In the enumeration of the physicians of Fairfield County, the following names were unintentionally omitted :

Dr. G. Miesse, Sen., will be remembered as a highly eminent practitioner of medicine in the neighborhood of Dumontsville for many years. About 1840, or a little later, he removed to Greenville, Dark County, Ohio, where he still resides, at the age of 70 years.

Dr. G. Miesse, now of Lancaster is his son. Dr. Miesse, Jr., is known for his distinguished ability as a pianist and composer of music. He makes a speciality of treating chronic diseases.

Dr. M. H. Miesse is a physician of Royalton.

Dr. Jonas Wiest, now of Circleville, was formerly a practitioner at Dumontsville, this County.

Dr. Chas. Babcock and Dr. Barlow were former homeopathic physicians of Lancaster.

Dr. Lurch of Amanda is a physician of many years practice, and is extensively known.

Dr. Thomen, resident physician at Baltimore.

Dr. Rutter, medical practitioner of Clear Creek.

Dr. Thomas, resident physician of Rushville.

Dr. Hummel is a practitioner of Baltimore.

The difficulty the author has experienced in receiving responses to inquiries, is the apology for these names not appearing in the proper place.

Jacob Wiest emigrated from Pennsylvania and settled in Greenfield Township, this County, in May, 1822, where he continued to reside until] the time of his death, on the 24th of Nov., 1872, at the great age of 88 years, 11 months and 9 days. He was the father of twelve children, of whom four have deceased and eight are living. There were also living at the time of his death, 96 grand-children and 129 great grand-children. Mr. Wiest was a soldier in the war of 1812. His tomb is near Dumontsville.

John Zeigler is almost the last surviver of the original settlers of Fairfield County. He settled on the place where he now resides with his son Noah, five miles north of Lancaster, among the very earliest of the settlers of the County. His age is 92 years.

Benjamin Wiest, still living at the age of 70 years, was an early settler of Greenfield Township.

Joseph Miesse, Sen., was among the early settlers of Greenfield Township. The Miesse's of the County are his descendants. He died many years ago. He was the founder of Miesse's church near Dumontsville. This church is known as the "coal mine" church, from some tradition.

The following names are miss-spelled in the text, but are here rendered correctly :

In "grape culture," J. F. Bovring should be read F. J. Boving.

In "Knights of Pythias," page 73, read John A. Heim for John A. Hern.

Page 76, in "Constituent Members," the first name should be L. C. Butch instead of D. C. Butch. Also, on page 75, 2nd line from the bottom, read L. C. Butch for L. C. Butler.

Wherever the name Newton Sclich occurs, it must be read Newton Schleich.

The name of the pastor of the presbyterian church at Lithopolis was given to the author as Brown, and so written on page 135, top line. The correct name is Downe.

Abraham Seifert has served County Recorder, Probate Judge and Member of the house of Representatives of the State Legislature. By some strange inadvertance his name appears variously spelled in the text, under the proper heads "Adam Seifert"; "Abram Seifert"; "Adam Syfert."

On page 144, in "Probate Judges," third line from the bottom, Wm. T. Rigley must be read Wm. L. Rigby. Also, on page 153, the name is spelled Bigby intead of Rigby.

The spelling of names, especially those derived from foreign languages, is sometimes various. It will be found however, that with the foregoing corrections, this volume will be complete, and it is hoped satisfactory.


A history of Fairfield county in 1876, just seventy-six years subsequent to its first organization, has been no easy task; first, because the pioneers have nearly all passed away; and secondly, because there are no records of much that would be requisite to make up a complete history. This is much to be regretted. So far as they could serve me, however, 1 have collected from state histories, and from state and county records, statistical and other matter. Beyond this I have collected from living witnesses who have been life-long citizens of the county, so much of personal history, and incident, and anecdote, together with pioneer reminiscences, as it has been possible to do. Much of this, however, as above remarked, is lost, because those who first broke the forest and planted civilization and religion in the Hocking Valley, were dead before the conception of this work by the humble writer had been formed. This occasion is taken, however, to say, that the book is presented to the public as a pretty full and, as is believed, an entirely correct and authentic history. Nevertheless, brevity and condensation have been observed, because the author has desired to bring the work within the financial ability of every citizen, by producing a cheap book. But readers must excuse the limits of personal history, since, to write out even brief notices of all pioneers who deserve mention, would require several volumes.

Our history begins with the beginning of the white settlements in the Hocking Valley. Beyond that, through the ages of the unknown past, there is no vista for our eyes; nothing to count the centuries by; and imagination is content to picture an indefinite routine of years during which the awful solitude was only broken by the discordant utterances of wild beasts, and the scarcely less savage war whoop of the red man. Fancy runs wild in trying to conjecture what was

- 1 -


here before the tread of the Anglo Saxon race came, and the sound of the woodman's ax and the tinkling cow bell were heard. All is lost in oblivion.

In conclusion of these opening remarks, the compiler begs leave to say, that he' was born in western Ohio in the beginning of the present century, and has therefore been identified with the country from the time when the first log cabins were built, and the first paths were blazed through the wilderness, and has been familiar with all the transformations. He has known the country in a state of nature; and has seen the wilderness become a garden.


Marietta and FortHarmer, at the mouth of the Muskingum, were the first settlements made by the white race on Ohio soil. Settlements were begun there about the year 1777, or 1778. Washington county, so named in honor of General Washington of revolutionary fame, was one of the four counties into which the territory of Ohio was devided first, by proclamation of Governor Arthur St. Clair. Its boundaries extended north with the Pennsylvania line to Lake Erie, embracing all that part of the state known as the Western Reserve, and extending down the lake to the mouth of the Cuyahoga river, where Cleveland now is; thence south on a line to the Ohio river.

Not long after the settlements at Marietta began, scouts from there penetrated the wilderness to the Hockhocking, and up that stream as far as where Lancaster now stands. At that time the Wyandot Indians occupied the valley of the Hocking, and held it as did all the aboriginal tribes of North America by the right of undisturbed possession for unknown ages. There were two Indian towns at that time within what is the present limits of Fairfield county. The principle one was Tarhe town, situated on the north bank of Hocking, and occupying the same grounds now owned and used by the Rail Road companies, on the south east borders of Lancaster. This town was governed by Chief Tarhe, who was said to be rather a noble Indian. The town was believed at that time to contain about five hundred inhabitants. There was another small village of the Wyandots' nine miles west of Tarhe


Town, near the present site of Royalton. This was Toby Town, and was governed by an inferior chief whose name was Toby.

At the close of the Indian wars of the north west, a general treaty was held at Fort Greenville, the present county seat of Darke county, Ohio. In this treaty the Wyandots surrendered their possessions on the Hockhocking, and soon afterward removed to the Sandusky. There were however a few of their number who for several years afterwards lingered about the country, as if unwilling to leave their old hunting grounds and the graves of their relatives. They were for the most part peaceable, and gave little trouble to the white settlements, unless where they were misused. But at last, finding the game becoming scarce, they went away and joined their friends at the north. The treaty of Greenville was signed on the 3. of August 1795.

Fairfield county was first organized in 1800 by proclamation of Governor St. Clair. At that time it embraced nearly all of the present counties of Licking and Knox, with also portions of Perry, Hocking and Pickaway. Subsequently, as emigration flowed into the country. and new counties began to be formed, Fairfield was contracted to near its present outlines, and still later other portions were struck off to adjoining counties, which will be noticed in the proper place.

In 1840 Fairfield county consisted of fourteen townships, viz : Amanda, Berne, Bloom, Clear Creek, Greenfield, Hocking, Liberty, Madison, Perry, Pleasant, Richland, Rush Creek, Violet, and Walnut. In that year the aggregate population of the county was 31,859, or 59 inhabitants to the square mile. Previous to 1820 no authorized enumerations were taken, consequently no populations can be given. In 1820 the first enumeration of the people was taken by authority of Congress, as a basis of representation, and thereafter at the end of each succeeding ten years. In 1820 the population of Fairfield county was 16,508; in 1830, 24,753; in 1840, 31,859; and in 1870 it was 35,456. Arthur St. Clair was appointed Governor of the territory of Ohio by General Washington, then President of the United States, in 1788, and continued to fill that office until 1802, when the state was admitted into the union.

Fairfield county was so named from the circumstance of so


many beautiful champaign fields of land lying within its original boundaries. According to the best information derivable from existing maps of the old surveys, made previous to the beginning of the white settlements off from the Ohio river, the county seems to ly within that tract of country once inown as the purchase of the Ohio Land company ; but these naps are believed to be inaccurate, and therefore unreliable. Chis is a matter now however of little importance to history.


In the year 1797, one Ebenezer Zane entered into a contract with the government to open a road from Wheeling, Virginia, to Limestone, Kentucky, (now Maysville) over the most eligible route, including also the establishment of three ferries, viz. one over the Muskingum, one over the Scioto, and one over the Ohio. There are different statements as to what kind of a road it was to be. By some it is said it was to be a wagon road; others, that his contract embraced nothing more than the blazing of the trees, as a guide for travellers. The former is the reasonable conclusion, and is best sustained, as the mere blazes on ranges of trees would not constitute a passable road for travel, and therefore of no use for emigration. The country was at that time an unbroken wilderness the entire distance of 226 miles, and the undertaking was at once arduous and perilous, as hostile bands of Indians were still more or less roving over the country. He however successfully accomplished the work, and the route was denominated Zanes' Trace, and continued to be so called for many years after the state was settled. The route of Zanes' Trace lay through where Zanesville now is, and also through Lancaster, crossing the Hocking two or three hundred yards south of the present Chillicothe pike, and about one half mile west of the crossing of Main and Broad streets.

The compensation which Mr. Zane received for this service consisted of three several parcels, or tracts of land, patented to him by Congress, and of the dimensions of one mile square each. One of these tracts he located on the Muskingum, where Zanesville stands, and one on the Hocking, embr icing the present site of Lancaster.

Following is an extract from an address delivered by General George Sanderson before the Lancaster Literary Society,


in the month of March, 1844. General Sanderson was identified with the very earliest times of Fairfield county and Lancaster, having come to the settlement at the beginning ol the present century, in company with his fathers' family, and continuing to be a resident of Lancaster till the close of his life, in the year 1870. His contribution to the early history of Fairfield county is therefore most valuable, as there are few, if any of the earliest pioneers left to tell of the events and times now three quarters of a century past.

"In 1797, Zanes' Trace having opened a communication between the Eastern States and Kentucky, many individuals in both directions wishing to letter their conditions in life by emigrating and settling in the "back woods", so called, visited the Hocking Valley for that purpose and finding the country surpassingly fertile,—abounding in fine springs of pure water, they determined to make it their new home.

"In April 1798, Capt. Joseph Hunter, a bold and enterprising man, with his family, emigrated from Kentucky and settled on Zanes' Trace, upon the bank of the prairie west ol the crossings, and about two hundred yards north of the present turnpike road, and which place was called "Hunter's settlement."—Here he cleared off the under-brush, felled the forest trees, and erected a cabin, at a time when he had not a neighbor nearer than the Muskingum and Scioto rivers, This was the commencement of the settlement in the upper Hocking Valley, and Capt. Hunter is regarded as the founder of the flourishing and populous county of Fairfield. He lived to see the country densely settled and in a high state of improvement, and died about the year 1829. His wife was thE first white woman that settled in the valley, and shared with her husband the toils, sufferings, hardships and privation, incident to the formation of new settlements in the wilder. ness. During the spring of the same year, (1798) Nathanie Wilson, the elder, John and Allen Green, and Joseph McMullen, Robert Cooper, Isaac Shaeffer, and a few others reached the valley, erected cabins and put in crops.

"In 1799 the tide of emigration set in with great force. Ir the spring of this year, two settlements were begun in the present township of Greenfield; each settlement container twenty or thirty families. One was the falls of Hocking, anc the other was Yankeytown. Settlements were also math


along the river below Hunters, on Rush Creek, Fetters Run, Raccoon, Pleasant Run, Toby Town, Mudy Prairie, and on Clear Creek. In the fall of 1799, Joseph Loveland and Heze-kiah Smith erected a log grist mill at the upper falls of Hocking, now called the Rock Mill. This was the first mill built on the Hockhocking.

"In April 1799, Samuel Coates, Sen., and Samuel Coates, Jun., from England, built a cabin in the prairie, at the "Crossing of Hocking" ; kept bachelors hall, and raised a crop of corn. In the latter part of the year a mail route was established along Zanes' Trace from Wheeling to Limestone. The mail was carried through on horseback, and at first only once a week. Samuel Coates, Sen., was the postmaster, and kept his office at the Crossing. This was the first established mail route through the interior of the territory, and Samuel Coates was the first postmaster at the new settlement.

