumping, running foot-races, wrestling, dancing, plays of a great variety, and in rough and tumble fights. Fighting was very common at public gatherings, such as sales, log-rollings, corn-huskings, house-raisings, and the like. Horse-swapping was almost universally practiced. The most of it was done at gatherings. Sometimes the family fire went out over night, when some member of the family had to go to neighbors to procure it before the breakfast could be started. The first and only chairs known were called split-bottoms. Many families at first sat on slab-stools of their own make.

One pair of shoes a year was all that could be bad ; the remainder of the time they went barefoot. The boys had two suits of home-made flax and tow-linen in summer, and in winter one suit of linsey—no underclothes. The young ladies thought they were fine if they had one calico dress in a year. Wheat was worth twenty-five cents, and corn from five to twelve and a half cents a bushel, in trade. A day's work was from sunup to unsdown, and the wages was 25 cents.



DR. H. SCOTT—Dear Sir: Having learned that you are engaged in preparing a history of Fairfield County, I hereby send you a few pioneer items and incidents of the early settlement of Liberty Township, for your disposal.


I was born on the 14th day of February, 1812, just 65 years ago this day. My object is not so much to speak of what I know personally of the early history of our township, as it is to refer to facts that transpired prior to my coming on the stage of action, and for such information I am indebted mainly to several of the descendants of the very first settlers. Among these I mention the names of Jacob Bibler, Joseph Alt and Noah Gundy, still living, and whose united ages are over two hundred and forty-four years.


Christian Gundy and wife came in 1800. They came from Lancaster County, Pa., as far as Wheeling, Va., on horseback. Mr. Gundy left his wife at Wheeling, and came out here on Walnut Creek, and planted three or four acres of corn, and then went back and brought his companion, and lived all winter in a sugar-camp with a blanket for a door. Robert Wilson came about the same time, and they both, with their families, squatted on unsurveyed lands. After the surveyor established the lines, these two neighbors found that they had settled on the same section ; so Mr. Gundy moved his tent eastward. Noah Gundy, his son (my informant), was born in 1806, and still lives on the old homestead.


Came in 1803 or 1804, and settled half a mile south of the present town of Baltimore, near Walnut Creek bridge, on the west side of the present pike. The farm is now owned by Emanuel Rinch. Mr. Brumback afterwards settled on Poplar Creek, where his son now lives. Martin Brumback, the son, has the most extensive vinyard in the county.


In 1804, Nicholas Bader and Jacob Showley came and entered a half section of land south of the Brumback place, where they lived and died. They came from Switzerland. At Pittsburg they embarked on a flat-boat and paddled down the Ohio river to the mouth of the Hockhocking. Here they put their chests and bedding in skiffs, or canoes, and poled and paddled them up to the falls of Hocking (Logan). Froth there they


made their way through the wilderness to this township, and settled down in a strange land, with few neighbors.


Came from the same country, one year afterward, passing over the same route. While floating down the Ohio river their boat struck a snag, and sprung a leak and sunk. They got ashore safely, but with soaked clothes and baggage. While they were waiting on the bank for another boat to come along, they built a fire and dried their clothes. At the mouth of Hocking the wife and three young children were left alone, while the father and son Joseph started on foot up stream, over hills and gullies, in search of their countrymen, Showley and Bader, in this township, and make arrangements with one of them to go to Chillicothe and enter land. The second night, while they camped in the wilderness, about midnight they heard a noise such as they never heard before. Old Joseph got up and began to stir up the fire until the sparks and flames made it light all around, and took up his gun, but the animal had fled. The next day they were told it was a panther.


Old Father Bader, son of Nicholas Bader, has told me, that when a small boy, his father sent him to Ream's mill with a bushel and a half of corn, and that it required three days to make the trip. Noah Gundy says that the first grist of corn his father took to mill he carried to Newark, in Licking County. I asked how his father found the way. He said, over an Indian trail. The first horse-power mill in Liberty was built by Jacob Showley. Almost every pioneer family had a hominy-block.


Of Shenandoah County, Virginia, landed here in the woods in 1805, with four sons and four daughters. Their log-cabin was built on the spot of ground where John W. Chapman, Postmaster of Basil, now resides. This family moved into their cabin late in the fall, and before the chinking or daubing of the cracks was done.