"The settlers subsisted principally on corn bread, potatoes, milk and butter, and wild meats, flour, tea, and coffee were scarcely to be had, and when brought to the country, such prices were asked as to put it out of the power of many to purchase. Salt was an indispensable article, and cost, at the Scioto salt works, $5.00 for fifty pounds; flour cost $16.00 per barrel; tea $2.50 per pound; coffee $1.50; spice and pepper $1.00 per pound."

Such was the beginning of the settlements in the Hocking Valley, where Fairfield county is situated, coeval with the commencement of the nineteenth century. It is proper to pause here and speak of the beginning of Lancaster, before further developing our history, because Lancaster was laid out before the county of Fairfield was declared, and two years previous to the adoption of the constitution of the state of Ohio.


Ebenezer Zane was the original proprietor of the town. It will be remembered that he was already the owner of one section of land at the crossing of Hocking. Upon that tract Lancaster now stands. In the fall of 1800, Mr. Zane laid out and sold the first lots. The rates ranged from $5.00 to $50.00 a lot, according to location. A large proportion of the first settlers of Lancaster were mechanics, who erected cabins


with little delay, finding the materials mainly on their lots. To encourage emigration, Mr. Zane gave a few lots to such mechanics as would agree to build cabins on them and go to work at their respective trades ; and it is said, that the work of organization went on so rapidly, that by the spring of 1801 the streets and alleys in the central part of the town assumed the shape they still retain. "New Lancaster" was the name first given to the place, in compliment to emigrants from Lancaster, Pa., who made up a considerable proportion of the first settlers. The name however was changed by the Legislature in 1805, to Lancaster, Ohio, to avoid confusion in the postal service. The title, New Lancaster, nevertheless continued to be used for more than twenty years afterwards. We continue quotations from General Sanderson's address.

"About this time merchants and professional men made their appearance. The Reverend John Wright, of the Presbyterian church, settled in Lancaster in 1801; and the Rev. Asa Shin, and the Rev. James Quinn, of the Methodist church, traveled the Fairfield circuit very early.

"Shortly after the settlement, and while the stumps remained in the streets, a small portion of the settlers indulged in drinking frolicks, ending frequently in fights. In the absence of law, the better disposed part of the population determined to stop the growing evil. They accordingly met, and resolved, that any person of the town found intoxicated, should, for every such offence, dig a stump out of the streets, or suffer personal chastisement. The result was, that after several offenders had expiated their crimes, dram drinking ceased, and for a time all became a sober, temperate and happy people.

"On the 9. of December, 1800, the Governor and council of the North Western territory organized the county of Fairfield, and designated New Lancaster as the seat of justice. The county then embraced within its limits all, or nearly all, of present counties of Licking and Knox, a large portion of Perry, and small parts of Pickaway and Hocking counties."


It has been a subject of some discussion of late years, as to who was the first born white male child within the borders of Fairfield county. In Howe's history of Ohio, published in


1848, he says, that Buhama Green (Builderback) gave birth to the first boy. This is beyond question an error. It has commonly been understood about Lancaster, that the late Hocking H. Hunter of Lancaster, son of Capt. Joseph Hunter, first emigrant, was the first born. This however is contested. Mr. Levi Stuart, now a citizen of Lancaster, whose father was among the first settlers at Yankeytown, in conversation with the writer, recently, said it was understood between him and Mr. Hunter, that he, Mr. Stuart, was thirteen months the oldest. And I have been told there is a fourth contestant on Clear Creek. We will not try to settle the question, since it ie of small importance in history.

Mrs. Buhama Green, as Mrs. Builderback, has a tragic history that deserves full mention, as she was not only a pioneer, but long and well known, she having lived in the same neighborhood where she first settled, three miles west of Lancaster, about fourty-four years, or until the close of her life, which took place in 1842, at a very advanced age. Following is a transcription of the tragic part of her life from the pen of Colonel John McDonald, of Ross county. It is probably the fullest and most authentic account of any written.

"Mrs. Buhama Green was born and raised in Jefferson county, Virginia. In 1785 she was married to Charles Builderback, and with him crossed the mountains and settled at the mouth of Short Creek, on the east bank of the Ohio river, a few miles above Wheeling. Her husband, a brave man, had on many occasions distinguished himself in repelling the Indians, who had often felt the sure aim of his unerring rifle. They therefore determined at all hazards to kill him.

"On a beautiful summer morning in June, 1789, at a time when it was thought the enemy had abandoned the western shores of the Ohio, Captain Charles Builderback and his wife, and brother Jacob Builderback, crossed the Ohio to look after some cattle. On reaching the shore, a party of fifteen or twenty Indians rushed out from an ambush and fired upon them, wounding Jacob in the shoulder. Charles was taken while running to escape. In the meantime Mrs. Builderback secreted herself in some drift wood near the bank of the river. As soon as the Indians had secured and tied her husband, and not being able to discover her hiding place, they compelled him, with threats of immediate death, to call her to


him. With a hope of appeasing their fury, he did so. She heard him, but made no answer. "Here," to use her own words, "a struggle took place in my own breast which I cannot describe. Shall I go to him and become a prisoner; or shall I remain; return to our cabin, and provide for and take care of our two children ?" He shouted to her a second time to come to him, saying, that if she did it might be the means of saving his life. She no longer hesitated, left her place of safety, and surrendered herself to his savage captors. All this took place in full view of their cabin on the opposite shore of the river, and where they had left their two children, one a son about three years of age, and an infant daughter. The Indians knowing that they would be pursued as soon as the news of their visit reached the stockade at Wheeling, commenced their retreat. Mrs. Builderback and her husband traveled together that day and the following night. The next morning the Indians separated into two bands, one taking Builderback, and the other his wife, and continued a western course by different routes.

"In a few days the band having Mrs. Builderback in charge reached the Tuscarawas river, where they encamped, and were soon rejoined by the band that had taken her husband. Here the murderers exhibited his scalp on the top of a pole, and to convince her that they had killed him, pulled it down and threw it in her lap. She recognized it at once by the redness of his hair. She said nothing, and uttered no complaint. It was evening, and her ears were pained with the terrific yells of the savages, and wearied by constant traveling, she reclined against a tree and fell into a profound sleep, and forgot all her sufferings until morning. When she awoke, the scalp of her murdered husband was gone, and she never learned what became of it.

"As soon as the capture of Builderback was known at Wheeling, a party of scouts set off in pursuit, and taking the trail of one of the bands, followed it until they found the body. He had been tomahawked and scalped, and apparently suffered a lingering death.

"The Indians, on reaching their towns on the Little Miami, adopted Mrs. Builderback into a family, with whom she lived until released from captivity. She remained a prisoner about nine months, performing the labor and drudgery of squaws,


such as carrying in meat from the hunting grounds, preparing and drying it, making moccasins, legings, and other cloathing for the family in which she lived. After her adoption she suffered much from the rough and filthy manner of Indian living, but had no cause of complaint of ill treatment otherwise.

"In a few months after her capture some friendly Indians informed the commandant of Fort Washington that there was a white woman in captivity at Miamitown. She was ransomed and brought into the fort, and was sent up the river to her lonely cabin, and the embrace of her two orphan children.

"In 1796 Mrs. Builderback married John Green, and in 1798 they emigrated to the Hocking Valley, and settled about three miles west of Lancaster, where she continued to reside until the time of her death in 1842. She survived her last husband about ten years."

NOTE : —Charles Builderback, the first husband of Mrs. Green, had commanded a company at Crawford's defeat in the Sandusky country. He was a large, noble looking man, and a bold and intrepid warrior. He was in the bloody Moravian campaign, and took his share in the tragedy by shedding the first blood on that occasion, when he shot, tomahawked and scalped Shebosh, a Moravian chief. But retributive justice was meeted to him. After being taken prisoner, the Indians asked his name; "Charles Builderback", he replied, after some little pause. At this revelation the Indians stared at each other with malignant triumph. "Ha", said they; "you kill many big Indian; you big captain; you kill Moravians". From that moment, perhaps, his fate was sealed.—.Howes, Ohio.


Mount Pleasant, situated one mile due north of the crossing of Main and Broad streets, in Lancaster, is a historic point of some interest. Its summit is two hundred and fifty feet above the table lands below. The area of its top is about two acres. The main approach to the summit is from the east, by gradual ascent, though there are other points of ascent. Its face presenting south is a perpendicular ledge of sandstone, of the white variety. From its summit the Hocking Valley can be seen for many miles in both directions; and the state reform farm is partly visible, six miles to the southwest. By the Indians it was called the "Standing Stone". Since the settlement of the country by the white


race, it has undergone considerable transformation. Much of the dense and thick forest has been cut away, and the wild romance of the spot greatly despoiled. Mount Pleasant has always been a favorite resort for citizens as well as strangers. There are few strangers who visit Lancaster who do not ascend to the top of the standing stone. The Duke of Saxony, who visited this country many years since, climbed up and chiseled his name in the sandstone, which has been read by thousands, and still remains legible. I believe his visit was in 1828.

In the first few years after the settlements began, Mount Pleasant was notorious for the large numbers of mountain rattlesnake which burrowed in its fissures. The settlers determined to destroy them, as far as possible, and for this purpose they made several raids on their snakeships at the early spring seasons when they were known to first emerge from their winter quarters, destroying many hundreds of them. They are probably now entirely extinct, as not one of their tribe has been seen there for more than a third of a century.


My history of Fairfield county must necessarily be fragmentary and miscellaneous. There is no written history; at least no complete history; which is very much to be regretted. Beyond what is to be found in the histories of Ohio, and the decennial government census, all else is to be sought for in the state and county records, and the statements of the recollections of such living persons as have survived the pioneer age, and have resided in the county from fifty to seventy years. The labor of searching the records running through so many years, and so many ponderous volumes, it will be seen at once is both tedious and arduous. Nevertheless, all that it is essential to know and preserve will at last be found in these pages, and is here placed under appropriate headings, which renders the items of quick and easy access.

In tracing the progress of Lancaster therefore from its first rudimental log cabin beginning in the woods, through the seventy-six years of its existence, every department of information has been thoroughly canvassed and placed, under specific head lines, at least so far as the sources of knowledge exist at


this late day. The same care has likewise been observed with reference to the townships, respectively, and villages and settlements, thus rendering the book a safe and satisfactory reference to the future historian. The work is all put down in the miscellaneous order I have been able to exhume it from the debris of the fast receding past. And while in the following pages I have mentioned first settlers, and prominent citizens, I have carefully and scrupulously escued fulsome flattery. The pioneers of Fairfield county deserve enduring remembrance, and in the course of this work their names are nearly all written. They have all passed away. Let us venerate their noble self-sacrifice that has given us our land of plenty and enjoyment.


In the latter part of the year 1799, and about two years after the opening of Zanes' Trace, a mail route was established from Wheeling, Va., to Limestone (Maysville), Ky., which was the first ever carried through the interior of the territory of Ohio. A postoffice was established at Lancaster, or rather where Lancaster now is, for the town had not yet been laid out, and there were but a few families of emigrants in the Valley. The mail was carried through on horseback once a week, each way, over Zanes' Trace, the whole distance being 226 miles through an almost entirely unbroken wilderness. The line was devided into three routes. The first was from Wheeling to Zanesville, or rather to the Muskingum; the second from the Muskingum to the Scioto; and the third from the Scioto to the Ohio, or to Limestone. The late General George Sanderson, then a small lad. was for a time mail carrier between the Muskingum and Scioto,—a distance of about seventy-six miles. The condition of the roads, and the facilities for travel were such, that to make the connections in some instances a large portion of the way had to be passed over in the night, which, through the dark and unbroken forests, was no enviable task, especially for a young boy.

The first postmaster was Samuel Coates, Sen., an Englishman before referred to, and he kept his office at first at his cabin at the crossing of Hocking, but subsequently, after Lancaster began to grow, he removed it to a cabin on the south side of the present Wheeling Street, on the same spot


where James V. Kenney now resides. Mr. Coates held the office for a time, and was succeeded by his son, Samuel Coates, Jun. The succession of postmasters from Mr. Coates, Sen., up to the year 1876, here follows, for -which I am indebted to James Miers, who has resided in Lancaster all his life.

Samuel Coates (1799), Samuel Coates, Jun., Jacob D. Det-rich, Elenathan Scofield, Henry Drum, Thomas U. White, Daniel Sifford, Henry Miers, James Cranmer, John C. Castle; Benjamin Connell, John L. Tuthill, C. M. L. Wiseman, Melanchthon Sutphen (1876).

The present will be the proper place to say what is necessary to be said of the postal service, and postal rates, at that early day. The mails were at first entirely carried on horseback, and continued to be until the country became sufficiently developed to introduce post coaches. The "mail boys" carried with them small tin horns, and sometimes long tin trumpets, a blast on which heralded their approach to the post offices. In some instances the carriers acquired the art of blowing respectable tunes on the long tin trumpets. They were denominated tte "post boys horn", and the sound awakened a lively feeling of cheer as far as they could be heard. They were to the inhabitants then what the rail road whistle is to-day, only far more joyful. They were likewise carried by coach drivers for some time after the introduction of that service.

The rates of postage were very different formerly from what they are now. The price for carrying letters was fixed in accordance witn the distance they. had to go. Weight was not regarded. Thus, a single letter was, for fifty miles and under, 6¼ cents. Over fifty miles and under one hundred and fifty, 12 cents. Between one hundred and fifty and three hundred miles, 18 ¾; and over three hundred miles, to any point within the United States, 25 cents. Two sheets folded into the same was treated as a double letter, and double rates charged; at least this was the law for a time. Subsequently, and before the introduction of the three cent rate, as at present, there was for some time a ten cent and a five cent rate. I do not remember the dates.—Postage was not, under the old rates, required to be paid in advance, and seldom was so paid ; but if prepaid, the word "paid" was written on the outside of the letter by the postmaster, usually


at one corner. In like manner the price of the letter was written in figures; thus, 6¼; 12½; 18 ¾ or 25; and these rates, if the word "paid" did not appear on the outside, were to be paid by the parties to whom the letters were addressed. The change then in use was silver coin, of the denominations of 6¼ cents (fippenny bit); 12½ cents (ninepence); 25 cents, and half dollars. Thus, if the price of a letter were 18¾ cents, you gave the postmaster a quarter, and he gave you back a fippenny bit, and so on. Letters were written on three pages of the sheet, the fourth being left blank, and then so folded as to allow the blank page to form the whole outside of the letter, upon which the address was written. There are few persons now living of forty years and under, who could fold up a letter in the old style. Letters were sealed with sealing wax in the form of wafers, mostly red wax, though black and blue were sometimes used. Wafers put up in small boxes formed a considerable article of commerce, and were for sale at every store and grocery. They are now nowhere to be found. It was customary then for persons to carry seals with which to stamp the wafers which were first softened by moistening them with the tongue. And these seals might be the initials of the name, or any figure fancied. The introduction of letter envelopes took place previous to 1840, and cheap postal stamps about 1848, as my recollection has it.

The growth of Lancaster, from the time the first trees were cut down and the first log cabin built, in the year 1800, up to 1876, cannot be minutely and specifically traced, year by year, nor would it be of importance to do so, so far as the present actors on the stage of lift. e concerned. The former inhabitants did their work, and passed away. The present will soon be gone, and scarcely remembered. The first settlers are all dead, and there is little of the work of their hands visible—nothing, beyond a few writings, and possibly a few log structures, mostly closed in and hidden from view. The original log structures have every one disappeared, and everything else constructed of wood by the original settlers. One can scarcely find so much as a stone laid, or bearing the impress of first hands. A few moss covered gravestones in the old cemeteries tell where some of the pioneers were laid—tell when born and when died, and that is all. Nobody can tell how


they looked, or how they spoke. It is as if they had never lived. What is it to the present surging throng how they lived, and joyed, and sorrowed, and loved, and hated, and suffered, and died ? Who feels one stirring emotion for the honored dead ? There is not one to weep for them ; and not one will weep for us "a hundred years to come." "But other men our streets will fill; and other men our lands will till; a hundred years to come." Thus does man and all his works perish. Could we interview these veteran dead, volumes that is forever lost, that we might have saved, could be placed on paper. But there are none, not one to tell the story.

Some of their descendants are alive, but they cannot tell the tales of their sires. They could tell us whence they came, where they settled, and when they died, and there the curtain would drop. It cannot be determined now, with few exceptions, where the original settlers built their first cabins, at least not the exact spot; so much has the onward march of time transformed the face of things. All has drifted into the dim and dimming past twilight. It is said, in a general way, that a great many of the first inhabitants were mechanics, but who were they? what branches did they follow? what was their personal appearance? how did they succeed? were they good men and women ? and did they live exemplary lives ? We can occasionally hear it said, that seventy years ago such a man was a blacksmith in Lancaster, or in Fairfield county, and some one was a shoemaker, and one was a lawyer, and some others kept tavern. Well, they are all gone, and their houses are gone, and everything that belonged to them. Of all these mechanics, and all that did the drudgery and bore the heavy burdens, not one word is written. There are no means of knowing anything about them. Only the few individuals we can say much about; but so far as data can be found, every original settler of Fairfield county will be mentioned.

In a general way it will suffice to say, that Lancaster is one of those inland towns of Ohio whose growth has been slow, persistant and uniform. It has been a matter of some surprise that Lancaster has not become a leading town of the State in manufacturing, possessing as it does local advantages and facilities nowhere surpassed, and seldom equaled by any county seat of Ohio. Why capital has not sought this as a place of investment in preference to other places with fewer


facilities, cannot be told, and we make no attempt at explanation. To say it has been a lack of enterprise on the part of the citizens, would scarcely be true. Capital, to a large extent, has not found its way here, and there we leave the matter.


In 1839, when the writer settled in Lancaster, he was told that it had the strongest bar in the State, so far as legal ability was concerned. Of this there was probably no doubt. At that time Hon. Thomas Ewing was at the zenith of his legal career. There were also residing in the place, John T. Brazee, Hocking H. Hunter, William Irvin, Henry Stanbery, Wm. J. Reece, William Medill and P. Van Trump, with a few of less distinction.


In like manner it was claimed, that at that time Lancaster had the right to boast of a highly eminent board of practicing physicians. Following are the names of the principal men who were practicing in the place at that time: Paul Carpenter, J. M. Bigelow, James White, M. Z. Kreider, Dr. Wait, George Boerstler, Dr. Saxe, and Thomas O. Edwards. Of these only two are living, viz.: Paul Carpenter, still remaining in Lancaster, and Dr. Bigelow, at Detroit. I am unable now to give the names of all other physicians then practicing in the county. I can however recall the names of Dr. Ide of Rushville, Dr. Daugherty of Amanda, Dr. Evans of Bremen, Dr. Paul of Royalton, Dr. Minor of Lithopolis, Drs. Helmich and Gohe-gan of Baltimore, Dr. Brock of New Salem, Dr. Talbert of Jefferson, Dr. Turner of Rushville, and a few others.

The dry goods merchants then doing business in Lancaster, were, Ainsworth and Willock, Reber and Kutz, Myers Fall and Collins, Levi Anderson, Lobenthal and Reindmond, Rochol, Neigh and Culbertson, Samuel F. McCracken and Alfred Fahnastock. There were then two hardware stores; Bope and Weaver, and the proprietors of the other I do not now recall. The tailors were, Isaac Comer, and Smith and Tong. Robert Reed and Joseph Work, Sen., and Joseph Work, Jun., carried on the shoemaking business. There were


two tin and stove establishments, viz : Connell & Work, Mr. Bliss. Smith & Arney, and Gilbert Devol were in the iron foundry business ; and George Ring was the proprietor of the Woolen Factory at the south end of Broadway. The principal hotels were the Phoenix, now the Talmadge House, the Shaeffer House, and the Swan Hotel. The Phcenix was kept by G. Steinman; the Shaeffer House by F. A. Shaeffer; and the Swan by Mr. Overhalser. The Shaeffer House has been changed into a business house, the first floor of which is G. Beck's Drug Store. William E. Williams at that time kept a small hotel, known as the Broadway House ; and there were two small inns on Columbus street, kept by two men by the name of Myers. In 1839 there were two Drug Stores in Lancaster—one kept by George Kauffman, and the other by Bury & Beck. The former is now continued by Dr. Davidson, and the latter by Beecher White. William Bodenheimer and George W. Claspill were gunsmiths, the former also a manufacturer of spinning wheels. Mr. Bodenheimer has deceased, and Mr. Claspill has discontinued the business. The canal mill was then in operation, and was owned, I believe, by John T. Brazee and George Kauffman. There were two tan-yards—James M. Pratt owned one of them, and Gideon Peters the other. David Foster was the chair-maker of the place, and is still, in connection with his son, carrying on the business at his old stand at the corner of Wheeling and Columbus streets. Luman Baker and Henry Shultz were cabinetmakers; and Henry Orman and Mr. Vorys were the principal builders. These were the principal industries of Lancaster in 1839, though there were others on a small scale, such as weavers, coopers, and the like, which I cannot take space to particularize. I must not, however, omit to mention Hunter and Edingfield, and Adam and Jacob Guseman, blacksmiths. Groceries and saloons, as such, were almost unknown; groceries were principally sold at the dry goods stores, and drinking was principally done at the taverns. There was riot then a shoe and boot-store, or a merchant-tailor in the place ; cloth was purchased at the stores, and made to order by the tailors. This was a little less than forty years ago; and when Lancaster is written as it is now, in 1876, the difference will appear.

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In 1839, when the writer's acquaintance with the county began, the Hocking Valley canal was the commercial thoroughfare. There were fronting on its eastern bank as it passes along the western border of Lancaster, some nine or ten warehouses, thronged with goods and produce the year round. Through them passed the entire surplus wheat crop of the county, as well as the merchandise for all the stores of Lancaster and the villages of the county. To handle this large amount of freight required a great many clerks and hands. In addition, a great number of teams were in constant demand to bring in the produce from all parts of the county, and to wheel away the merchandise to its destinations. The days of wagoning goods across the mountains in four and six-horse wagons were past, the canal being the Eureka of transportation. The wheat trade alone of Lancaster, at that time, was immense. On a single day, in the month of September, the writer counted one hundred and twenty-five wagons pass down the hill on Main street, freighted with wheat for the mills and warehouses on the canal. This was about the year 1846. The canal was at that time, during most of the navigable months, lined from end to end with boats passing both ways, and freighted with goods and produce, as well as coal from the Hocking mines, which were chiefly developed after the opening of the canal, three or four years before.

Following the same line of history very briefly, we will see what Lancaster is in 1876, thirty-seven years later. The leap is wonderful—so wonderful that if one, after having become familiar with the place and its business in 1839 and 1845, could have closed his eyes and remained oblivious to passing events until the present year, he could find no recognition of either persons or things. In the first place, he would scarcely recognize a building in the place, if the old market-house and the residence of Samuel Rudolph on Wheeling street be excepted. The few remaining citizens he would at last recognize would be so changed as to appear somebody else. More than a full generation have been born and died within the time. He would not hear a song sung he heard then, scarcely a tune. If he should enter a Methodist class-meeting, he would not hear a familiar voice or see a familiar face, and


all the congregations of the place would be new congregations to him; new scenes would meet his eyes on every hand, and new strains fall upon his ears ; he would not find a single merchant on the streets he left there, except Joseph Reindmond and John Reeber. Of mechanics left, Robert Reed and John Pierce, shoemakers ; David Foster, chair-maker; Jacob Guseman and Stephen Smith, blacksmiths; and Henry Orman, carpenter, only remain, so far as the writer remembers. Of physicians, only Dr. Carpenter remains ; and of the bar, not one, and only two of them are living—John T. Brazee, near Lancaster, and Henry Stanberry, now residing in Kentucky. Judge Whitman and Wm. Slade are living away from here, but neither of them were in Lancaster in 1839. The Arney and Devol foundries have been turned into machine-shops ; and if the returned citizen, after nearly forty years' absence, should take a stroll along the canal, instead of beholding eight or ten warehouses teeming with life and business, he would not see one that deserved the name, and only now and then a solitary boat laden with coal. The warehouses have been converted to other uses. This change in the commercial affairs of Lancaster has been brought about by the two railroads passing through.