This family had not had a mouthful of any kind of bread in their house for over five weeks. Old Father Bibler went to Chillicothe to buy some corn. Owing to the short supply there, he only g(A one bushel, for which he had to pay two dollars. This he brought home, and sent his son Jacob (my informant) to Woodring's mill, about five miles west on Walnut Creek, where he had to wait for his turn. He said that when the warm meal was running from the spout out of the burrs, he caught some in his hand, and that he never tasted anything so good in all his life.


The first season they planted about three acres of corn, but they did not even get a peck of ripe corn. The squirrels visited the cornfield in day-time, and the raccoons in the night. Jacob told me that hiv father, Abraham, went out with his rifle one morning and killed thirty-eight squirrels off of one tree, and then he was not able to count the remainder on the same tree. On another occasion he brought down eighteen raccoons from a single tree.


It was a common thing for the boys of both races to meet and engage in testing their skill and activity by running foot-races, jumping and tusseling. My informant spoke of Thos. Warner's, in Walnut Township, and of Tutwiler's, and at his father's, where Basil is, as frequent meeting-places of these boys of both races. He referred by memory to the spot where A. T. Mason's residence is, and the foundry, as these old play-grounds.


"I remember," said the narrator, "of hearing my father and other old men tell, that one time when a township election was to be held, they had to send around word and hunt up seven men in order to be able to hold an election for township officers." We have none of that kind of trouble now, and there are six to seven hundred voters in the township.



The first resident minister was Rev. Martin Kauffman, a Baptist. Rev. John Hite, of Walnut Township, also preached in the neighborhood for many years. Rev. Benedum, of the Unite) Brethren, preached for a long time at the house of Mr. Showley. He was a resident of Bloom Township. Rev. Geo. Weis, of Lancaster, was the first German Reform minister who came about. He preached first at Amspach's, two and a half miles north of Basil, where St. Michael's Church now is. This was about 1817.


In conversation with Gen. Geo. Sanderson, of Lancaster, some fifteen years ago, he told me that when he was a small boy he came with a couple of hunters into this (Liberty) township, and served them as camp-boy about a week, at a time when there was not a cabin or white man within its limits. He spoke of the site of their camp as being just above the spring, or on the hill immediately north of where Pugh's warehouse stands, at Basil, on a lot now owned by my sister, Mrs. Musser. Where now, are the hunters, and the camp-boy, and the camp?


Henry Yanna built the house now owned by Jacob H. Campbell, our hardware merchant. This was our first tavern. Mr. Y. was a Swiss, and a professional butcher. Many thousands of pounds of beef did he haul on the " Deep Cut " to Monticello (a town then near the present Millersport). But now Monticello is a cornfield. Beef then was sold at three cents per pound. There were more than a hundred hands constantly at work. Mr. Yanr a had for his tavern-sign an ox painted on the board.


Also a Swiss, had the second tavern. There was business then for two taverns in Basil, not so much for entertainment as for the sale of whisky and "stone-fence cider," which meant four gallons of whisky in a barrel of water, to make it to keep. For his sign he had the Swiss hero, Wilhelm Tell.



Henry D. Bolle, a Frenchman, on the day of the first sale of town-lots, purchased the old homestead, which consisted of a hewed log house, and the old vacated log-cabin, built in 1809. The purchase price was about sixty dollars. This was inlot No. 9. He put one shelf up-stairs, twelve feet long and one foot wide. On this shelf he was able to put his entire stock of goods.

One year after, he put up shelving and a rough counter in the old log-cabin. In this cabin he did business for two years. In 1828 he called at our house and wanted to sell his store to my father. My father replied, " Wat do I want wid your store ?" Bolle replied, " You put little Henry in dere; he make sthore-keeper some day." He left the goods in the cabin for us to sell in a year, promising to take back what was not sold. We took them at retail price, but could not make one cent on them. But father had one hundred dollars in silver, which he kept in a wooden box on top of the clothes-press. He sold a horse for fifty dollars. This made a capital of one hundred and fifty dollars, which was carried to Lancaster on the 15th day of April, 1828, and with that amount our first purchase of merchandise was made.