In August, 1876, five dry goods stores could be found, and all situated on the north side of Main street, and on the same square, viz.: between Broad and Columbus streets, as follows : Reeber and Ulrich, Charles Kutz, Beck Brothers, Wren Brothers, and Philip Rising. Four clothing stores, viz. : Peters & Trout, Rising, Siple & Miller, Jacob Hite, and Moses Levi. Seven drug stores, owned by George Beck & Son, A. Davidson, Beecher White, Daniel Sifford, Richey & Giesy, Mr. Wetzler, and Crider Brothers. Five shoe and boot-stores, namely: Robert Reed, James Work & Brother, Myers & Getz, Richards & Webb, and Showers Brothers. Two hardware stores: Wm. McCracken, and Hanson & Company. Three tin and stove establishments: James McMacmanama, Sturgeon Brothers, and --. Three banks, viz.: First National Bank, Hocking Valley National Bank, and Fairfield County Bank. One wholesale grocery and some dozen or more retail family groceries and provision stores. Five bakeries, as follows: A. Bauman, Sleekman & Huffman, Klinge, Blank and Sliker. Five dentists, viz.: H. Scott, H. L.-Cleider, Doctor


Von Bonhorst, Dr. Palmeter, and J. C. Scott. Four livery-stables, as follows: Christian Rudolph, Thomas Henderson, Johnson & Straley, and Alex. Cunningham. Two furniture dealers : Stroble & Bledsicker, and Williams & Wiley. Three jewelers : L. Butch, Sieber & Co., and Frank Blaire. Three book stores : John L. Tuhill & Son, A. Branemen, and Wyn-koop. One queensware store, by Wm. Stuart.

The following are the practicing physicians of Lancaster in 1876: M. Effinger, Dr. Turner, Dr. Jackson, Dr. Lewis, Dr. Flowers, Dr. Harmon, Dr. Chas. Shawk, Dr. Geo. Boerstler, Dr. Goss, Dr. Meisey, Dr. P. Carpenter, and Dr. Long & Son. The practicing attorneys in the same year are : J. M. Connell, C. D. Martin, John S. Brazee, John Reves, Samuel Kistler, Clay Drinkle, Charles Drinkle, C. F. Shaeffer, Wm. Davidson, Reese Eversole, Kinnis Fritter, Mr. Dolson, Mr. Hite, John McNeal, and Wm. Shultz. Builders and lumber dealers: Orman Brothers, Vorys Brothers, Denton & Sons, and others. Coal dealers: J. V. Kinney, H. Carter, and others. Agricultural works : Hocking Valley Works, Theodore Mithoff & Co., Eagle Works, Whyly Brothers & Eckert. Woolen factory: McAnasby & Co. Hotels at present are : Talmadge House, Mithoff House, Bauman House, Wetzel House, Columbus Street House and the Broadway Hotel. There are three marble-monument shops, as follows : Mr. Blum, Mr. Findley, Pool & Co. Here are also the machine-shops of the Cincinnati & Muskingum Valley Railroad. There are likewise three carriage and buggy establishments, run by Sears & Mahoney, Shutt Brothers, and Geiser Brothers. All minor mechanical arts are respectably represented in the place.


Lancaster has not been characterized for bold enterprise and adventuree. For the most part, its citizens have been of the conservative style—content to pursue a legitimate business with gradual growth. An unusual proportion of its citizens are freeholders, and reside under their own roofs, the proportion of renters being less than in most similar towns. The financial and judicial management of its affairs has, for the most part, been judiciously managed. The Municipal Officers are : One Mayor, one Marshal, a Clerk, Solicitor, City Sur-


veyor and ten Councilmen. I find but little recorded of the municipal affairs of the town previous to 1831, at which time a special act of incorporation was passed.


In the year 1831, Lancaster became an incorporated village, by enactment of the Legislature of the State. During the twenty years that elapsed between that and 1851, when Lancaster became a city of the third class, I have only been able to learn the name of one of its Mayors. John Garaghty, Esq., now a resident of the State of Iowa, was Mayor two years, about 1848 and 1849.

Here follow the succession of Mayors from 1851, in the order of their election, in all eight: Wm. P. Cried, 1851-1853; John D. Martin, 1853 to 1855 ; Silas Hedges, 1855 to 1857 ; Alfred McVeigh, 1857 to 1859; Kinis Fritter, 1859 to 1863; Samuel Ewing, 1863 to 1867 ; Tallman Slough, 1867 to 1875; and in April, 1875, Philip Benadum, the present incumbent, was elected.

NOTE.-I find some difficulty I at first scarcely anticipated. The oldest persons now living in Fairfield County, and who have spent their lives here, differ more or less in their recollections of dates and incidents. Therefore, in matters not of record, discrepancies arise. I have been obliged to leave out much that I would have been glad to insert, through fear of inaccuracy. But this will not materially interfere with the general tenor of the work.


The thread of narration is here interrupted for a time, by the introduction of reference to relics of the olden-time. A legitimate part of the history of country and age is literature, manners and customs, religion and social habits. In writing up Fairfield County, therefore, the work would be incomplete so far as a transcript of the times of sixty and seventy years ago is concerned, if the relics of that pioneer age be not brought forward. The people are gone, and their works are gone; and it is the same to the present age as if they had not lived at all. All that surging throng have faded from the


canvas, but their progeny live, and their virtues, examples, patriotism and good deeds never die, though the actors pass away forever and are entirely forgotten. The present inhabitants of Fairfield County, descendants of the pioneers, can never have any conception of that frontier age. Written words cannot convey the conception. It was a heroism to sever from friends and neighbors and cherished association in the older States beyond the mountains, and travel hundreds of miles into the wilderness to take the chances of a precarious living—to encounter wild beasts and savage man, and the pestilential malaria, and to petition the forests and the virgin soil for bread and raiment—to be content with a square log-pen, covered with clapboards, amidst wild forest scenes. But all this was only a part of the sacrifice. To find a subsistence, the forests had to be cleared away, and the timber burned, and a few acres inclosed with rail-fences, and then the soil broken and the seeds deposited, and left to the chances of the inclement seasons and the depredations of animals. If the season failed, or beasts destroyed, there was little left for man; and this was a common occurrence. But few who read these pages will have an experimental knowledge of frontier life, and even they will have lost much of its recollection. Pioneer life here was pioneer life in all the West at the same age. But the settlements, coming as they did from different circumstances of life, and bringing with them their religions and social habits at home, came soon, by the force and necessities of new and strange circumstances, to form new social relations. Mutual dependencies and mutual aid become the web and woof of the new settlements. But how they did, how they appeared, their sports and pastimes, the songs they sung, their melodies, all that belonged to the log-cabin age died with the actors, and now live only in tradition or written history. Their narration stirs no heart, except that heart which has before had its chords struck with the living realities. Still, there are those yet on the stage who will be thrilled with some reminiscences that follow. The songs, and stanzas, and choruses, and plays of fresh young life sixty years ago are yet dear to those who once participated in them. Those were days of innocence and sincere friendship and rational enjoyment. Imagination will group around the aged, dear friends and loved associations long since fled, capable, by their recollection, of


making in the bereaved heart yet beating, a little heaven on earth. I love to believe it is a foregleam of the blessed immortality that awaits us all beyond the confines of time and sense here below. Faith pictures the family-circle re-forming on the thither bank of the poetic stream of death, and awaiting our coming. These are hallowed and thrilling remembrances, that, cherished, make us better and happier men and women. I am happy while I call them up. I lived through back-woods life, and here reproduce from memory a few of the old stanzas and choruses that were sung by religious people everywhere in the West sixty years ago :

" Jesus, the vision of thy face

Hath overpowering charms;

Scarce shall I feel death's cold embrace,

If Christ be in my arms.

Then while you hear my heart-string break,

How sweet my moments roll!

A mortal paleness on my cheek,

And glory in my soul."

" Farewell, dear friends, I must be gone,

I have no home or stay with you;

I'll take my staff and travel on,

Till I a better world do view.

Farewell, farewell, farewell,

My loving friends, tarewelL"

" Sweet rivers of redeeming love

Lie just before mine eyes;

Had I the pinions of a dove,

I'd to those rivers

I'd rise superior to my pains,

With joy outstrip the wind;

I'd cross bold Jordan's stormy main,

And leave this world behind."

" Hear the royal proclamation,

The glad tidings of salvation;

Published to every creature,

To the ruined sons of nature.

Jesus reigns, he reigns victorious ;

Over heaven and earth most glorious."


"There is a land of pleasure,

Where streams of joy forever roll;

'Tis there I have my treasure,

And there I long to rest my soul.

Long darkness dwelt around me,

With scarcely once a cheering ray ;

But since my Savior found me,

A lamp has shown along my way."

"I'm glad that I was born to die ;

From grief and woe my soul shall fly ;

Bright angels shall convey me home,

Away to the New Jerusalem."

" There is a heaven o'er yonder skies,

A heaven where pleasure never dies;

A heaven I sometimes long to see,

But fear again 'tis not for me.

But Jesus, Jesus is my friend, O, hallelujah ;

Hallelujah ; Jesus, Jesus is my friend."

" Brethren, hear the martial sound,

The gospel trumpet now is blowing;

Men in order listing round,

And soldiers to the standard flowing.

Bounties offered : joy and peace—

To every soldier this is given,

When from toil and war they cease,

A mansion bright prepared in heaven."

" What happy children who follow Jesus,

Into the house of prayer and praise;

And join in union, while love increases,

Resolved this way to spend our days.

Although we're hated by the world and Satan,

By the flesh, and such as know not God,

Yet happy moments and joyful seasons

We ofttimes find on Canaan's road."

"The people called Christians have many things to tell,

About the land of Canaan, where saints and angels dwell;

But Sin, that dreadful ocean, compasses them around,

While its tide still divides them from Canaan's happy ground."


" Saw ye my Savior 1 saw ye my Savior !

Saw ye my Savior and God ?

O he died on Calvary, to atone for you and me,

And to purchase our pardon he bled."

" From the regions of love, lo an angel descended,

And told the strange news, how the babe was attended ;

Go, shepherds, and worship this wonderful stranger;

See yonder bright, star, there's your God in a manger.

Hallelujah to the lamb, who has purchased our pardon,

We'll praise him again when we pass over Jordan."

"O thou in whose presence

My soul takes delight,

On whom in affliction,I call ;

My comfort by day,

And my song in the night,

My hope, my salvation, my all."

" Farewell, my friends, I must be gone,

I have no home or stay with you ;

I'll take my staff and travel on,

Till I a better world do view."

" The wondrous love of Jesus,

From doubts and fears it frees us,

With pitying eyes he sees us,

A toiling here below ;

Through tribulation driven,

We'll force our way to heaven;

Through consolation given,

Rejoicing on we'll go."

" O Jesus, my Savior, I know thou art mine ;

For thee all the pleasures of earth I resign ;

Thou art my rich treasure, my joy and my love,

Nothing richer possessed by the angels above."

" Ye weary, heavy-laden souls,

Who are oppressed sore,

Ye trav'lers through the wilderness,

To Canaan's peaceful shore :

Through chilling winds and beating rain,

The waters deep and cold,

And enemies surrounding you,

Take courage and be bold."


" Come, my soul, and let us try,

For a little season,

Every burden to lay by,

Come, and let us reason.

What is this that casts you down ?

Who are those that grieve you ?

Speak, and let the worst be known,

Speaking may relieve you."

"The gospel's joyful sound

Is music in my ears;

In Jesus I have found

Relief from all my fears ;

Darkness to light does now give place,

And all things wear another face."

" Begone, unbelief, my Savior is near,

And for my relief will surely appear;

By prayer let me wrestle, and he will perform ;

With Christ in the vessel, I smile at the storm."

"Drooping soul no longer grieve;

Heaven is propitious ;

If on Christ you do believe,

You will find him precious."

"Don't you see my Jesus coming,

Don't you see him in yonder cloud,

With ten thousand angels around him,

See how they do my Jesus crowd ;

I'll arise and go and meet him ;

He'll embrace me in his arms;

In the arms of my dear Jesus,

O there is ten thousand charms."

"Savior, visit thy plantation;

Grant us, Lord, a gracious reign;

All will come to desolation,

Unless thou return again.

Lord revive us,

All our help must come from thee."

"Hail the blest morn when the Great Mediator,

Down from the regions of glory descend ;

Shepherds, go worship the babe in the manger,


Lo ! for your guide the bright angels attend.

Brightest and best of the sons of the morning,

Dawn on our darkness and lend us thine aid ;

Star in the East the horizon adorning,

Guide where the infant Redeemer was laid."


" Ho every one that thirsts,

Come ye to the waters;

Freely drink and quench your thirst,

As Zion's sons and daughters."

" We'll walk about Jerusalem;

We'll walk about Jerusalem ;

We'll walk about Jerusalem,

When we arrive at home."

"And I'll sing hallelujah,

And glory be to God on high,

And we'll all sing hallelujah,

There's glory beaming through the sky."

"For the good old way is the righteous way,

And we'll march along in the good old way."

"Hallelujah, hallelujah,

We are on our journey home."

" Well-beloved blessed Savior,

Well-beloved priest and king,.

Glory be to the lamb that was slain,

For us he did salvation bring."

"Glory, honor, praise and power,

Be unto the Lamb forever ;

Jesus Christ is our Redeemer,

Hallelujah, praise the Lord."

"Palms of victory, crowns of glory,

Palms of victory you shall wear ;

Shout! O glory, O glory,

Palms of victory you shall wear."


"O sweet heaven, O sweet heaven,

How I long to be with thee."

"My dying day is rolling around,

My dying day is rolling around,

Prepare me, Lord, to go."

" O. hinder me not, for I will serve the Lord,

And I'll praise him when I die."

" Lord revive us, Lord revive us,

All our help must come from thee."

“O the place, the happy, happy place,

The place where Jesus is;

The place where the Christians all shall meet,

And never part again."

"O glory, glory

Glory, hallelujah !

We're going where pleasures never die."

The foregoing stanzas and choruses were in use principally among the Evangelical orders of Christians, such as the Methodists, Newlights, and other Armenian sects. Many of them are expressive of deep religious feeling and strong faith. But they are out of use, having been superseded by another class expressive of the religious sentiments of the present age; whether more devotional, let others determine.

The following plays of the early times will recall to the aged thrills of priceless pleasure in days gone by—departed joys 'never again to be realized on earth; but these joys are limited to the individual. These social plays were practiced all over the West sixty years ago, and there are few aged persons now living who will not recognize them—thus:

“O, sister Phoebe, how merry were we,

That night we sat under the juniper tree,

Yon juniper tree, high O.

Take this hat on your head, keep your head warm,

And take a sweet kiss, it will do you no harm, it will do you no harm

I know ;


It will do you no harm, but a great deal of good,

So take five or six while you're now in the mood,

For you're now in the mood I know."

" It's thus the farmer sows his seed ;

And thus he stands to take his ease ;

He stamps his fcot and claps his hands;

And turns all round to view his lands.

O come, my love, and go with me ;

O come, my love, and go with me ;

O come, my love, and go with me;

And I will take good care of thee."

" As oats, peas, beans and barley grows;

As oats, peas, beans and barley grows;

There's none so well as the farmer knows,

How oats, peas, beans and barley grows."

"Come, Philander, let's be marching;

Every one his true-love sarching ;

Over and over, ten times over,

Drink up your liquor, boys, and turn your glasses over."

"It's raining, it's hailing, it's cold frosty weather;

In comes the farmer drinking all the cider ;

I'll reap the oats, if you'll be the binder;

He that wants a true-love let him go and find her."

" We're boldly marching to Quebec,

Where the drums are loudly beating;

The Americans have gained the day,

And the British are retreating.

We're now returning home again,

Never to be parted ;

Open the ring and take one in,

To relieve the broken-hearted."

" We're sailing in the boat while the tide runs high;

We're sailing in the boat while the tide runs high ;

We're sailing in the boat with the colors flying high ;

Waiting for the pretty girls to come by and by."


"The fox loves the low land, the hare loves the hill ;

The lawyer loves his lady, and Jack loves Jill ;

Jill, boys, Jill; Jill, boys, Jill;

The lawyer loves his lady with a free good will."

" The eagle's eye as you pass by,

Was made for running through ;

Mary's the last that have gone past,

But now we have got you."

" Will you talk to the man, my bonny ?

Will you talk to the man, my honey?

She answered me right modestly,

If it were not for my mamma."

"Here I stand, long, slim and slender;

Come and kiss me while I'm young and tender;

For if you wait till I grow old and tough,

I'll ne'er get kisses half enough."

[There were always enough volunteers on band to do what they could to prevent the impending dire calamity].

" Where do you stand? In the well. How many feet? Six. Who will you have to help you out? Mary ; or Charles."

[Six kisses lifted the unfortunate out of the well, but always left the kisser in the same predicament, to be in their turn helped out in like manner].

" Sonny he loves cakes and wine,

And sonny he loves brandy ;

Sonny he can kiss the girls,

And he can do it handy.

If I had as many lives as stars in the skies,

I'd be as old as Adam ;

Rise to your feet and kiss complete,

Your humble servant, madam "

I write these plays as I knew them, and entirely from memory, as I never saw them in print, and it is more than fifty years since I have witnessed their performance. I assume that they were the same everywhere. They belong entirely to a former age—the pioneer age; they are probably nowhere practiced now, but to the survivors of the early times of the West they will be valued relics.



The following story of the celebration of the Fourth of July is so characteristic of the frontier times sixty years ago, that it deserves a place here. The story was related to me by the late General George Sanderson, some years ago, and I give it in substance precisely as related by him, he having been an eyewitness of the affair :

It was about the year 1802. Lancaster was no more than a few rude cabins in the woods; and there were the merest nuclei of settlements along the creeks. The country was an almost unbroken wilderness. The fires of the revolution were, nevertheless, still burning, and the settlers took it into their heads to celebrate the Fourth of July in an appropriate manner. The spot selected for the occasion was the knoll between Hocking and the present residence of Augustus Mithoff, and on the left side of the Chillicothe Pike. A dinner, such as the inhabitants were able to provide at that early day, was prepared, and a barrel of whisky brought on to the grounds, which was up-ended, the head knocked out, and several tin-cups hung on nails driven into the staves, when everybody was welcome to come up and drink ad libitum.

And thus it chanced, that while patriotism and corn-whisky and general hilarity prevailed, a solitary traveler made his appearance, slowly plodding along Zane's trace, and heading to the west. Percieving the little crowd of patriots a couple of hundred yards off on his right, he turned his horse's head in that direction, and rode up to learn what was going on; perhaps as much to be in company with human beings, for he had been two days and one night entirely alone in the wilderness, since passing Zanesville, which was then settled by a few families. He was cordially greeted, and invited to "light off" and take a dram, which being done, the usual frontier questions were put: Where was he going ?—and what for? He was from Virginia, and was going to Chillicothe. He had heard of the fame of the Scioto Bottoms, and if he liked the country he was going back for his family, and would settle there.

In the common parlance of back-woods life "the best man" meant just one thing—it meant the man that could make another man "holler" enough; and the phrase "good man" sig-


nified one of strong muscles and quick motion. The meaning attached to these words then has not yet died out, though "good" and "best" are, by the transformation, assuming a moral instead of physical interpretation. Thus, in the former age,'if one said, " I am a better man than you ;" or, " he is a good man," it was to be understood that " I can whip you," and "he is a man not to be fooled with."

The traveler was solicited to settle on the Hocking; its superiority and advantages were dilated upon and proposed as reasons why he should not go further west. But he had his mind fixed on the settlement at Chillicothe, and thought he would go there. Stronger arguments were then used. He was told that there were better men on the Hocking than on the Scioto.

Whisky was by this time doing its work, and the traveler felt inclined to doubt the proposition, for some of his friends had gone to the Scioto. He believed there were better men on the latter, or would be if he himself should decide to locate there. This suited the celebrators exactly—the thing was coming to a point. The traveler's last remark was construed into a banter, and the proposition was at once submitted to settle the question then and there. The stranger made no objections, and several stout men volunteered to see that be had fair play. The man to fight him was brought out, the ring formed, and they stripped and went at it.

Rough and tumble was the style of those back-woods fights. The combatants were allowed to strike, kick, choke, bite or gouge—anything to whip. The "code" would not permit any one to interfere until one of the fighters called " enough." Upon that word being pronounced, if the victor did not at once desist, the bystanders were bound to close in and part them. It was a long, powerful, and bloody contest, but the traveler was compelled at last to call "enough."

After the combatants were washed and dressed, whisky was handed around, and the parties drank as friends, when the new-comer remarked, that there were as good men on the Hocking as he wanted anything to do with, and he believed he would settle there.


In an old copy of the Ohio Eagle, published in Lancaster, and bearing date of June 9, 1827, I find the following state-


ment of the receipts and disbursements of the corporation for two years, viz.: from April 20, 1825, to April 23, 1827, inclusive. The statement was in tabular form, showing the sources from which the income was derived, and for what disbursed. The income consisted of taxes collected, and for licenses for shows and exhibitions, thus :

Total amount of income $888 14¼

Total disbursements 932 88½

Balance against Treasury $44.74¼


Attest : GOTLEIB STEINMAN, Recorder.

In contrast with the above, is the annexed statement, taken from the County Treasurer's books, showing the receipts and disbursements of the corporation for two years, just fifty years later. The difference in the gross amount of the receipts and disbursements measures the growth of the place. Thus :

Total income from all sources other than School Fund $61,437 86

Total disbursements for all purposes other than schools 53,220 08

Balance in Treasury $8,217 78

During the two former years the corporation paid Thomas Ewing, then a young lawyer practicing in the place, $5.00 for legal services. During the latter two years the legal services of attorneys cost the aggregate sum of about $1,000.

The population of Lancaster in 1876 was about 7,000; and in addition to the assessment of taxes above shown, it supports ten churches, at an annual cost, including building and repairing church edifices, Missionary and Sunday-school collections, and all other incidental church expenses, of not less than $15,000. These two general items of cost to the people living within the incorporate limits of the town are not all of the public assessment. Within the last few years the town has erected two school buildings, at an aggregate cost of about $80,000. Within these buildings free schools are kept up ten months in the year. For sustaining these schools and paying interest on bonds sold to build the school-houses, the levy for 1876 was $25,566.29. The number of teachers employed in 1876 was twenty-two, and one Superintendent, besides one col-

- 3 -


ored school supported from the same fund. The boundaries of the incorporation are two miles square. There is likewise a Catholic school, including a majority of the children of that denomination, amounting to two or three hundred. This school is sustained entirely by private funds.


What is denominated the Public Square in Lancaster, is located at the crossing of Main and Broad streets, the streets cutting it into four equal parts. The ground was deeded to the city forever by the original proprietor, Ebenezer Zane, for public purposes alone. The deed is said to be so drawn, that, should the square, or any part of it, be diverted to any other use than that of county and city purposes, such diversion would work a forfeiture of the title to the heirs at law of the donor. The first Court-house was built on this square, in the center of the present Broad street, in about the year 1806, and was removed by order of the County Commissioners in 1863. At present the square is occupied by the old market-house, which was built in the year 1824, as near as can be ascertained, the City Hall building, containing the Mayor's office, Council-chamber, Post-office, Odd Fellows' Hall and Engine-house and two small parks.


opening Walnut street. All the ground in Carpenter's Addition, extending now as far as Maple street in front of Hunter's residence, belonged originally to Zane's tract, though Carpenter's Addition at first lay west of High street, that part lying between High and Maple streets having been sold to parties as out-lots, and since subdivided and sold as town-lots.

The Zane tract, one mile square, begun on the north side of what is known as Lundy's Lane, on the south front of the Fairgrounds at the foot of Mount Pleasant ; its eastern boundary was Maple street ; its southern line passed from a point a few rods west of the present residence of Thomas White, Esq., on Koontz's hill, thence west past Giesy's mill to the west line, to intersect the north line, and embraced what is now the residence of G. Mithoff. Other


To Lancaster might be mettioned, but they all come within the Zane tract, except that part formerly known as East Lancaster, and which has recently been annexed to the city proper, and constitutes the Fifth Ward. A portion of East Lancaster was formerly known as the Bank addition, the old Lancaster Ohio Bank having laid off and sold the first lots. The



That part of Lancaster known as Carpenter's Addition, begins with the south side of an alley, sometimes spoken of as Carpenter's alley, which, beginning at the canal on the western border of the city, runs a due east direction to High street in front of the Methodist Church. This alley is situated half way between Jail and Walnut streets. All that part of the city lying south of Carpenter's alley is properly Carpenter's Addition. Mr. Carpenter was known in his day as Emanuel Carpenter, Junior. (In the original plat, this alley was called Jackson alley). He gave three lots on the east side of High street, to be used for church and burial purposes. The north division of this gift is that on which the Methodist Church edifice now stands; the middle division belongs to the African Methodists, upon which they have erected a commodious frame church ; and the south division has been used by the city for Was erected, or rather completed in 1866, it having been in progress of erection about three years. The total cost of the building was about $150,000, though the act of the Legislature authorizing the levy for that purpose was but $100,000. The work, however, was completed, and the balance cheerfully paid by the tax-payers. The building stands on the north side of the Catholic Church ; it is built entirely of sand-stone taken from the quarries in sight of the city, and is probably one of the best constructed and arranged Court-houses in the State. It contains all the county offices on the first floor, except the Clerk's office ; on the second floor is the court-room, jury-rooms and the Clerk's office,. The basement is used for the heating apparatus, the Janitor's residence, and storage rooms. From the roof, or balustrade, which, by the courtesy of the Janitor, is accessible to visitors at all times, the Hocking Valley and surrounding country is seen for many miles, presenting one of


the most picturesque and beautiful views in Ohio. From it trains can be seen coming and departing on the railroads for many miles. The


Stands on the north side of Chestnut street, between Broad and High. It is one of the best jails in Ohio. Its front is a two-story brick residence, and is used by the Sheriffs successively. The prison is of sand-stone, also two stories, and joins the brick in the rear. It was built between the year 1840 and 1850.