Our sales did not average two dollars a day during the first year, the aggregate amount sold being no more than $500. But by perseverance, diligence and attention, the Leonard brothers were enabled to navigate the turbulent waters of trade for nearly forty years, without meeting any serious disaster from the frequent and fierce storms and hurricanes caused by the risky and unreliable trade-winds, on account of which so many mercantile ships were swamped or sunk.


There was a time in the early history of this country when wild-pigeons were so very plenty,.that they literally " darkened the heavens" in their flight to and from their roost in Licking County.

On one occasion five young men set out from this neighborhood for the pigeon-roost, to bring back, as they doubted not, large numbers of these birds. The company consisted of Samuel Bader, John Hively, Jacob Showley, Jacob Bibler and


Jacob Goss. The two latter are still living. They provided themselves with punk, flint and steel, for the purpose of raising a fire at night. But alas; a cold, driving rain set in, and they were soaked to the skin, with no possibility of starting a fire, as everything was dripping wet. Their expedition was a failure, of which they never heard the last. Old Father Shriner, who was auctioneer in the settlement, or " sale-crier," as the term was then, loved to twit the boys when they were present. " Here, Jacob," he would say, "is a tub; it will do to salt down your pigeons. How much will you give?" Or, if he offered a small vessel, he would say, " Sell ist gut fuer Saltz," by which he meant, this will answer to carry salt for salting down your pigeons. Old Father Shriner was a jolly old pioneer. His grandchildren are now grandparents. Such is the flight of time.


Our old pioneer, David Brumback, was the undertaker in our township. He buried, or rather made all the coffins when I was a small boy. I remember once I went with my grandfather to a funeral at Showley's, and as screws were scarce in those primitive times, nails were used to fasten down the lid of the coffin ; and I heard my grandfather tell my mother this: " Barbi, wenn ich sterbe, will ich nicht mit dem Hammer zu-genagelt sein." Barbara, when I die, I will not have my coffin nailed with a hammer.


I remember, too, when it was customary to carry, or hand round a bottle filled with whisky before the funeral would leave the house. I had the honor myself, when called on, to hand the long-necked green bottle around, and a young lady would follow with cakes and pies.


Mr. Noah Gundy, who has been living in the vicinity more than seventy years, told me, that the Indians almost every spring would come on Walnut Creek, near their farm, for the purpose of boiling sugar. One time a man came to hunt, and seeing some object moving among the pawpaw bushes, and be-


lieving it to be a bear, fired at it, and was startled by the scream of a squaw, and alarmed, he lost no time in giving "leg-bail." The Indians were soon on his trail, but he eluded them by his fleetness, and by taking to the bed of the creek, thus causing them to lose his track; and he kept safely out of their way until the matter was settled and the Indians pacicified. Dr. Shawk, of Lancaster, was sent out to dress the wounded arm, and he partially succeeded in persuading them that it was unintentional, though they for a long time entertained lingering doubts. The squaw, however, got well, and all was over.

[This I believe to be the story that is told of the late Judge David Ewing, of Pleasant Township. The circumstances are nearly the same in both statements. The friends of Mr. Ewing, however, do not locate the scene on Walnut Creek, but in the Arnold settlement, in Pleasant. They also say that the Indians refused the services of a doctor, and that the affair was settled by Daniel Arnold and others, by the payment of money and other things.—ED.]


At one time old Father Gundy drove forty head of fat hogs all the way to Zanesville, Ohio, for which he expected to receive $1.50 per hundred, but it seems that when he arrived with the porkers, Mr. Buckingham backed out, and said that he could not pay more than $1.25 a hundred, that they had come too late. Mr. Gundy was displeased, and said, "You shan't have them." So the old man left the forty fat hogs to take care of themselves, and returned home in a bad humor. Strangely enough, in about three weeks every one of the hogs straggled back to the Gundy farm, over a distance of more than forty miles, and were afterwards sold to a Chillicothe man for $1.50 per hundred pounds. Hogs were then sold by net weight.