Total taxes for the year, including school fund, $228,306.44.

Total expenditures same year, $252,855.50; leaving a balance against the treasury of $14,569.06.

The above gross sum of receipts, as shown by the Auditor's books for 1875, was levied on the respective townships as follows. In regarding the amounts, however, it is to be borne in mind that they are not to be taken as correctly representing the relative wealth of the townships, because the rates of taxation were more or less various :

Clear Creek Township $12,441 31

Amanda Township 13,241 34

Bloom Township 13,714 13

Violet Township 13,222 40

Liberty Township 18,053 58

Greenfield Township 12,244 16

Hocking Township 11,962 25

Madison Township 6,269 03

Berne Township 15,130 30

Pleasant Township 11,398 29

Walnut Township 15,263 53

Richland Township 6,945 35

Bush Creek Township 11,112 85

Lancaster 67,268 02

Grand Total $228,306 44


There are no records found in the Auditor's office to show that anything like a regular system of taxation was estabished in the county earlier than 1806. At that time the


boundaries extended far beyond their present limits, and it is difficult now to define the outlines. The reader is therefor referred to the laws of Ohio establishing new counties, by which Fairfield has been contracted to its present area. These laws can all be found in the State Library at Columbus, but they are altogether too voluminous for the plan of this work. I am not aware that any changes took place between 1800, when Fairfield was established by proclamation by Governor St. Clair, and 1806, to which year we are now referring. I find, however, that in that year there were three townships not now in existance, viz.: Clinton, Licking and Thorn, and that there are now three townships not then in existance; these are Violet, Liberty and Walnut. There have also been two townships principally stricken from the southern borders of Fairfield within the last thirty years, and attached to Hocking county ; these were Auburn and Perry, for particulars of which, please see laws. Thorn township lay at the north-east corner of the county, and has since been attached to Peri y County; Clinton and Licking lay on the north.

From the assessment of 1806, as recorded in an old book before me, I here transcribe a complete list of the names of the tax-payers then living in the county, alphabetically, and by townships, by which they are rendered of easy reference. By an early law of Ohio, houses were at that time assessed for taxation separate from real estate, the lowest limit of which, I think, was one hundred dollars.

The sums paid in that year for every species of property by each person varies on the list from eight cents to $17.74, which latter amount was paid by Rudolph Pitcher, of Lancaster, whose house, standing on Main street, a few doors east of Shawk's alley, and on the south side, was appraised at $2,500, and seven lots at $1,407. The next highest tax-payer was David Rese, whose, assessment was $13.00. A few in Lancaster paid ten dollars; but by far the largest number in the county paid less than a dollar. But in no township, outside of Lancaster, was more than four dollars paid by any individual. Th. gross sum of the assessments for that year was $1,011.64i.

Further in the same old book is found a tabulated statement of the collections and disbursements for the county under the following heading :


"Statement of the receipts and expenditures of Fairfield County for six years and four months, commencing June 11th, 1804, and ending October 6th, 1810."

Gross collections for six years and four months, from all sources $12,862 57

Gross amount of disbursements for all purposes, for the same time $12,349 15



Aller, John.

Baker, Daniel.

Bond, Thomas.

Babb, William

Boiler, Elias

Burton, Jacob

Bucher, Philloman

Boyle, Hugh.

Bryan, Peter.

Cox, Mary.

Clayton, John.

Converse, James.

Compton, Ezekiel.

Compton, John

Coffenberry, George. Carpenter, Emanuel.

Cisna, Thomas.

Coates, Samuel.

Collen, Timothy.

Duffield, William.

Dillen, Henry.

Daily, Charles

Eckhart, Conrad

Feather, Peter.

Ferry, Thomas.

Foglesong, John.

Fricher, Thomas.

Graham, Edward.

Green, Samuel.

Green, Allen.

Green, George.

Harper, Samuel.

Huffman, John.

Hanson, George.

Hunter, John.

Hunter, Joseph.

Harmon, Jacob.

Holler, Samuel.

Hardy, James.

Hunter, James.

Hutchins, Benidict.

Irwin, William.

Irwin, William D.

Ingman, Edward, jr.

Ingman, Edward.

Invel, Samuel.

Kemp, Henry.

King, Christian.

Koons, John.

Keller, James.

Lymk, Johnathan.

Lofland, John.

Mellon, Bandle.

Meek, Jacob.

McCabe, William.

McCabe, David.

Marshal, John.

Marres, Ralph.

Marr, John.

Myrer, Henry.

Myrer, Joseph.

McPherson, John.

Pitcher, Abram.

Pew, Marshall.

Rees, John.

Rees, Solomon.

Roberts, Ezekiel.

Rees, David.

Rees, Thomas.

Rees, Morris.

Rees, Jesse.

Rever, Peter.

Reynolds, Larken.

Slaughter, Robert.

Spurgeon, Jesse.

Searls, John.

Swearengen, Thos.

Shope, Daniel.

Sturgeon, Timothy.

Shurr, John.

Sacket, Elizabeth.

Swizerk, John.

Selby, Ralph.

Stoops, Samuel.

Stoops, William.

Stigart, Luke.

Stull, John.

Scofield, Elnathan. Thompson, Samuel. Tumlinson, William. Vanmeter, Daniel.

Woolford, Jacob.

Wilson, Nathaniel, sr.


Green, Charles

Green, William

Green, Timothy

Gaster, Jacob

Gisinger, David.

Gates, Samuel.

Hedger, Jesse.

Huston, Andrew

North, Mary.

Neel, John.

Neibling, Christian.

Price, John.

Pitcher, Rudolph.

Painter, Jacob.

Peek, Wm B.

Pitcher, Frederick, sr.

Watson, John.

Willetson, Elisha.

Weaver, Adam.

Work, Joseph.

Williamson, John.

Wilson, Nathaniel, jr.

Young, William

Zerba, Peter.


Addison, Jacob.

Applegate, Walter.

Acart, George.

Bowman, Henry.

Bibler, John.

Baldwin, John.

Bowman, Elisha.

Babbs, Beal.

Brook, John.

Blane, William.

Bocker, Benjamin.

Bryan, William.

Beery, John.

Biddle, Benjamin.

Colley, William.

Chuger, Frederick.

Creason, William.

Crook, E.

Crook, William.

Collins, William.

Carpenter, David.

Cofman, John.

Carpenter, William. Carpenter, Samuel. Carpenter, John.

Critzer, George.

Drake, Henry.

Dodd, Jacob.

Earry, Jacob.

Freshouse, John.

Fowler, Job.

Fry, Elizabeth.

Francisco, John.

Gardner, H. Archobold.

Harmsberger, Conrad. Harmsberger, Henry, Hammet, Joseph.

Hines, Peter.

Harper, Richard.

Hansel, Henry.

Hansel, Michael.

Harsh, John.

Hamersphere, Abraham Hollenbach, Jacob.

Inesel, Henry.

Jackson, William.

Keller, John.

Kusic, John.

Kenner, Frederick.

Laughlin, Denman.

Lewely, Hugh.

Leek, William.

Moyer, Daniel.

Moyer, Abraham.

Main, John.

Miller, Catharine.

McCabe, William.

Needles, Philomen. Ozenbaugh, Henry.

Perrel, John.

Perrel, Thomas.

Perrel, Hezekiah.

Pialer, George.

Pontens, John.

Pence, Frederick.

Phillips, David.

Pence, John.

Pitcher, Abraham

Ream, William.

Ream, Abraham.

Reese, David.

Ream, Sampson.

Rhodes, John.

Rudolph, Peter.

Runnels, Burton.

Smith, William.

Seits, Lewis.

Sanders, Peter.

Shellenbarger, John.

Swartz, George.

Sheeny, Michael. Shellenbarger, David. Sturgeon, Peter.

Stollner, John.

Shellenbarger, Samuel. Shellenbarger, Henry.

Stukey, John.

Smith, Henry.

Sisco, Mary.

Sellers, Jacob.

Sellers, John.

Taylor, Grove.

Vanmeter, Jacob.

Vanmeter, John.

Vanmeter, Joseph.

Welch, William.

Wolf, Jacob.

Walker, Abraham.

Winters, John.

Wilson, William.

Wiley, William.

Watts, Robert


Gardner, Peter.

Highstand, Abraham.

Hull, Abraham.

Harmsberger, Michael.

Pearce, William.

Pennebaker, John.

Perrel, James.

Roberts, Amos.

Westenhaver, Christian. Westenhaver, Joseph.


Altman, Adam.

Albright, David.

Alspaugh, Jacob.

Alspaugh, George.

Berringer, Andrew. Bolebaugh, Jacob.

Barr, John.

Boyne, John.

Baldwin, James.

Bright, Major.

Courtright, Abraham. Clymer, Charles.

Cromley, Christian.

Cheney, Drusilla.

Crowl, George.

Campbell, Jane.

Courtright, Jesse, D. Campbell, John.

Crawford, James.

Clymer, John.

Courtright, John.

Crowl, John.

Curty, Low.

Cronmer, Mitchel.

Campbell, Mathew.

Clymer, Masse.

Cheney, Samuel.

Clark, Horatio.

Courtright, Richard.

Clark, William.

Critz, John.

Due, Charity.

Dove, Henry.

Davidson, James.

Death, Isaac, sr.

Davis, Nathan.

Drake, Zepama.

Fate, Martin.

Felner, Martin.

Fate, Thomas.

Fate, George.

Flict, Andrew.

Grubb, Jacob.

Hews, Walter.

Harris, Abraham.

Harlanger, Christian.

Hushor, George.

Hyenbaugh, Henry.

Harrison, Henry.

Harroof, John.

Helt, John.

Harrison, John.

Harroof, Peter.

Kitsmiller, Benjamin. Kitsmiller, Elizabeth. Kitsmiller, William.

Kirk, George.

Lee, Samuel.

Lee, Daniel.

Leephart, Mary.

Lambert, James.

Lovland, Joseph.

Lee, Johnathan.

Long, William.

Lane, Wilkinson.

Lee, Zebulon.

Martin, John.

Meason, Dorsey.

Moore, John.

Meson, Isaac.

Moor, Levi.

Manville, Nicholas. McCollum, Samuel.

Needles, George.

Needles, John.

Newkirk, Ruben.

Newkirk, Lewis.

Perrin, William.

Rickets, Charles.

Ruvele, Daniel

Ritter, John.

Rickets, Jerry.

Rickets, Rearson.

Richart, Peter.

Spurgeon, Samuel.

Swisher, Abraham.

Snider, Adam.

Serpers, Christian.

Spurgeon, Elijah.

Spurgeon, Elias.

Smith, Francis.

Smith, Hezakiah.

Slough, John.

Small, John.

Stallens, Launcelot.

Swisher, Jacob.

Swisher, John.

Sehouser, John.

Saither, Nicholas. Tumbleston, Henry.

Trout, Christian.

Tefore, John.

Wiseley, William.

Wright, David.

Wiseley, Edward.

Wells, George.

Wiseley, James.

Williams, Jeremiah. Wintersteen, John.

Wheeler, Samuel.

Young, Abraham.

Young, Jacob.



Anderson, James.

Anderson, Edward.

Augustus, John.

Brown, Moses.

Brough, George.

Brough, Peter.

Berry, Alexander, jr.

Berry, Alexander.

Berry, Abraham.

Bashford, Francis.

Buzzard, George.

Buzzard, Andrew.

Buzzard, Henry.

Buzzard, David.

Buzzard, Jacob.

Bogart, George.

Black, Richard.

Bruner, Jacob.

Beard, John.

Coledren, Jacob.

Coledren, Nehemiah. Coledren, Jacob.

Clayton, Thomas.

Clayton, William.

Clure, Conrad.

Camie, David.

Conrad, John.

Conrad, Daniel.

Clark, Henry.

Culp, Peter.

Clapper, Henry.

Conrad, Nicholas.

Conrad, jr., Daniel.

Drury, William.

Drury, Edward.

Drury, Isaiah.

Drury, Samuel.

Dush, Mrs.

Delshauer, jr., George. Delshauer, John.

Delshauer, Michael. Delshauer, George. Devebaugh, George. Devebaugh, Daniel.

Friend, Reason.

Friend, Samuel.

Fosnought, Adam.

Fos, John.

Foust, John.

Fogler, John.

Grimes, Jacob.

Hedger, Michael.

Hoffman, Jacob.

Hunter, Robert.

Helen, Frederick.

Helen, Jacob.

Howe, James.

Hammel, George.

Hoffman, Frederick.

Helen, John.

Hedger, Levi.

Hedger, Absolem.

Hoffman, Jacob.

Jules, Henry.

Julian, William.

Julian, jr., John.

Julian, John.

Julian, Isaac.

Julian, Stephen.

Jackson, John.

Julian, John, sr.

Kenson, George.

Kepnue, Benjamin.

Landis, Martin.

Lamb, James.

Lutz, John.

Lethers, Jacob.

Miller, Felis.

Marks, Jacob.

Myres, Christian.

Millhouse, Philip.

McArthur, Alexander.

Moor, Harmon.

Mills, Amos.

Moss, Edward.

Mathias, Henry.

Moor, Henry, jr.

Millisson, Barnet.

O'Hara, James.

Owens, Nathan.

O'Hara, Hugh.

O'Hara, Charles.

Palmer, Jesse.

Parcels, John.

Peters, Daniel.

Peters, Abraham.

Pickle, Jacob.

Parks, John.

Reynolds, John.

Reynolds, Stewart.

Reynolds, William G. Reynolds, William.

Russel, Peter.

Smart, John.

Stolder, John.

Stukey, Christian.

Shoop, Barnet.

Shafer, Isaac

Shafer, Samuel.

Shafer, Abram.

Sharrack, John.

Sidder, Nicholas.

Shad, John.

Shoemaker, Jacob.

Sneeyer, Lewis.

Sailor, Widow.

Shaw, Alexander.

Shanie, Philip.

Smith, Stuart.

Stotts, John.

Spangler, Samuel.

Sering, John.

Smith, Jacob.

Shoemaker, John.

Willets, Isaac.

Wishard Archibald.

Wiley, William.

Willets, James.

Whetsel, Henry.

Weaver, Samuel.

Willets, Samuel

Willets, William.


Devebaugh, John. Devebaugh, Widow.

Daniel, Thomas.

Daniel, John.

Evans, Joshua.

Friend, Elijah.

Friend, Charles.

Myres, Widow.

Miller, John.

North, Zachariah.

North, William.

Nigh, Jacob.

Nogle, George.

North, Thomas.

Wheeler, Isaac.

White, John.

Young, Robert.

Young, John.

Young, Mathew.


Abrams, Henry.

Athey, Thomas.

Ayers, Wm.

Alden, Daniel.

Alspaugh, Jacob.

Alspaugh, Nicholas.

Baylor, Jacob.

Bright, David.

Brakebill, Jacob.

Bennett, Oliver.

Beard, John.

Basler, Jacob.

Bennett, Harry.

Bradley, John.

Bush, John.

Balenback, John

Brown, Jas.

Brettenham, Solomon. Brandt, Ludwick.

Ballenback, Nicholas. Bowman, Henry.

Bowyer, Jacob.

Borer, Jacob.

Bomback, David.

Bowder, Nicholas.

Bennett, Jacob.

Bennet, Elisha.

Cline, Geo.

Cook, Sarah.

Cherry, Ralph.

Cammerly, David.

Davis, Jacob.

Doddleston, Ralph.

Everland, Frederick.

Evans, Jas.

Eckhart, John.

Feniehauser, Danie

Firestone, Daniel.

Gary, Gilien.

Geirhart, Daniel.

Green, Lemuel.

Gundy, Christian.

Gezy, John.

Heistam, Jos.

Hanna, Jas.

Hess, Geo.

Heistand, Samuel.

Harris, Wm.

Johnson, Wm.

Johnson, Chas.

Johnson, Isaac.

Johns, Henry.

Johns, John.

Kennan, John.

Laehey, James.

Lush, Patrick.

Latshaw, Jos.

McNeal, Jos.

Morris, Daniel.

Mangale, Henry.

Moorhead, John.

McCall, Thos.

McFarland, Robert. McFarland, Wm.

McCollum, Frank.

McArthur, John.

McCawly, Edward.

Miller, Samuel.

Moires, John.

Manville, Eli.

Noggle, Henry.

Olinger, Benjamin.

Rearden, Michael.

Robertson, John.

Read, Wm.

Rough, Peter.

Randal, Samuel.

Roberts, Ebenezer.

Rigby, Wm.

Rise, Michael.

Smethers, Geo.

Sells, Wm., sr.

Sells, Wm.

Sells, Jacob.

Stewart, Jos.

Shimp, Geo.

Sanderson, Alexander. Shartle, Philip.

Small, Valentine.

Showbery, Jacob.

Saim, Peter.

Sim, Henry.

Swisher, Jacob.

Tallman, Samuel.

Tannehill, Mr.

Thompson, Richard.

Tong, Wm. H.

Taylor, Drake.

Tootwiler, Jacob.

Tippy, Conrad

Wohing, Peter.

Wintermood, John

Wilson, Wm.

Wagoner, Jacob. Wintermood, Wm.

Williams, Jos.

Wells, Jas.

Wiseley, John


Edgar, John.

Eversole, Peter

Elder, John

Erb, John.

Fairchild, Peter.

Fitzgerald, Henry

Fairchild, Abraham.

Owen, David.

Olspach, Jacob.

Pler, John.

Pever, Isaac.

Pever, John.

Porter, David

Pence, Jacob.

Wagoner, Adam

Wagoner, Daniel.

Weaver, Jacob.

Wilson, John.

Wilson, Jas.

Williamson, Peter.


Archer, Geo

Armstrong, Geo

Allen, Nathen.

Avery, Geo.

Ardoes, Holcombe.

Allen, Alexander.

Beard, John

Branson, Joshua A

Bean, John.

Baker, Aaron

Benjamin, Mr.

Beauer, David.

Benjamin, I

Belt, C

Borcher, Jos

Barrick, Phillip.

Barrick, Peter.

Barlow, Abram.

Barrow, Daniel

Belt, Acquilla.

Baleer, Daniel

Buttler, Lewis 

Bancroft, Samuel

Belt, Catura

Belt, John. 

Black, Jas

Belt, Davies

Belt, John

Belt, John, sr.

Buskirk, John.

Buttler, Enoch.

Buttler, David.

Church, Robert.

Caruthers, Wm.

Croca, John.

Gulfin, Job.

Gane, Wm.

Galasby, John.

Hughs, Thos.

Hughes, John.

Halden, Alexander.

Hook, John.

Henthorn, John.

Harris, Nehmiah.

Hughs, Thomas.

Hughs, Wm.

Holms, Alexander.

Heavens, Jesse.

Herron, John.

Hughs, Ellis.

Hains, Jesse,

Hickman, Samuel.

Harris, Jos.

Harris, Nehemiah.

Hays, Levi.

Hays, Seth.

Haskins, Titus.

Hilliar, Justin.

Harris, Jesse.

Haines, Wm.

Herron, Crook.

Harris, Geo.

Harris, A.

Harris, Ephraim.

Holcomb, Ezra.

Holcomb, Alvin.

Holcomb, Asa.

Hount, John.

Johnson, Robert.

Johnson, John.

James, Jesse.

Pitzer, R.

Pew, Evan.

Pew, Wm.

Phelps, John.

Parish, Joseph.

Parker, Mary.

Pratt, Worthy.

Phelps, Wm.

Pomroy, E.

Pew, A.

Peek, Catura.

Parr, Samuel.

Rathbone, Job.

Robinson, Stephen.

Radcliff, John.

Rose, Geo.

Root, Martin.

Rose, Levi.

Roseley, Bosswell.

Rose, Samuel.

Rose, G.

Rose, Hiram.

Stith, S.

Sampson, John.

Shultz, Adam.

Sutton, Moses, jr.

Sutton, Philip.

Stadden, John.

Swisher, Jacob.

Seigler, Philip.

Sutton, Jos.

Stuart, Jas.

Spencer, John.

Shoemaker, John.

Stome, Thos

Smith, Philip.


Chamsel, John.

Clener, Frederick.

Canaday, Jas.

Conner, Isaac.

Claybaugh, Henry.

Carr, Henry.

Creamer, Thos.

Case, Job.

Clark, A.

Cromwell, Gideon.

Cooley, Zaedock.

Cow, Jas.

Carry, Ebenezer.

Cuningham, Patrick.

Carlisle, Zachariah.

Dewees, Thos.

Dotson, Wm.

Debolt, Wm.

Davis, I.

Dongan, Thos.

Duke, John

Denman, Mathias.

Dayton, Giles.

Evins, John.

Edwards, John.

Elliot, Samuel, jr.

Elliot, Samuel, sr.

Evins, Bod.

Elliot, Neal.

Evins, John.

Ford, Robert.

Ford, Phineas.

Farmer, John.

Groner, Martin.

Green, Daniel.

Green, Benjamin.

Groner, John.

Green, Thos.

Green, T.

Groner, R.

Gavit, Wm.

Gavit, Josiah.

Godard. N.

Godard, Moses.

Gillman, Elias.

Jones, Samuel.

Johnson, Jas.

Johnson, Abraham.

Johnson, Jos.

Kite, Michael.

Kirk, Thos.

Kiger, Anthony.

Kelso, Jos.

Kelley, Hugh.

Kendal, Joshua.

Leach, Vincent.

Livingston, Geo.

Livingston, D.

Lathley, John.

Lewis, David.

Lemuel, Jos.

Lewis, Zed.

Linkhorn, Martin.

McCawley Andrew. Merridale, Samuel.

Manfield, Jas.

Miller, Isaac.

Miller, Abraham,

McCawley, Jas.

McCawley, Wm.

McCawley, Jas. jr.

Myres, John.

McKitrick, Jas.

Murphy, Samuel.

Mufford, Job.

Monson, Jesse.

Munson, Guston.

Miller, O.

Mitchel, Sylvanus.

Moor, Frederick,

Monson, Jeremiah.

Nelson, Joel.

Nash, Edward.

Newman, Samuel.

Newman, Morris.

Obaker, Jesse.

Orr, Geo.

Obour, Wm.

Parr, Samuel.

Parr, Richard.

Smith, Henry.

Shadler, Michael.

Shadler, John.

Shadler, Daniel.

Simpson, Isaac.

Shadier, John, jr.

Simpson, I.

Simpson, Jas.

Seymore, Thos.

Shadler, Jacob.

Slocum, Cornelius.

Slocum, Wm.

Spelman, Timothy.

Sherwood, Robert.

Smith, Samuel.

Turnbean, Andrew.

Taylor, Wm.

Taylor, Jas.

Taylor, Wm, jr.

Tharp, Jos.

Thompson, Daniel.

Thomas, David.

Thrall, Samuel.

Taylor, Theodore, jr.

Taylor, Theodore.

Wilson, Abraham.

Wates, Daniel.

Wilson, Jacob.

Wilson, John.

Ward, Catharine.

Wayman, John.

Warden, John.

Ward, John.

Walson, Cornelius.

Ward, Daniel.

Ward, A.

Wilcox, John.

Wells, I.

Wright, Jonathan.

Waters, Benjamin.

Winshall, Silas.

Wright, Spencer.

Williamson, John.

Wilson, Archabald.

Waters, Samuel.



Anderson, Thomas

Allen, Lemuel.

Allen, Frederick.

Allen, S.

Allen, Whiting.

Barr, John.

Barr, Andrew.

Barr, William.

Barr, Thomas.

Barr, Samuel.

Brothers, Francis.

Barnhart, Jacob.

Brown, William.

Jones, Benjamin. 

Beal, James.

Burnap, Abner.

Bull, B.

Booker, James.

Brown, T.

Brown, William.

Brian, Mary.

Brian, John.

Brian, William.

Burhart, William.

Crist, John.

Caton, Benjamin.

Collins, Timothy.

Cole, Broad.

Clayton, John.

Cain, Daniel.

Cole, Shadrick.

Chilcold, Mordecai.

Chilcold, John.

Clark, Neal.

Cole, Joshnay.

Cole, D.

Eagle, Thomas.

Eagle, William,

Erington, Ebenezer.

Earnman, Frederick.

Frettle, Lewis.

Gardner, Jacob.

Good, Peter.

Gossage, John.

Galagher, Thomas.

Huffer, Isaac.

Howe, James.

Hardister, Joseph.

Herron, Philip.

Howe, David.

Hooker, Richard.

Hayes, Mary.

Herrod, John.

Hoover, John.

Highlands, Joseph.

Ingonan, Luke.

Iles, Isaac.

Kester, David,

Kester, Jacob.

Kester, George.

Linebaugh, George.

Long, James.

Lane, Jesse.

Lane, William.

Lane, John.

Leathers, Frederick.

Long, William.

Morris, James.

Metcalf, Vachael.

McLane, Robert.

Murry, William.