In the early settlement of our township, especially before we had a canal, our farmers would go to Zanesville with their wagons and exchange their wheat for salt. At one time six or eight teams from Walnut Creek went in company, and after


they had sold and unloaded their wheat, they drove to the salt-house. Mr. Fairchild (long since dead) said to the clerk, or salt man, " We will bet you a gallon of brandy that we have a man in our crowd that can pick up a barrel of salt by the chimes and lift it into the wagon. " After the salt man had eyed the crowd closely, and could see no giant among them, he said, "Agreed." Mr. Fairchild then called out, "John Hunt work, pull off your coat and go to work." And John did not only load one barrel, but, as one wagon after another drove up, he picked up the barrels of salt as though they were firkins of butter, and loaded the wagons. And it is to be remembered, that at that time a barrel of salt weighed more than 280 pounds; many of them weighed over 300. Mr. Noah Gundy (my informant) further told me, that John Huntwork at one time carried eleven bushels of wheat up a pair of steps at one load. The wheat was put in one large sack especially for the occasion.


It was rumored that the Indians were coming in to plunder the pioneers. Bibler's cabin was the place of rendezvous. It-was not long before several guns were heard at a neighboring cabin, when the women began to scream. One old lady said : " O! I wish the Indians had killed me long ago." My mother wanted father to go, but he said no, he would not run away from his own house. They all stayed at home, but no savages appeared. The rumor had been started and the guns fired by rowdies, for fun, but the neighbors did not recognize the fun.


Old Father Jacob Goss landed here in 1807 or 1808, and put up a cabin. He had two sons and one daughter. When the canal was being located, Henry Hildebrand laid out a new town, which was named New Market, but is now the "Baltimore, Ohio." Jonathan Flattery surveyed the lots of Basil, and when he was through he asked Father Goss what he was going to call his town, and he (Goss) decided to leave the naming of it to his neighbors. My father proposed Basil, and 'Squire Joseph Hustand proposed Geneva, both Swiss


names. It was decided to determine by ballot. At this stage of the case, I, a boy, came along on my return from the old Hively log school-house, with my copy-book under my arm. Father told me to write some tickets, which I did, upon a blank sheet torn from my copy-book. The votes were cast, and upon counting out from the hat it was found that there were six for Basil and six for Geneva—a tie. At this point my uncle, John Goss, came up the hill, when my father said : "John, vote Basil." He gave the casting vote, and hence Basil. I was, therefore, the first to write the name of our village, Basil. This was in 1825, and therefore these two villages are a little over fifty years old. Henry Hildebrand was first proprietor of Baltimore, and Jacob Goss first proprietor of Basil.


A number of our Swiss families, instead of going to the mouth of Hocking, and up that stream in skiffs, turned up the Muskingum and came to Zanesville, a nearer and more eligible route. Among them were the Weber and Erb families. They laid up a little below Zanesville. In the morning, old Mother Erb went to a cabin near by to get some milk for their coffee. She took with her a silver quarter. The woman of the house had no change. The old lady made motion for her to let her have a piece of what she took to be an egg-pudding, which she saw in the skillet. The woman gave her the whole of it, and she hurried back to the camp with the pudding (?) in her apron, saying: "Now we will have a nice breakfast." The pudding was cut, but no one could eat a bite of it. Even their dog would not touch it. It was a corn pone. But they got well over that before they were five years older.


Joseph Bibler told me only last week, when speaking of the price of grain, after the little farmers had raised more than they needed, that they would have been glad to have got ten cents a bushel for their corn, but could not get five cents cash.

At one time he (Bibler) went to Lancaster to see if he could sell some wheat. A prominent citizen and business man there, said to him: "I have no use for any wheat now, but if you will bring it in and empty it into one of these mud-


holes, so our gentlemen can have a clean and dry walk, I will give you twelve and a half cents a bushel." I had heard the story before, but this from my old and reliable friend settled the question.


Following are the names of the principal pioneers who settled in Liberty Township prior to the year 1812:

Robert Wilson, Christian Gundy, David Broomback, Francis Bibler, Jacob Showley, Nicholas Bader, the Erb and Weber families, Philip Shepler, McCalla, Fairchild, Switzer, Gaster, Amspach, Giesy, Hiser, Hanna, Minehart, Howser, Hensel, Apt, Heistand, Alt, Morehead, Bartmess, Cook, Leisteneker, Finkbone, Heyle, Bader, Black, Hiveley, Eversoles, Farmer, Shisler, Campbell, Zirkle, Kumler, Leonard, Brown, Sann, Bolenbaugh, Rouch, Paff, Newel, Blauser, Shriner, Knepper, Wright, Olinger, Growiler, Kemerer, Sager, Tusing and Soltz.





Michael Leist was born in Clear Creek Township sixty-six years ago, and has resided within its bounds all his life. The following are the names of the first settlers of the township, to the extent that he remembers them.

John Leist (father of Michael) came in 1805. He is well remembered. He served many years as Justice of the Peace, and was thirteen times elected to the State Legislature. The very first settlers of Clear Creek, as Mr. Leist remembers them, he named as follows—the time of their arrival varying from 1800 to 1810. They settled in different parts of the township:

Martin Smith, Mr. Binhimer, the Fosnaughts (the descendants of the Fosnaughts constitute a large voting force of the township to this day). John, Nicholas and Daniel Conrad came early. Henry and Daniel Conrad, two descend-


ants, are still living, at an advanced age. George Conrad is still living at the age of 82 years. He was a son of John Conrad. Daniel has two sons living, and Nicholas one. George Nigh was a very early settler. His descendants are all dead. Peter Swineford settled east of John Leist. John Welsheimer, Mr. Stott, John Starr, Peter Good, Peter Baker, George Baker. George Stout and Benjamin Chrisman were among the early settlers of Clear Creek. Mr. Dilsaver built the first horse-mill in the township. This was a little east of Stoutsville. George and John Hammel settled a little east of Dilsaver's. George Augustus was a very early settler. There were either three or four of the Hedges amongst the first-comers. They had a numerous progeny, and the family is still conspicuous in Clear Creek. John Reynolds came very early. His three sons, Stuart, Thompson and Franklin, are all dead. Mr. Stukey was among the first pioneers in Clear Creek Township. Two or three brbthers by the name of Friend came about the same time. Their descendants still reside in the township. Mr. Spangler was among the first settlers. Two of his sons are still living, viz.: Jeremiah and Samuel. Jacob Schumaker, a pioneer, lived and died in Clear Creek Township. Jonathan Dressback was a very early settler.


Mr. Leist described the two-story log church, built seventy years ago, in Dutch Hollow. Among the preachers who attended there more or less regularly, were Rev. George Wise, German Reform ; Rev. Stake, Lutheran ; Rev. Leist and Rev. Bing.

Mr. Leist also gave an interesting description of the first school-house and school in Dutch Hollow, near the church. School was kept there from two to three months in the year. The back-logs for the fire were drawn in with the log-chain and horse power, through an opening in the wall opposite the fireplace, and in very cold days the opening was closed by banking up the ashes to keep the cold wind out. He learned to spell by rote from hearing his brothers spell before he knew a letter of the alphabet. On one occasion he cried because the

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master refused to allow him to stand up with the spelling class; but to please him, finally he was permitted, and when the hard words passed along down the class, missed by several, he spelled them correctly and went up, very much to the amusement of the school.

The first election for the township was held in a log school house near its center. The same spot has been the voting place ever since, and continues to be at this day. George Valentine was remembered as among the early 'Squires. The pioneer house-raisings, log-rollings, corn-huskings, rail-maulings, grubbings, quiltings, and the like, were referred to as things that had been, but that are never to be again. Also, the old hominy-block, the corn-grater; mills dried up and scarcity of breadstuffs—the dear old days of peace, and happiness, and brotherhood.



NEW SALEM, March 8th, 1877.

DR. H. SCOTT—Dear Sir: The note you intended for Charles Wiseman was placed in my box, there being no man by that name residing in the neighborhood. Not having come to this neighborhood until 1818, I have most of my information from first settlers.

The first settlement in this neighborhood commenced about 1804, by Samuel, Wiseman, Edward Berry, James Miller, John Miller, John Manly, George Hill, Jacob Cagy, Robert Chalfant, Thomas McNaughton, Thomas Watson and John Goldthwait; also, the Teals and Ste vensons, about the same time. Thorn Township, then in Fairfield County, now in Perry, was settled about the same time, by Daniel Snyder, George Stinchomb, Jacob Hooper, Sr., Jacob Hooper, Jr., James Hooper, John Groves, and the Fosters.