Mackerel, Benjamin.

Nigh, George.

Owens, John.

Oram, Thomas.

Pavey, Samuel.

Pilcher, Frederick.

Rica, Abraham.

Russel, Thomas.

Bauer, Valentine.

Shadden, Jacob.

Swope, David.

Selby, George.

Stevens, William.

Searles, John.

Selby, jr., Thomas.

Torance, John.

Whiteman, Christian. Williams, John.

Williams, Thomas.

Willets, Jesse.

Wollet, Philip.


Albright, Adam.

Arnold, Frederick. Armstrong, Thomas.

Burton, Jacob.

Bredenstone, Frederick

Bright, Nimrod.

Bell, Isaiah.

Bailey, James.

Barr, David.

Barr, Joseph, jr.

Buchanan, Andrew.

Giger, Martin,

Good, John.

Hill, George.

Hopman, Henry

Hall, Daniel.

Harmon, Frederick. Hammond, Samuel. Hammell, Samuel.

Hite, Andrew.

Hite, Andrew, jr.

Hite, Jacob.

Neeley, William.

Pullen, Thomas.

Pope, Abraham.

Perrin, John.

Pope, Frederick.

Powel, Aaron.

Pew, Jesse.

Powlis, Jacob.

Powel, Moses.

Quinn, James.

Radibaugh, Nicholas.


Berry, Jacob.

Berry, Christian.

Bibler, Jacob.

Brown, Ludwick.

Brown, William.

Bibler, Barbary. Barkhammer, John.

Black, Luke.

Black, John.

Beaver, William.

Beard, William.

Beard, John.

Baker, David.

Caldwell, William.

Cornell, Benjamin.

Corner, Samuel.

Cagy, Christian.

Crawford, William.

Catures, Nicholas.

Cofman, Martin.

Culp, Henry.

Chaffan, Robert.

Clove. Robert.

Dild, Jacob.

Duncan, James.

Dumna, John.

Dumna, Martin.

Durbin, Thomas.

Durbin, Samuel.

Erwin, William.

Ernest, George.

Fink, John.

Fetters, Peter.

Feemen, Benjamin.

Feemen, John.

Fetters, Conrad.

Farmer, William.

Flake, John.

Frazer, Alexander.

Fox, Jacob.

Graham, A.

Giger, Adam.

Giger, David.

Gardner, William.

Hoover, Christian.

Houser, George, jr.

Houser, John.

Hite, John.

Hampson, John.

Hill, George.

Hendrix, James.

Hite, John, jr.

Ewing, John.

Ewing, Mathew.

Inks, John.

Jones, William.

Kemerer, Philip

Kortman, Jacob.

Kratzer, Samuel.

Kortman, jr., Jacob.


Lamb, Jacob.

Laffady, Samuel.

Laffady, Thomas.

Lee, Soloman.

Lindsey, William.

Lantz, Martin.

Lamb, George.

Linch, Henry.

Martin, William.

McCune, Adam.

Miller, Christian.

McDaniel, William.

Myres, Abraham.

Maclin, Tenalt.

Musselman, Jacob.

Maclin, Peter.

Matear, Robert.

Manley, John.

Mills, Samuel.

Miller, Abraham.

Murphy, Asa.

Murphy, Benjamin.

Miller, John.

Miller, Jacob.

Murphy, William. McNoughton, John.

Nowlin, Barnaby.

Ross, Thomas.

Roof, Peter.

Redman, Martin.

Rowley, Jacob.

Rogers, James.

Seigler, John.

Staltzer, Jacob, jr.

Springer, William.

Sturgeon, Robert.

Solter, Christian.

Siple, Frederick.

Smith, Jesse.

Soliday, Adam.

Stevenson, Thomas.

Smith, Christian.

Smith, Daniel.

Shepler, John.

Sheats, Mathias.

Shisler, John.

Sterm, Michael.

Tool, M.

Twig, Francis.

Trimble, John.

Trimble, William.

Teal, Edward.

Teal, Arthur.

Teal, Edward, jr.

Teal, Samuel.

Teal, Nathaniel.

Teal, Walter.

Thompson, William. Torence, Robert.

Walters, Gasper.

Walters, Jacob.

Weger, John.

Wagner, Andrew.

Wagner, Benjamin.

Wiekle, Jacob.

Warner, Thomas.

Wiseman, Samuel.

Watson, Thomas.

York, William.

Ulster, Widow.



Archer, George.

Bowers, A.

Bowers, Abner, jr.

Blakeny, Frances.

Beers, Jacob.

Bryon, James.

Boyd, T.

Banks, Peter.

Brown, Silas.

Brown, Aron.

Buttler, Benjamin.

Babbit, Calvin.

Brice, John.

Buttler, Isaac.

Brown, Benjamin.

Brown, David.

Brown, Ebenezer.

Brown, Luther.

Craig, Andrew.

Cook, John.

Cook. Jacob.

Craig, James.

Converse, James.

Calvin, James.

Conrad, Joseph.

Conrad, Nathan.

Dunlap, James.

Dooty, Peter.

Dunlap, Samuel.

Darling, Wm.

Duglass, Wm.

Dirt, George.

Ertmell, Thomas.

Evins, Wm.

Finley, Alexander.

Fognier, Wm.

Gass, Wm.

Hardisty, Francis.

Haines, Henry.

Herrod, James.

Henderson, James.

Harrod, John.

Harrod, Levi.

Hall, Richard.

Harris, Enoch.

Henthorn, John.

Johnson, David.

Johnson, Abraham.

Johnson, John.

Kratzer, Samuel.

Kerr, John.

Kite, Peter.

Knight, Wm.

Kite, Nicolas.

Lyon, Abraham.

Leonard; Benjamin.

Lash, John.

Lewis, John.

Lashley, Jacob.

Lashley, Peter.

Leonard, Wm.

Leonard, Zeba.

Marens, John.

Morrison, John.

McGowen, Chas.

McBride, Chas.

Murphy, Jacob.

Panebaker, Jacob.

Pitney, James.

Priker, Peter.

Patterson, Thomas.

Roberts, Henry.

Rebe, Nicholas.

Richardson, Edward.

Setere, Jesse.

Shimplin, John.

Simpkins, John.

Stotts, Joseph.

Stockwell, Michael. Spurgeon, Nathaniel. Shrimplin, Samuel. Simpkins, S.

Schruchfield, Wm.

St. Clair, John.

Spurgeon, George.

Talmage, Joseph.

Thomas, Samuel.

Thompson, Edward.

Walker, Alexander.

Watson, A.

Walker, Abraham.

Walker, James.

Walker, Joseph.

Woods, John.

Walker, Philip.

Wilson, Samuel.

Williamson, John.

Walker, James.

Walker, Joseph.


Acherson, Edward. Bartholomew, John.

Barnes, Joseph.

Brooks, David.

Baker, David.

Black, James.

Bean, Paul.

Bearshore, John,

Binkley, John.

Harris, John.

Hall, Uriah.

Humberger, Henry.

Heller, David.

Humberger, John. Humberger, Peter. Henderson, James.

Hooper, Jacob.

Huber, Daniel.

Neff, Henry.

Neel, James.

Orr, Robert.

Ogg, George.

Parr, John.

Ream, Wm.

Ramsey, John.

Redingur, Mathias.

Ripple, Mathias.


Bowman, Henry.

Berry, John.

Chalfant, Mordecai.

Cooper, Joseph.

Cooper, Jacob.

Claypole, Wm.

Dickeson, John.

Dean, M.

Emrick, Leonard.

Fisher, John, jr.

Fisher, John.

Furguson, Joseph.

Fickle, Joseph.

Good, John.

Graham, Widow.

Howard, Chas.

Harris, Wm.

Harris, Edward.

Huffman, George.

Hoover, Christ.

Johnson, John.

Johnson, Wm.

James, John.

King, John.

Livingston, Peter.

Meek, Clelland.

McMullen, Mr.

Myres, Frederick.

McInturft, Frederick.

Myres, Andrew.

Mager, George.

Myres, Adam.

Myres, John.

McMullen, John.

Mervin, James.

McOwen, Thomas.

Ream, Jacob.

Reddinger, Ludwig.

Reason, John.

Stockberger, S.

Strawn, Joel.

Stotts, Jacob.

Starret, Wm.

Starkee, Peter.

Skiner, Wm.

Smith, Andrew.

Sane, Peter.

Taylor, Wm.

Thorn, Michael.

Thompson, John.

Valentine, George. Weadman, George.

Wiseman, Jacob.

Weadman, John.



Anspach, B.

Anderson, Simon.

Anspach, John.

Anderson, Ephraim. Ashbaugh, Andrew. Alexander, Wm.

Bolen, Wm.

Black, Peter.

Blosser, George.

Bond, John.

Brinkley, Adam.

Brinkley, Jacob.

Basehore, Frederick. Brinkley, Henry.

Bowman, George.

Beakle, John.

Bearge, Isaac.

Bearley, Nicholas.

Brinkley, Henry.

Bright, George.

Beery, Abraham.

Beery, Henry.

Custard, Joseph.

Cooper, Robert.

Carpenter, Samuel.

Hamerly, Andrew.

Harper, Wm.

Howell, Jacob.

Head, John.

Hedleback, George.

Heek, Frederick.

Howseker, Jacob.

Henry, George.

Holt, Wm.

Harding, Ignatius.

Hiles, John.

Harford, Caspar,

Ijams, Wm.

Ijams, Isaac.

Ijams, Thomas P.

Ijams, Wm, jr.

Jervis, James.

Johnson, Benjamin.

Johnson, Asa.

Kerr, John.

Kiger, John.

Kemper, Daniel.

Kemper, Isaac.

Kindle, John.

King, Christian.

Miller, George.

Maricol, John.

McGinnis, Wm.

Neely, David.

Nelson, George.

Owens, Archibald.

Overmire, Peter.

Owing, P.

Orendors, Henry.

Pew, David.

Patten, John.

Poleo, Richard.

Polen, Martin.

Ruffner, Emanuel.

Rowland, James.

Rolle, Jesse.

Robertson, Wm.

Rees, Jacob.

Ray, Samuel.

Shaver, T.

Spohn, Philip.

Stiffie, Stephen.

Swagg, David.

Senfit, Jacob.

Senfit, Philip.


Conaway, Jeremiah.

Clayton, Wm.

Chilcote, James.

Cool, Joseph.

Cook, John.

Comer, Philip

Davis, Thomas.

Duvall, M. H.

Drum, John.

Drum, Peter.

Deubler, Peter.

Deubler, Leonard.

Driver, Josiah.

Downey, James.

Fay, Jacob.

Freisner, Frederick.

Glosser, George.

Godfrey, John.

Goofis, John.

Hattle, George.

Hardy, David.

Householder, Adam.

Huddle, Henry.

Kenshaw, Wm.

Lakesley, Wm.

Leonard, Jacob.

Lintch, Philip.

Laremore, Ebenezer. Laremore, Isaac.

Laremore, Robert.

Leath, John.

Love, John.

Laremore, James.

Murphy, Edward.

Murphy, John.

McCormick, Thomas. McCormick, Hugh. McCormick, John. McCormick, James. McCormick, Wm.

Miller, John.

McClung, Chas.

Miller, Peter.

Musser, Theobald.

Miller, Joseph.

Moins, John.

Sain, Philip.

Sunderland, John.

Sain, David.

Stephenson, Jesse.

Sellers, Henry.

Sherrick, Andrew.

Stemer, Henry.

Shield, Edward.

Stembrink, Henry.

Turner, Benjamin.

Turner, Joseph.

Turner, Wm, sr.

Turner, Wm, jr.

Turner, James.

Thompson, Wm

Wiseman, Wm

Whitmer, Peter.

Wilson, Wm.

Wilds, Sarah.

Winegardner, Adam.

Wills, John.

Wills, Wm.

Young, Edward.

There were, therefore, within the bounds of Fairfield county, in the year 1806, one thousand five hundred and fifty-one taxpayers. To make the reasonable assumption that there were five additional persons to every tax-payer at that time within the county, it would have given a population of a little over nine thousand. When it is remembered that the first white family built their cabin on the Hocking in the spring of 1798, this rapid increase of population within about seven years is wonderful, regarding the wilderness state of the country, and its remoteness from sources of supply. It is, however, to be borne in mind, that the area of the county was at that time more than three times what it is at present.

It is a melancholy reflection forced upon the mind, that of that 1,551 tax-payers of 1806, not one is alive to-day. They were the pioneers of the county. It was them that broke the wilderness and drove away the wild beasts and savage men, and opened the way for the prosperity, and plenty, and luxury, and ease of to-day. It was them that endured hard-

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