James Hooper, coming up one day to look at their land, heard the sound of an ax to the west, and following the sound,  


came to a man cutting logs for a cabin, his family living in his wagon in the woods. In answer to the inquiry as to his lame, he answerd, " Samuel Wiseman. " On returning to his 'ather's cabin, in the Teal settlement, James told his mother the joyful news, that he had found a neighbor. " What is his lame ? " said she. " Samuel Wiseman," James replied. “Well, " said she, "he has a wise name ; would to God he is a wise and good man."

The citizens of Fairfield and Perry counties are indebted to John Goldthwait for the excellent variety of grafted fruit he ,ntroduced into those counties at an early day. I have visited fruit-stands in Baltimore, Harrisburg, Philadelphia and New York, and could find no better fruit than he introduced sixty-five years ago, in his nursery, two miles west of the present village of New Salem. Soon after Goldthwait's )rchard began to bear, two lawyers from Lancaster came out to examine his choice varieties of fruit. Goldthwait was a peculiar little Yankee, and a strong Federalist. The lawyers were strong Jefferson Democrats. He showed them his Royal Russet, Seek-No-Further, Golden Pippins, Rhode Island Greenings, and his Federal apples. The lawyers said to him, “You have shown us your Federal apples, now show us your Democratic ones. " He said, " Come down this way ; " and he pointed out a little scrubby tree with a few knotty apples

on. " That," said he, " is the Democratic apple. "


John Manly and George Hill served five years in what was ,hen called Lee's Legion of Horse, in the Revolutionary war. Rev. John Wiseman settled in this neighborhood in 1819. He served two terms in the Revolution, and was with Washington and Lafayette through the memorable winter at Valley Forge, while the British were occupying Philadelphia.





My father, William Jackson, came from Frederick County, Maryland, in 1805, and settled in Berne Township, Fairfield County. He came over Zane's trace from Wheeling to Lancaster. I was four years old. He left his goods at Wheeling, and came through on horseback, he and my mother, carrying two or three small children before and behind, as was the custom then. At Lancaster he met an acquaintance who had preceded him. His name was Sliger. He took us all to his cabin, which was two miles south of Lancaster, on the place which has for many years been known as Clarksburg, from the name of Joshua Clark, who lived there since, and carried on the milling business, in connection with which he run a distillery. My father and Mr. Sliger then rode about the country, and found an empty cabin on the bank of Pleasant Run, on the spot now known as the Reuben Shellenbarger place. There was belonging to the cabin twelve acres of cleared land, on which the timber was deadened. This was in December. We moved into the cabin and spent the winter, I do not know how. In the spring my father planted the twelve acres in corn, and then returned to Wheeling and brought out his wagon and little stock of household goods. We remained in that cabin two years. I cannot remember how we managed to live. At that time I had one brother and two sisters—I was the fourth child. My sister Polly married Joseph Sheets. She is at this time 85 years old, a widow, and living with her daughter, who is the widow of the late John Grabill, Jr. My brother John lives near the Colonel Sharp place, below Sugar Grove, and William lives two miles below Lancaster. My age is 76 years.

My father then took a lease on the lands of Samuel Shellenbarger, embracing the place where Reuben Shellenbarger now lives, and opened a farm. We little fellows had to pick and burn brush, and worked very hard. Afterwards my father bought eighty acres of John A. Collins, and moved on it. It was the same place now owned by the widow of David Huffman.


After the death of my mother, in 1836, father came and lived on my place, on the east side of Hocking, where he died about fourteen years afterwards.

At my earliest recollection our neighbors were : Mr. Brooks, father of George, Jacob and John S. Brooks; David Carpenter. Peter Gundy then lived on the Prindle place, in a hewed log-house; William Carpenter lived near the Kuntz mill; Sam'l Carpenter lived on the Kuntz place, the same that is now the residence of Thomas H. White, Esq. Mr. Reynolds lived between the Kuntz mill and Lancaster.

The first school I attended was in a little log-hut near us on the south, and the teacher was John May; and after him a Mr. Adison. The next school-house I went to was on the sixteenth section. It was taught by a man by the name of Skennel. He was a funny Irishman, but was called an excellent teacher. This was in 1813.

The first religious meetings I remember were held in the cabins of Gundy and Reynolds, who were Methodists. Among the preachers that I remember, were Revs. Bright and Jesse Spurgeon. The Baptists preached at our school-house ; and Lewis Seits, Eli Ashbrook, Mr. Baker and Benjamin Caves preached there.

We took our grists to Shellenbarger's and Carpenter's (Kuntz's) mills.

Our nearest neighbor was Mr. Crossen, when we first settled on the bank of Pleasant Run. It was some years before we began to have comfortable roads. At first we blazed the trees so as to go from one house to another. The woods were full of wild-turkeys, which, when the corn got ripe, came into the fields and preyed upon it, and it was a part of the duty of the children to go and scare them away. In the spring and fall the crows and black-birds were often very destructive to the cornfields. In the spring they pulled up the little stalks to get the grain from the root, and in the fall they eat the corn from the cob when the grains were soft. Raccoons were also troublesome. We put up scare-crows, and went round the fields continually to frighten them away. But the greatest enemies the cornfields had in the fall of the year were the squirrels, which some years came in such numbers as to absolutely defy our vigilance.


Wolves were numerous. At the sugar-camp they often cam( howling around in the night—so near that we could hear th( bushes cracking under their feet, and we threw fire-chunks at them, which they paid little attention to.

John Carpenter killed a panther one Sunday, when we were stopping at Sliger's. It was brought to the house, where they measured it eleven feet from the point of the nose to the tit of the tail.

Deer were very abundant, and bears more or less. Venison and wild-turkey meat could be had any time, and they constituted a large part of the living of the early settlers. Turkeys were caught in pens, and taken with the rifle. A bear was occasionally killed.

Mrs. Crossen was at one time coming through the woods to our house, when she discovered a bear in the act of killing a hog. Mr. Garner and my father, with us little fellows, went out with the gun and dogs, and soon found the bear. Upon seeing us approach, he left his prey and climbed up a tree. B he had had a competent understanding of the range and power of the rifle in the hands of a back-woods hunter, he would probably have sought another means of safety. As it was, the leaden messenger soon brought him lifeless to the ground. His weight was over three hundred. Wild-cats sometimes carried off our pigs.

At the time of our settling there, the whole country was in a wild condition ; a condition of almost unbroken woods. In the early years breadstuffs sometimes became scarce, and we grated meal from the first corn that ripened. Mr. Pitcher had a small raccoon burr-mill, where Green's mill now is, down Hocking; and Mr. Crossen had a still-house near where Reuben Shellenbarger lives.

The good old days of log-rollings, corn-huskings and house-raisings, and of the social plays of " Sister Phebe," and the country dance, and nearly everybody that had anything to do with them, revive gladness in the heart, but are never to be seen again.



Abraham Bope, father of Gen. Jacob Bope, of this county, and of Philip Bope, of Lancaster, emigrated from Rockingham, Virginia, in the year 1803, and located six miles north of Lancaster, in Pleasant Township. His brother, Frederick Bope, and Henry Ketner accompanied him, and located in the same neighborhood. It was late in the fall, or beginning of winter when they arrived, and a camp was erected by the side of a big log, where they spent the winter, In the spring a cabin was erected, into which they moved. It is not said whether the Ketner family shared the winter camp by the big log, but that is the inference.

In the following fall there came and settled in the same region John and Benjamin Feemen, Casper Walters and Jacob Weaver. The second fall after the arrival of the Bopes and Ketner, a considerable colony came out and settled round in the same neighborhood.

Mr. Bope, now in his seventy-ninth year, preserves distinct recollections of the times and incidents of the infant colonies which were begun there over seventy years ago, and detailed them with great readiness.

The Indians, chiefly Wyandots and Delawares, were all over the country in small hunting squads, often camping near the cabins of the white settlers. They were harmless, and the young folks often went out and looked at them while they sung and danced. The first roads through the settlements were over blazed paths. The Bopes and Ketner were two days getting from Lancaster out to their destination, having to cut their way through the thickets. The men of the early settlers were mostly hunters.

On one occasion Abraham Bope was returning from a hunt, or possibly from a trip to some neighboring cabin, when night overtook him before he reached home. He suddenly found himself surrounded with wolves. He fired upon them, but failed to scare them away. They seemed to press him, and